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Bartok - Bela Bartok An Analysis Of His Music 1971




Fin, publUbcd iD 1971 by SWlDIorc Prcu Ltd wuIcr their auodaud imprint: KabA" Avcri1l Copyri,bt to £m6 Lctadvai 1971 Rcvilcdrcpdnt 1979 cumplca ate quoted by k1nd pcrmiIaloD of & " Hawka Lld and AlCtcd A. KalmUl Lui (Univena1 EditioD). The publiahen would Iikc to &hank AteI O'1a Cor bit "'&ance in tbe prcparatioa of the mtWc c:xamplca. ISBN 0 900707 (K 6 Printed and bound In CIUI Brhain UDWOOO .UIlH uwrn.D Trowbridlc by Contents IDtroduetion Tonal .. Principles The Ad 5)'1lem Form Principlcl Golden Seclion Fibonacci Series The Vae of Chorda and Interva4 Chromatic S)'Item Diatonic Syatem '7 '7 .. '7 App.endUt I .. Appendlx n '03 Appendlx III 110 Introduction The publication of this .tudy of the music ofB6a Bart61r. u an important event. Many descriptive analyses of particular works ofhia have appeared, but here for the fint time in the English language it an. authoritative and convincing exposition of the theoretical principles which the compoaer worked out for himaelf but refrained, at far u is known, from expounding to anyone during hiJ lifetime, either in writing or by word of mouth. Thus we owe both the author and the publisher a ainccre debt. Mr. Ern6 Lendv"; has diJcloacd the fact that Baa Bart6k, iD biI early thirtiel, evolved for himIelfa method ofintegratin, all the dementi ofmuaic; the scaIea, the chOrdalltructW'tl with the melodic motifs appropriate to them, together with thC"'pfOa portiODl of length as between movements in • whole work, main divisions within a movement such at exposition, develoP"" ment and recapitulation and even balancing pbrucs within aecti01lJ of movements, according to ODC single basic principle, that of the Golden Section. Some luch mathematical proportion wu fin. proposed .. an "cathetic principle by Chalde.... in the vii 3rd miUe:nnium D.C., taken up by the Gree:ks two thousand years later and rediscovered during the Renaissance:, but never systematically applied to music at any time. (There exists onc single string quartet movement by Haydn, composed in Ie:ngth according to Golde:n Se:ction proportions, but this is morc of an intellectual quirk of the compwer's than a principled pro­ cedure.) Bart6k discovere:d a way of deriving the basic pentatonic intervals A-G-E and the first inversion of the major common chord E-G-C from the Golden Section in its prac­ ticable fonn of Fibonacci's series of whole numbers. From there Bart6k proceede:d to the e:stablishment of two fundamental scales, dCKribed by Lendvai as "diatonic" and "chromatic", containing respectively seven and eight notes inside the octave. Within thiJ framework Bart6k applied his theory of "tonal axes" as the basis of tunality. It is an implied thesis of the book that the pentatonic scales of the earliest folk music, the modes of oriental ilDd medieval art and folk mwic and lastly, the major and minor scale idiom of European art music of the 17th, 18th and IDth centuries, are stage.! on the road towards Bart6k's complc:te integration of the deepest fundamentals of tonality with perfect formal proportion. During the past finy years there have been various scienti­ fically orientated attempts within musical theory to show the way forward to the composer and to help him to find a finn foothold in the period of chaos which followed the dis­ integration orthe major and minor scale period at the beginning of thU century. The most important in order oflheir appearance have been Asaviev's uMusikalnaya Forma kak Prouess" and Ulntonatsia" (1930), Hindemilh's "Craft of Musical Composi­ tion" Vol. I (English Ed. 1937), Deryck Cooke's "The Language of Mwic" (1959) and Emest Ansermct's "Lea Fondements de la Mus.i.que dans la Conscience Humainc" (lg61). To these major worD should now be added Lendvai's exposition ofBart6k's mwical theories. Though these five work! YlU propagate theories which are mutuaUy contradictory in onc respect or another, they arc all in agreement on onc fundamental proposition. namely, that tonality, that tonal relations of,ome kind or another are an CSlIential framework for any COll$truction of tone' which can be rightly considered all a work of musical art. Asaviev', Cookc', of the major, minor and chromatic scales",- Ansermet', exposition of the space between the notes making up the octave at a "structured Ipa-CC, divided unequally at the perfect fifth and perfect fourth". and now Bart6k'I tonal axes, operating within his particular "diatonic" and "chromalic" scales (the latter not the chromatic scale of twelve semitones) arc all based upon the admission that there exists a h.ierarchy of intervals, proceeding from the essential nature of musical tones themselves, which may nOI be disregarded if music is to result from composing or the putting together of tones. Some readers may wonder why I have not included among the important theoretical writings of this century Arnold Schoenberg' (1941), the argumenta.tion of which in support ofru. method of composing with twelve tones which arc related only with one another (now known as serial dodecaphony) advances it, in the author, ' theory".·· A study of the theoretical paragraphs of this cssay dispels any such illusion. The whole justification orlhe method of composing with twelve tones depends upon the roHowing two sentences: "The tenn emancipation of thc dissonance refen to its comprehensibility. which is considered equivalent to the consonance's comprehensibility. • Cooke: Tht �, f1.! Mwi&, page xii . •• Schoenberg: S!fo GIIIJ Idt4, page log. A style based on this premise treata cIiuoDaDceI like CODlO"IOcel and rCQounca a conal ceIltre...• Of coune diIIoDaace it equivalent to CONOlWlce iD the wue that both at< perfecdy pemWaible But cWeonaac:e it DOt the aame U insreclienll of muoicaJ arL CODlOunce ; it b.. different &COUltical""d ph)'lio1ogicaJ eft'-. Therefore diooonancc ought not to be treated u ifit were identical with coDlOoance. And in any CIIe the renunciati oo of a tonal centre does Dot follow from any pmiolll1y .lated proposition and ia merely a dogmatic aaertioo of the compoteTI belief. AA IUch it ia totally without the acicntilic validity which he c1aima for i� and therefore hia aaay hardly menta inclwioo amoDg the important theoretical writings which are mentioned above. M far .. I am aware no lupporter o( atonality, aerial or otherwise. h.. provided any proof of ita thcoretic:a1validity AI a possible framework (or muaica1 art. The formidable champion of the Vienna School of thia century, Tbeodor Wicxngrund AciOnlO, iD Ilia uPhiloeopbie der neum Muaiku (1948) aauma tha� apart fiom BartOk and Stravinaky, oaly Schocaberg, Bc" and Webcra and their followcn are worthy 10 be taken ."" .. ....P'*'" .. _--F#. Thw the firs. and COuM movemeDtJ are supponed by the "principal branch". A and E�; the middle movements. however, by the "secondary branch", C and F#. Thw each axis has a two-fold affinity depending on whether we oppose the pole with the counter­ pole, or the principal branch with the secondary branch. ..,. f • .... • • • � ... .... r.l. PlO. " CoDICquently the components of the axis eystem are as follows: (no dimension) pole branch - pole+counterpole am _ principal +sccondary branch axis sY'tem III T+D+S ..ea (1 dimension) (2 dimenai.ons) (3 dimensions) $OMI4for Two PiIllUlS tmtl PtrtlUmd is based on the lubdominant am, B-D-F-A�, complying with The Slow Movement of the the traditions of classical compoaitioD. The modal ammgcment of i1l principal theme is symmetrical: the beginning and end lupponed by the Band F countcrpoles (i.e. the ;rineipal branch 8.8.-2 5 of the axis), whcteU the accond and fourth melodic lina ral on the D and A� countcrpoles (i.e. the mon4oty branch of the axil) with the answer of the tbanging-fiIIh (E) iD the middle.· I PRIIlClPAL BRANCH "J. B D-F ....�." 11. foII� ._,..",. I A\-f �L--"S£""C,"NO "'�n)Y.-BnllHt1lnm.-----'�� .. .... , • The IUIIW'CriD& lower finh ia wIUch &be .a::ood aecdoa repeaD the melody or tbc lint teeUoa. iI • chanY:tcriltic of the o1cl-type Hwtpriaa. (Cbcn:mia. etc.) ColkIODl with. dClC'mdioa mdodic lilac. Sce 6n& example air". 76. 6 The melody constituting the core of the movement is also centred around the subdominant axis The 0# opening and . close are replaced in the middle ofthe theme by the counterpole D. Every main mctric and motivic point revolves around the subdominant axis ,., 1'10.6 These two melodies truly rdlect the Itructure of the movement. one of them being attached to the principal B-F. the other to the lCCOodary Gf-n branch of the lubdominant axis. The second theme of the YiDll il seems to be somewhat more intricate. Although the twelve-tone melody touches every degree of the chromatic scale. there it no doubt as to iu tonality. In its axis we sec the A and D# counter­ poles (beginning. middle, end) and the broken-up and F# major C major-minor counterpolC!. �I� • • • .. f • PlO. 7 7 For funher detaib, ICC App. I, p. 99. (b) A .urvcy of the evolution of harmonie thinltiog leada to the conclUlion that the birth of the axis l)'ltem was • historical nccaaity, representiag the logical continuatioll (and in a certain SCDJe the completion) of European functional music. It can be demonstrated that the axil I)'Item, with its characteristic featurel bad, in effect, been used by the Viennese "Greau". Indeed, it had been rccogniscd by Bach, in 1W chromaticism. The aense DCj'tm&1ionaJ correlation in music was introduced in praetice by the rcaliaation of the I-IV-V-I affinity (in medieval modal music, at fint in cadence form only) In the cue of the C tonic: SUBDOMINANT F DOMINANT G TONIC C The clauical theory of harmony already .peaks of primary and aeeondary triada inaamueh .. the C may be replaincidence, FI=G�. 9 C majo�minor A minor A major "" / E�minor "\. F# minor =G�major Theac relativCI, applied E�major to / dominant and lubdominant harmony, again relult iD the IChcme of the axil system.· (,) The theory oCthe axis I)'Item iI abo lubstantiatcd by the laWl oC acowtia. Acoustically, arriving from the a.miMnlto the IDnieJ is to reach the root from an overtone-all cadential re­ latioDl rClt on the principle of interconnection between roots aDd their ovcrtonCl. ThUl, the dominant of C iI not only G but aho the next overtODCI E and B�.Thercfore • ODe c:ouJd euily be baSed by &be face tbat &he cbord OD the ICvaub dqree ��F) UlWDII:I a dominant f'uActioA iD. tradidoaal harmoay. Howew:r. i.D. Rimvnn'. opiniM• tbiI it hue an iacompJclc IC¥CDlb cbord OD \he 6Itb dqrce. 'ThiI amhipicy it raolved u IOOD .. cilbu • ..", or ",,,,or chon1 it bucd OD \be B inatead of • diminid",d uiad, i.e. tilt B 11 puwd an indcpawIaal role. ID sbit cue B will have the 6an£tioD. of the tubclom1n.n' Foz .... . mplc" i.D. BcctbovCD', G � CoDccno, Ihe FI ...jorchonlol .... priocipoI ...... (b.7)...nY .... .... . ..bdomInaaI. le. • ch-nsiQC domin.nt uuc:rpetatMm. Tbc dift'uau:e bdwcm tbc acvo­ DOte aad tbe twdve-eote aystema1l awpicuoua alto iD that tbc drde ot fi1II>o builI OD ... ...... or ... ....... ..... (F-c-G-D-A-I!-B) Mdfen • break betweal Ibo B and P. No IUCb break occun iD the twd\'C'oaOle ayKCID ..ll .. tNUtup at,."."..., tbca nca the aimplal rdaUvet-dlc C � .. It. miDoI' rdatioDab1p-woWcl be cft'cdeCl by the ClODcr.dicciotl that &be duxd. bucd cm B iI "ndoutMedJy of. IUbdomlD'Dt cbaracta' i.D. the It. minor key. 1be MIDC appUa to lhc cLc.-. le " bowa &oIIl Rulaau. tbat Chc Neapolitan llalb c:aDDOl be rcprdcd... areal cbord OD dle accoad dcpec; it iI DOt • cbord bucd oa bill &Il altered founb depec (in muk me damm-D! UIUoIIIy appcan .. . UWftlA-dMJrd. wkb lcadiaa DOte atcnc­ ....). . Abo .... ....... oIatb dqpoc ID obe ...... ..... couId "'- • UNlk: aipificance by auiaUladon to tbe IIl.;ot 1Calc. ID aD. bQQl�UI twdvc-Docc .ys&aD. hoWCYCI', mete dia\01lic "uua.po.idouo·lolt mdt powul. imcrval rdatioaa. Wen It otbcnotiIe Ct-D� D�. 10 Db ant·tonic rclationship. it expanded to include E-..C and BI>+O. Since the D-T relationship corresponds· rdalively to the T-S and the S-D relatiObSbip, ovcrtone-root attraction exists between the T-S and the S-D, 31 well. ROOT OVERTONI!. tonic C dominant E dominant B� ,ubdominant A� lubdominant D E and B� G#and D D andA� o and G� F#and 0 auULTANT � � = = - dominant subdominant .ubdominant tome lonic G-F# T E-B� n.. 9 domjnant of &.be dominallt (changins dom.iDant) acquifta the aipjWanrc of the rubdomiAaDc while the dominaDt of the lubdcwninant . • The ..uma the role or the conic. 11 If we add the role of the nearest ovenone, i.e. the fifth, then we can deduce the complete axia I)'Item from thcac relations. (d) In the aimplClt cadence, that of V'-I, the main role is played. by the so-calle d sensitive notes which produce the pull of the dominant towards the tonic. The leading Dote pulb to the root aad the seventh towanh the third degree of the tonic, i.e. the leading note B resolvel OD C and the Kventh F on E or E�. no. 10 These imponant aensi.tive notea bear a UUoIIi& relationdUp to each other. The ultone-half the octave interval-iI chatac. teriled by the interchangeability of iu the interval. ThUJ. it the B-F notes without changing relatioPlhip i.J converted into an F-B one (as iJ frequently the case with Barulk), the. the F ( _E#) asaumea the role of the leading note, pulling towards the FI instead of E, while the ...enth B pulh towards A# or A instead of C. So, wtcad of the Qpected tonic C major, the tOunlfrlOlt, the equally tonic F. major (or minor) emergCl. "0. 1 1 .. 11Us resolution is reserved by BartOk for a ludden change of scene. The circumstances of an expected G'-C cadence emerging as G'-F# gives w a llBart6keao psc:udo-cadencc:". (e) Starting from the tonic centre C we reach the dominant in one direction and the lubdominant in the other, in iimtUtd latitudes. At a distance or a fifth we find the dominant G upwards and the subdominant F downwards. Regarding OlllJ'101ll relations we also get the dominant G. E, B� in the upper and the subdominant F, Atp, 'UIIIIIII"" DllllctlG' D in the lower directiona ..,C • DO.IIWIT DlllctUll • f l ,. .. • 1'10. III But what happens if the pendulum coven the latitude or a tntone? In this case the deviations made upwards and down. wards meet, both ending at FI (-G�), and ifwe were to take one as the dominant, then the other would have to assume the subdominant function. By this coincidence, however, a neutral· isation of their functions takes place. dominant and subdominant merging are rendered ineffective in the interaction of their opposite rorce�. Consequently .the balance is saved, and the function is jnvuriably that of the tonic. The counterpole is born: Similarly the distance between the tonic C and F# is bisected by E� ("",nl) in the one and by A in the other direction; 10 lying in tensionJCI3. neutral eection pointl, they also have to be interpreted as tonics. No more than four tonic poles can be surmised, since the intervab C-E�, Elt-F" FI-A. A-C provide no funher points of bisection. '3 FuWly. what Ji&nificancc: ohould be attached 10 a l>ling of a chromatic dep .10. 13 g--- 0. --- b� '5 Put coocilcly, given the twelve-tone I)'Item and ttac three fuoctioDl dUI is the .ni.1l)'1teDl that can be realiJed by means of disWlCC divilion. Viewed historically, the axil system re8.ccll the ag�ld struggle betweea the principlea of Ioll4li!1 and lpi-disUwl, with the cradual aac:endancy of the laller which finally reaulted in the free and equal tteatment of the chromatic twelve nOle!!.· Here we have to draw.liDe between Bart6k', lwelve-tone sy1.em and the Zw6lftoDDlusik of Sc:htiDbug. Sch6nbcrg .nnihilalel and dWolvCl tonality whereu BartOk incorporatea the priocipJa of harmonic thinking iD a perfect is tQ penetrate into BartOk', creative genius aynthcsis. To diIcover the natural affinities and intrinaic possibilities. inhereDt in the musical material • • The iatrod� of the tbIa .- .6 tempered Kale about the middle or Form Principles Golden Section Golden Sec:tion (".cetio aurta", and henceforth CS) means the division of a distance in IUch a way that the proportion of the whole length to the larger part corresponcll geometrically to the proportion of the larger to the smaller part, i.e. the larger part is the geomdrie mun of the whole length and the .maUu part. A simple calculation shOWl that if the whole length is taken aI unity, the value of the larger section is 0.618 ( , A • (1-") Plo. t: • • • 1 '4 x=x: (I-x) (ICe upper formula on page 78), and hence the smaller part is 0.38•• • • Thus, the larger part of any length divided into CS is equal 10 the whole length multiplied by 0-6,8 • . • '7 Bart6k'. method, in hie construction of form and harmony. ;, c:IooeIy COlUlCCted with cbe law of cbe GS. TbiJ ;, a formal element which ia at least as significant in Ban6k'. muaic as the 2 + 2, 4 + 4, 8 + 8 bar periocb or the overtone harmonisation in cbe Vieaneoe dasaipi .... 11 '1"..1> �, '1''''1. l 'f""h (If we turn the cone upside down, we can also sce the system of two spirals along the junction lines of the scales). Each of the spiral Iystenu contain all the scales of the cone. There are cones in which the numben of the spirals present still higher series values: 3. 5. 8, 13, Il l . I - XXI • I - I .l • \- 11 • c(-l - �x '/, /' �I U 11 .piul 'fM" " _p'." !i >pi,," " " \ , , s G 'XV ----4-_ 6 F xlII XIV 9 -' I�( , , 6 PlO, 26b 33 Similar anangemenu can be o1»erved in sunftowen, daisies, ananu, etc., also in the convolutions of the stems of IcOlves on numerous plants. Frequently the serial numben 2 1 , 34, 55. 8g and even 144 and 233 are encountered in these spiral sy�lcms. For exampl�, the sunflower has 34 pdals and its spirals have the values of 2 1 , 34, 55, 89. 144. It is interesting to nole that the as is alwayt usociated only with O'IIUIU matter and is quite foreign to the inorganic world.- • The irralional number in me formula of CS precludes its occurreace in cryuaJ·forms. 34 The Use of Chords and Intervals Chromatic System The study of these proportions leads us immediately to the question of Ban6k's use of chords and intervals. His chromatic system is based on the laws of GS and especially, Fibonac:ci's numerical series. Calculated in semi-tones: 2 stands for a major second, " 11 minor third, 5 3 11 IJ perfect rOUM, . 8 .. 11 minor sixth, 13 n an augmented octave, etc. For the present, the musical tissue may be imagined as buih up exclusively of cells 2, 3, 5, 8, and 13 in sile, with sub-divisioDJ following the proportions provided by the above series. Thus, 8 may be broken up only into 5 + 3. (The possibility of a division into 4 +4 or 7 + I is precluded by the s)'Jtcm.) me This cell division can be well observed in the: finale of the: DiDtfI;mmu. The principal theme appears in the course of the movement in five variations: in Fig. 27 we have grouped them according to size, and indicated with each variation the characteristic division. The initial form oflhe theme is 3 + 'l 5. Cl 1 " i ' r ·-; ' .! I, . . . .. FlO. '27 Since the fifth line (in Fig. 27) continues on the previous one, in its fourth bar the melody rises not by a minor third (3), as in the previous line, but by a perfect fourth (5), thus conforming to a CS augmentation. Fig. 28 gives the successive themes in the first movement or the SonallJ for Two Pianos tJnd Ptrtwsion. The range of the leitmotif is 8 semi-tones, divided by the fundamental note C into 5 + 3 semi-tones. The principal theme compriso ' 3 semi-tones divided by the fundamental note C into 5 + 8. (Sec also Fig. 6....) The first phrase of the secondary theme extend! 36 1 3 semi-tones, from C down to F#i while the second phrase, 2 1 semi-tones from 8 down to D. The melodies follow each other in CS order: Leitmotif 3+5=8 Principal theme 5 + 8 - 13 Secondary theme 13. 21 rlo 28 • . From the point of view of harmonic architecture. this exposition a.lso bean witness to a systematic arrangement. The principal theme gcu its magical tone-colour from a pmlalonic harmony II.B·-4 37 (see Fig. litga),· the formula of which is lit + 3 + lit. In the middle of the principal theme there comes an ostinato built 3 + 5 + 3, A� major-minor (se. Fig_ 2gb): C-EIJ-AIJ-B, the fourth, EI:J-Ab, is further divided by an FI into 3 + 2. Parallel fourths (5) and minor sixths (8) join the sc:condary theme (see Fig. litgc). This is sc:en clearly also in the recapitulation from b. lit92. Finally (see Fig. litgd) the closing theme is accompanied throughout by parallel minor sixths (8) • ) (U') • :: .. : J .., .. 1'10. 29 Thus each new harmony rises onc Itep higher in the GS order, i.e. principal theme middle part secondary theme closing theme Asimilar correlation of motifs is encountered in the MirdlU/OUS M....,;,, : • h .ppean abo in the melody, bI.. �n-39: AtJ-FI-EIJ-DtJ and FI-�B. 58 PlO. 30 It is interesting to note that in Bartok's music, in spite of the frequency of paraUet., major third and major lixth parallels seldom occur, beeau�e such parallels cannot be fitted into the GS system, being quite incongruous to it. We could even speak of the prohibition of these parallels in the same sense that parallel fifths and octaves are forbidden in classical harmony. On the (3), perfect (8) , and even major second (2) parallels. The major third has no noteworthy melodic function either, other hand we meet at every step with minor third fourth (5), minor sixth the more natural, almost self.evident is the motivic role of the minor third : 39 1'10. 31 This is the reason why, whenever llart6k uscd a triau in a ChrQ1TUltic movement, he placed the minor third oIJer thc fundamental note and the major third below it, the churd thus acquiring the proportion 8:5:3. PlO. 32. From the synthesis of these two emerged the most typical Bartok chord, the well·known "major·minor" form, consisting of a minor third-perfect founh-minor third (3 + 5 +3). TIlis major·minor chord is often completed by the seventh of the root, e.g. an E-G-C-Eb chord with a Bb {see also Fig. 2gb}. 4" 4' 1lUs major-minor chord has a number of synonym fornu, to which we shall give (for want of a better term) the coUective designation: type oJplla (a) , and we shall call the different sections of it by the letters luta (tI). gam"", ()I), "114 (I> and 'psi/Oil (t). This type occun as frequently in Bartok's music as do the seventh-chords in nineteenth-century music : '10· 33 These chords are exclusively bu.ilt up ofGS intervals (2, 3, 5, 8), as follows : no. ,.. and do not contain the characteristic intervals of the overtone system-fifth, major third and the minor seventh.· • From here: ariles the e:blloracte:riltic "Slow " of the alpha harmoniCl. Pcthap. the mon te:Nt chord in Baroque: mwic wu the dimiliish«f Thia Ie:,won it increased in &n6k', 1I1p/14 chorda throuah merzing of two diminilhed KVCnth cho«ia. KYenth. 4' the Type Q can readily be reduced to the relations oC the axis system. In order to Cecl the tonality oC a chord. we need at least two notcs! in the simplest case the root. say C. and ils fifth G. or jts major third E. when G or E respectively supports the C.· Let us put this relation in GS form: no. 35 According to the axis system. tbe tone G (or E) may be replaced by any other of the corresponding axis (C-E-BI:J-C#) without Changing the tonal character oC C. We can therefore substitute E. Bb or even Cl for G. The four intervals sounding together result in the chord 6dll (�). It should be noted that the combination of the fint three intervals is no novelty to us, since it is identical with the chord of a major seventh: C-E-G-B�. • Tonality un only be atabfuhed through the uymmetrical divuion of the tonaIl}'ltem; in cue ofequal division wc woukl be unable to determine the lOOt. A similar axis substitution may be carritd out with the note C without changing its function. We can thus replace C by E�. F# or A, all belonging to Ihe same axis. r; : ': '; + • I'lo· 36b In the form - f] S S ofila the first thrce intervals are summarised. Chord alp"a is therefore practically an axis-like application of the simple C-G, or C-E-G relation, the only stipulation being that the chord should be composed of two IDYns ("axes") : that of the tonic and the corresponding dominant.· e rlQ. 37 • The two iayen (T and D) correspond to the root and overtone rclillion of claaica1 harmony. It it pertinent that also in U"aditional music, funclional aUr;actiolU were based on thnc two layen. The authentic (e;t.delltiill) conn«ted chords require th..t the root of the lint chord b«omes an .wr� of the chord following. (Chusical harmony can. these CORlIIIOII nota.) Thw, in the prU£rcssion T to S, the root of I (C) becomes a lifth D the root of 1I (U) or IV (1-') bcc;OUlCS fifth or KVenth in V. Connecting D and T the root of V (Cl in IV. or a. xventh in 11. Connecting S and becomes fifth in I. M..... . Sir., t-... e.I., J[ 45 •• V..&o. C__fo . ... __._._•••••••••••M�• • • ...M••• ' ••_ . 1$ .gg:mWl'arall t, ...·...... I" " ...... r Type tpsilon (c) is sddom used since its tonal character iJ unstable, due to (he absence of G without which the root does not receive sufficient suppon. Certain sections of the tUp/uJ chord have been familiar to us from cI:wicitll harmony: E-G-BtJ-C is the C major seventh, G-BtJ-C-EI, is the C minor seventh, Bb-C-EtJ-FI (Gb) is the C iCventh chord based on a dimi.nished triad. Novelty is produced by the introduction of the relative A. and primarily by the Cl. In fact the chord IUIII is an inversion of the ninth chord: C-Fr-G-B�D� (Cll to C"'E-C-B�C. 46 Essentially, type alpha is an axis harmony. As an example Id us take the simplest case. If the C major and its relative A minor arc replaced by C minDr and A mojDr. F10·39 and thae two chords are combined. then btta, gamma and thlte will be equally readable in the resulting harmonie!. This chord bears a high counterpole tension due to the diverse tonal character of its component.!, expressed by the diflcrence of six accidental.s-the three flat signs of the C minor and the three sharp signs of the A major. In accordance with the stratification of the elphe type it it possible to build up a still more extended elplza pile: '10.40 47 From a succession of diminished triads a "closed" sequence is derived since, by the periodic repetition of the intervals we arc taken back to the starting point: fll';, 41 And now we come to the very gist ! That CS is not an external restriction but one of the most intrinsic laws of music is demonstrated by ptntatD1pI-perhaps the most ancient human sound system-which may be regarded as a pure musical expression of the CS principle. In the la-SD-mi figures of the oldest children songs the notes of the mc10dy are tuned afler the geomdric mean, i,e. after OS. Pentalony, particularly lile most ancient Cornu of minor pentalony (la and re), rests on a pattern reflected by the melody steps of major second (2), minor third <3) and fourth (,;)•• • In tbe old.type pentalonic melodiCl witb a changing.firth .tructure (wuaJly "'J..JIIi +"od..11J or "·,..m;·,,+ ,,-4-'/I.u .caIe) the major third pl..Y' a aeeondary pari. To quote Kodily: "It b clear that the pcntalul lY and the finh conttruction are independent. more 10. 'lyliMically "I'I_ite:," According to Kodily the railing minor third, so-mi, rather thall J.,.,,·m; ur any other simple configuration is wbat the child Kerns fint to fed all a Lasic mwical relationship-representing the earliest musical exptnloiulI uf la human being. L..2 I,d .....J . � FIO· 42 This aspect of CS architecture is markedly evident in the DtJnCt Suite which appropriately has been called the "Eastern European Symphony". The make-up of the CS system can here be (allowed step by step, for this work-a rich and complex musical universe based on the primordial elements ofpentatony -reveals the evolution of this technique. The first movement arises from major seconds (2); the second is built on minor thi.rds (3); lhe third summarises these former elements (2 + 3 + 2 + 3 + 2), presenting a pure pentatonic scale. The harmonies of this movement arc based on 5 + 5. Finally, the melody of the fourth movement follows the pattern 8 = 5 +3. where 5 = 3 + 2. FIO·43 49 Type 01#14 can also be derived from pt:nltWIft.1. This is how Bart6k transforms a pentatonic scale into be14 and glUtlm4 structures: .. ..7 e..... no. 44 This type ofharmonies originating from folk song was suggested by Bart6k himself in "The Folk Songs of Hungary" (Pro Mwica: 1928):- � air 'rlJ J !llwrrmrlfunll�,W ':lY,. ,t.... ."I... r .. J 5/...1,·.... ..., J.l! _,f I , no. 4$ finl iI may seem uloniJhinl that in But6k'. muaic pentatony iJ 10 Batl6k primordial attractions of pentatony cany 1tIUi.wt, and jWll ltu. leMOI! • AI dOle!y aUied to chromaticism. But thiJ rdation iI natural, u whh the fincb adequate rorma or capratlion in hiJ CS 1}'101CQ\. We now mention a frequently recurring group of CS.type chords which structurally n'prl'sl'nl intrrv"ls uf I :�. 1 : 3 and I :2. The CS relation between these three formulae results from the proportion S:Pi. Each of these 3rue from the periodic repetition of intervals 1 :5. J :3. or 1 :2 respectively. Their structure is, consequently, 3$ follows: MotUl ':5 alternating minor seconds and perfect fOllnhs e.g. C-C�-F.-G-C . . • Mock' ':3 alternating minor seconds and minor thirds e.g. C-C....E-F-G....A-C . • • MotU' J:2 alternating minor and major seconds e.g. C-C....EI>-E-F....C-A-BI>-C . . . and hereby, they form clearly dOled systems.· I,.; MODF.L l:' MOOEL no. 46 l:! "'ODEl. • The inftucncc of folk music:: i. poIIibly abo raponlible (or Modd I :5. e.l. Movement III of Sui" op. '4 wu iNpired by Arab folk mualc. Perfect examples of I :2 and 1 :3 models have been round ill compolitioN of Liat and Rinulty.Konakov. ,....... .� t .� Ir.u .. td.,lC ItOI[LS I·J C_.... I.. On\,..lIl PlO. 4Gb 0.11·-5 53 "HUC I" c.-.• " . rr a-... st,l., �.td . "' _ .-' ""' � _ · ·, ·· f i i fili1'ii Slr4., �d•.t ..... We attribute the greatest importance to Model 1 :2 since it actually represents a scalc-group of the axis shown in Fig. 4-7. i.e. C-Cjl-EI>-E-Fjf-{l-A-Bp. ,",os .IC· 47 It can also he called the "basic scale" of Bartok', chromatic system, with whose help the tonality of even his most cam· plicated chromatic melodies and chords can be determined. And here we arrive at an important discovery. There exists an organic correlation between the axis system, the alpha chords and Models 1 :2 and 1 :5- If we detach the upper C-A-Fjl-Ep and the lower G-E-Cjl-Bp lay... of the axis (see the centre part of Fig. 48) and pile up one on the other. we obtain the aJpluz chord (sec top len. of Fig. 48). lfwe separate the pole.counterpole �e1ations (C-F# and A-Eb. respectively) of the axis, we have Model 1 :5 (see right bottom of Fig. 48). Ifwe combine the notes of the axis we get a Model 1 :2 (see top right of Fig. 'l8). 55 ,. ,....110. Air"· 10.1 : .10.48 In respect to tonality these formulae are inseparable. The fundamental role of the 1:2 model is only emphasised by the inclusion of all the potentialities of the tonic (�J:: I1-F#-A) major, minor, seventh, and alpha chords, as well as Models 1 :5. • These formulae merge into each other so that it is sometimes rather difficult to define where one of them ends and the other begins... ..r1"'�Ci St'I'e.., Cel. "I . ,.0 1 Axa , C - U -Ff-A •• flU, 50 • The: tonal resting point in Modd 1:2 always on the '-r note of the millor Kcond. which i.J the upper note of the major .econd. In the cue or Model 1:2 on C lonie, it ia C, or Bu. CN" }o', or A. Thus the bue nOle of Ihe minor accond, major third, fifth and millor ICvcnth Is alw:t.ys the lown lIote, while that of the major second, fourth, minor sixlh and major iC\'cllth, is the upper nOte. In the case of the minor third, ttitenc or m;ajor aiJ[th, .:Iny of the notes may Krvc as b:bC:, at Ihey all lie on tbe lame aw. 57 And this is the reason why the most characteristic axis melodies in Dart6k are cxchuivcly ruled by CS principJt.-s (sec bottom ler, or Fig. 48). AIU (d".ll • • pto. 51 Within the range of the twelve-tone scale three different .:2 models can be constructed : a I••"" c..clf-EI>-E-Flf-G-A-B�; a '.mi..." Clf-D-E-F-G-AI>-BI>-B; and a "bd,mi.,." D-EI>-F-Flf-AI>-A-S-C. Everyother form agrees with one or other ofthe above rormulae. 58 I would like to illustrate the interrelations outlined. above. by three brief examples. The NotlllmD in MiJc,okomw follows the tonic-tonic-dominant-tonic structure of the new-type Hun­ garian folk songs. So its first. second, and fourth lines fulfil tonic functions. accentuated by the tune which corutitutcs a ",nU MoJ.l l:2. Plo. 52 lu tonal character is determined by the A-fourth step (E-A), completed by the harmonies into a complete tonic a.xU : PlO. 53 59 The piece called FrDm llu Island of B(J/i (Mikrokosmos No. log) rests on the G#-B-D-F axis. hs scale provides a full Model I :"l (G"'A-B-C-D-EI>-F-G�) which, as apparenl from Ihe final chords can be considered as a B-fiflh· {B-Gb = B-V#} and GI-fifth (G"'E�=Ab-F.O), and as a F1,",lh (C-F) and D-f()urtll (A-D), covering the complete axis. , � "".. f" , � nO· H ! Both right and left hands play separate 1 :5 models (C#-A-D-Eb and B-C-F-Gb)·· and these are characterised by ltlt'ir counlt�r· pole relations : left hand, GI·firth ·!-D-fourth, right hand, U.fifth+F-fourth. Abo the formal construction of the piece is adjuslt:d 10 the lr trf rt ..� aher;uion. "It i. IfiJ.:hly • lie,., we menlion Iht problem o( tnJ desir:llJh: Ih,., we have 3 5yt.h:m (,If 1101:\1;0» of Iwdve equiv..klll lymbuls." WaJ :llways guid...J by tlUI.'ltions of rr:ltl..tJility That is the n::uon why we (requelltly find thr. writet Uartvk. addiHIo: thal lll.· wllt'lI wrili"!; his KOrt"ll. (:lIharmollic;: varilllllS in Ihe I»ano rWU(:liolll of' hi. orchestral worb. Ollr methOt.! of lIul..tillll "ol;l;ill:l11"l 3n in the Jiatonic system and tben:(ure it if utterly useless tool when it comn to recording twdvc-Ione music"­ U;lrll,k: T/v Prohltm. ./ Mwn" MI4';c (t920)• •• Thus by ahe merging of IWO Models 1 :5 we obtain Modd I :2. 60 F-B-GI-D axis. The first section closes in Jo', ending at the double·bar. The middle first moves around B, then G#, with an extended D pedal·point at the second double·bar. nle final chord is a synthesis of D major and F minor. and may be considered at the same time as type alpha (F#-A-C-D-F-AtJ). 1'10· 55 Our third example is the recapitulation theme of the Violin Conc,rto, representing axis E-G-A#-C#. Its scale is of Model I :� (E-F-G-G#-A#-B-C#-D). Bars I and � arc based on thc Cl. E (melody) and G (harmony) poles of the axis. Rar 6 circumscribes the £.gamma chord (E major-minor, G#-�E-G). and the melody or bars 5-13. the 1 :5 model (Il-&-F-Afl· F---r--+-- '--r = ----- r r � 6, We have to mention alto a third type of chromatic chord­ namely the chorW of ttpuU inUmJIs. Its most frequent fornu in the GS system are the whole-tone Kale. chord of diminished seventh, chord in founhs and the augmented triad. The last has its justification in Bart6k's chromaticism only in so far as it is built of minor sixths (8+8+8). Whole-lone scale Diminished ac:venth Chord in fourths Augmented triad 2 + 2 +2+2+2+2 3 + 3 + 3 +3 �+�+�+5 · . . 8+8+8 In our tone systc:m two whole-tone scales tan be distinguished : they are "geometrical dominants". complementary patterns of each o.her: C-D-E-F.-Glf-A. and Clf-E�-F-C-A-B. 6. Mo Blwlu�l, o,.n (11. u� ... ..... _ . .... .. _ -.- ....._ .. --;] r 1 no. 57 Bart6k liked to use whole·lone chords hifort climtuu, since it has the effect. as it were, of "melting" the sounds (ICe Fig. 57 : BluehtlJrd's Castle No. 136, TIu Wooden Princt No. 123. Music Mov. I b. 48, Mov. 11 b. 56, Mav. III b. 14). Harmonisation and theme construction in fourth chords are strikingly frequent, due to the influence of Hungarian peasant music. FlO. ss Chords in founhs generally aUow two combinations: Ont� according to the 2:3 p�ntatonic principle, the other after the 1 :5 model. (a) or the two fourth chords in the 2:3 scale wc can treat the one, which lies a major second (2) higher or a minor third (3) lower than the uther, as lunit, and Ilu$ (:;In ill: rcdut:(:d Iu the du-so_la cadence of the older folk songs : f10· 59 (b) A good example of 1 :5 association s i the closing theme in Movement 11 of the klwit for Strings, Percussion tJnd Celesta. The 1 :5 models are based on two fourth chords: D-G-C-F and A�-D�-GI>-Cl>-F�. 64 1 :5 models { AI>-DI>-D-G DI>-G!>-G-C GI>-q-C-F PlO. 60 The GS chords and chords or equal intervals onen combine together, in pracliee. Fig. 61 shows an ostinato from Mov. l of the Sonatajor Jwo Piafl(JJ alld Peuun;oll. TII<: twt·lvc tOIlC:; of the ostinalo contain the entire chromatic scale. 1'10. 61 The upper part is based on the A-B--Df,-EI1-F-G whole-tone scale, and the lower on the complementary F#-G#-B�-C ·O-E whole-tone scale. Each part is composed or minor sixthsj the upper of A-F-Ob and B--G-E� augmented triads, and the lower of F#-D-Bf, and GI-E-C augmented triads (8 + 8 + 8). The twO parts move in parallel minor thirds (3). The ostinato is characterised by the 1 :3 models and the gamma harmonies 13 + 5 + 3)· I ".-I-r-I-C-b I . . • The beginning and final notes assume a pole-counterpole relationship: in the upper part, A and E�. and in the lower, F, and C. When viewed together they fonn an axial arrangement, FI-A-C-Eb. Every component of the structure ill of GS fonnula. 66 Diatonic System Bartdk'. matony is simply an exact and systematic ilUltrs1DrI of the laws of his chromatic technique, i.e. the CS rules. I. The most characteristic: form of BartOk', "diatonic" system is the tUtlwlic (overtone) scale, C-D-E-FI-G-A-Bp-C, and the IJ&DUdie chord (major triad with minor seventh and augmented (ourth, e.g. C major with B� and F#). It is called acoustic because ita tones derive from the natural overtone .eries. -c•.:.r.. 68 Pr.{- flO. 6] In the finale of the Sonata for Two Pianos and Pmws;on, for example, the acoustic scale C-D-E-F#-G-A-Bb enfolds itself above the C-E-G (C major) chord: see Fig. 64. This scale is dominated by the major third, perfect fifth, "natural seventh", and further by the augmented (acoustic) fourth and the major sixth (with D;artok, the "pastoral sixth"). All chis in contralilt to the minor third, perfect fourth, minor sixth (3:5 :8, C-Ei:J-F-Ab) milieu of the C;S system. Let us place the principal themes of the chromatic First Movement and the diatonic Third Movement, side by side. The "chromatic" theme is composed of GS cells, the melodic line hinges on minor third, perfect fourth, minor sixth intervals (3-5-8). The "diatonic" theme is a perfect acoustic scale. FlO. 14 11.11.--6 These two spheres of harmony complement each other to such measure that the chromatic scale can be separated into a OS sequence and an acoustic scale.· no. 65 In the acoustic scale the major third replaces the minor third Cs), the augmented fourth replaces the perfecl fourth (�), and the major sixth replaces the minor sixth (8). Incidentally. let me refer here to the la-sfI'omi figures in the oldest childrens' IODgs and primitive folk music, which, by no stretch of imagination can be regarded as products of some deliberate planning, though the notes accord with the "geo­ metric: mean". i.e. GS. Lik.ewise, when listening to traditional music, it seldom occun to us that the consonance of a simple WUJjor In'ad might result from the coincidence of the nearest natural overtones: our ean limply register the fundamental number relations in the vibrations of the perfect fifth and major third. In Movement I of the S01l4tafor TUHI P;aMs tulti ppcussion, the melodic: and harmonic devises are derived from the most primitive ",.taton;, elements, while the principal theme in the Finale limply evolves the natural overtone tcale over the tIUIjor chord (ICe Fig. 64). Yet this major triad COlDeI C as a revelation. How can a simple major chord produce such an explosive effect? Looked at from another angle, may a composer with a • 1lIc Cl and B. uduomatic inlcrvab, require a chromatic intcrprnation, ,. pretence of being up--to-date avail himself at all of the major triad, whose vital significance has long so worn ofT and became an empty husk? Actually, the eitmlfltal effect of Bart6k'. music is due, for the most part, to his method of reducing expression to simple and primary symbols. The major triad may in itself be a hollow cliche, but when brought into a polar-dual relation­ ship with another system-as done by Bart6k-it may regain its original and potent significance. The explanation is that the GS between two points always cuts into the most tenst point, whereas symmetry creates balantt: the overtone series is devoid of tension because its notes are integer multiples of the fundamental note's vibrations.· The thrilling effect of the major triad in the Finale of the Sonata is a direct r•.:sult of it being completely released from the constraints of the GS system. So the la-so-mi (pentatony) and the "",jor triad are not only symbols of the purest music but also elements of structure and formation, which, in Bart6k's interrelation regain the fire only they may once have possessed. This is what I would like to denote as the elemental rebirth oCmusic through the reconstruc­ tion of its means. Let us set up the formula of the work: DYNAMIC proportion "" GS-forms "" pentatony - opening movement STATIC proportion -=symmetry = overtones -closing movement • The cs expresses tbe law or &he ,lOfJUW mean, &he overtones reRcet tbe Law or &he drillundi& mean. � we know, harmonic overtones arc produced by tbe vibration or atrinlP, air in tube., etc.; thCle not only vibrate to their rull lenJth but abo in halves, &hird., rouum. etc. of the ImBth-produdnJ J,YfPUNlriud nodc:s on the .trinJ or in the tube. The overtonc:s combine with the batic: note, and the ml_ or the tone it determined by the extent to which thc:ae overtones modify the lIOund. We ,he�ro� eaU the bD.rmoniCl of the acoustic system "colour chordt". It it no accidcnt that the acOWltiC effects in Bart6k', compositioRl originate primarily in &he colour chordJ of French imprcaionism. Bart6k himself used to to this inspiration. 7' This implies that the 5ymmetrical periodisation of the Viennese classical school and its harmonic system of overtone rdations are phenomena not independent of each other; they only represent different (horizontal-vertical) projections of the same basic concept. :z. The two systems reOect each other in an inverse rdation. ship. Through the inversion of CS intervals. acoustic intervals are obtained-from a major second (:z) a natural seventh (e.g. from Bb-C, C-Bb). from a minor third (3) a major sixth. from a perfect fourth (5) a fifth. from a minor sixth (8) a major third-the most characteristic acoultic intervals. Therefore nol only do they complement. hut also rtjlttl each other organically. The opening and closing of the Call1ata Profana oilers a beautiful illustration. two Kales mirroring each other note for note-a GS scale (intervals 2, 3, 5, 8 with a diminished lifth) and a pure acoustic scale: ...�.Ii. Ie ,•• PlO. 66 It is worth clarifying Ihis interrelation from another point of view. The harmony which appears beneath the atowlu melody of Fig. 64 produces perhaps the greatest surprise of the work, obtained by means of a simple major chord : C-E··C. 72 This consists or the closest overtonl relations. Le. a pcrrcct firth and major third. In the chromalic First Movement the major triad always emergcs in the 3 + !) 8 di\'ision of thc OS: ... The characteristic perfect rourth (5) ,,"d minor sixth (0) of this CS chord have been transformed oy inVlrsi(ln into the Plift" fifth and major thirJ of the acoustic chord rcspcctively. Let us show these chords in their seventh forms too: i ; '10. 68 What is valid. relative to the C root. in the OS system from Olbove downwards is equally vOllid in the acoustic system in the opposilt direction. It is thcrefore an "overtonc" chord. The cir­ cumSlance that ollr ancient melodies hOlve a desunding character may perhaps be rdated to the fact Ihat pcntatony is a OS tone­ sequence. j. Although thcse features seem to appertain the outward form. this no longer applies when it is considered that only (unsunant inlclV;.lls exist in the acoustic system (owing 10 overtone 10 73 consonance) whereas the GS avails itself precisely of those intervals which have been considered dissonant by musical theory from the time of Palestrina. Incidentally, this diversity accounu for the tendency of Western music to be acoustic and of Eastern to be pentatonic. This impJies that the relation of consonance and dissonance is thus inverted in the two harmony.worlds; the purity of " diatonic consonance is in direct proportion to the overtones, while the chromatic technique attains iu highest degree of consonance when all the twelve semi.tones in the tempered scale are made to sound together-" like the roar of the sea" . to quote Bart6k. However incredible it may sound, in pentatonic melodies based on mi as a key·note (mi·so.lIl-doscale: intervals 3, 5, 8) belonging to the most ancient layer of folk music, the greatest dissonance is represented by the perfect fifth (cf. Fig. 76). .... A secn=t ofBart6k's music, and perhaps the most profound, is that the "closed" world of the OS is counterbalanced by the "open" sphere of the acoustic system. The former always pre· supposes the presence of the ,ompleu system-it is not accidental Ihal we have always depicted chromatic lormations in the tlos�J circle offlfths. (See Figs. 2, .... 46, 48.) In the last, all relations are dependent on one tone since the natural sequcncc of over· tones emerges from one single root: therefore it is Uptll. 5. Thus. the diatonic system has a fundamental, rool note and the chromatic system a ttlltrlU note. In the chromatic: system all relations can be inverted without changing the significance of the central note. The principal theme of the recapitulation in the Vi"lin C"nttrlo has a B tonality, in spite of the fact that the B major tonic "stands on its head" (owing to the inversion uf' the theme) and our ears, accustomed only to overtone relations, perceive it as having an "E minor" tonality. (The B centre is aceentuated by a shimmering pedal-point too) : 74 PlO. 59 It is this "mirror" (see Fig. 6g) which shows that the chromatic technique leaves the requirements of the overtone system out of consideration, and ideas like "up" and "down" become quite meaninglt:SS in it. The hannony which in the preceding example sounds below the B centre, produccs, by the negation of the overtone system, an effect as if the objecu of the physical world have suddenly become weightleu-a sphere where the laws of gravity are no longer valid (sce Mov. I, b. 1 94). 6. And this is why Bart6k's CS system always involves the concentric tXpamiDn or tonlracli(1n of intervals which is as consistent as to be virtually inseparable from the chromatic technique. For example, the quoted themes from the First Movement of the S01l4ta. Jor Two PiaMS and PnrwsirJn are constructed in ever-widening orbiu (sce Fig. 28: leitmotif-principal theme­ secondary theme 8-13-21). The principal theme is augmented from bar to bar, from minor third to fourth, sixth .md seventh intervals. And the scope of the secondary theme expands similarly step by step, first with pentatonic turns, then with fuurth and fifth intervals, finally resolving in a broad sixth (se, Fig. ,8). Wc frequently find a "funne�-shaped" (sec Fig. go) and "scis50r-like" movement of notes, (... ud rlu. 70 and sequences proceeding by wider and wider steps: 75 Even these processes follow a plan ned course, every detail showing augmentation up to the geometric centre uf the movement (b. 2 1 7), after which they gradually contract ..gain. On the other hand, in the diatonic Third Movcm('nt, such progressions arc quite unima,r:ina6Ie. The diatonic harmolljt�!I nn� characteriscd by a stalic firmncss (e.g. the chord of rig. (i7;1 radiates its energy for a long period of time with a motiuult·ss. unwavering constancy) i n contrast to the CS system, wh ich is always of a dynamic character. 7. Bartok's closed (chromatic) world may well be symbolised by the circle, while his line. Like in Dante's open. (diatonic) systcm, by the straight Di\'ine Comedy the symbol of the Infernu is the circle, the ring, while that of the Paradiso, the �traight line, the arrow, the ray. The rings of the Inferno undergo a concentric diminution whereas those of the till they :lrri\'c at the Paradiso widen into "Cucitus", the infinite "Empyreum". I n Bartok's "cosmos" the (hrmes fullow a similar pattern; chromaticism is most naturally associated with the "circular" while diatony with the "straight line" of melody: sce Fig. 72. 8. The idea of "open" and "closed" is also expressed by lIu' organisation of the themes in relation to 16 linu. The basis of ..I "10. 7'.l a classical melody is the ptriod. As a rule, the themes i n the music of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven arc divided into 8 + 8, 4 + 4 and 2 + :2 bars : the first two·bar "question" being followed by a two-bar "answer" ; these four bars may then be considered as a single question, the answer to which being given in bars 5-8. Thus the form dcvelopes : this simple O-har sentence ends in :, half-close and corrt.'Sponds to the tonic, full.close cnding of the 16-bar period. This principle of symmetrical pcriodisation is readily discerned ill Bart6k's diatonic mode of writing as well. In contrast to this, in hjs OS technique. positive and negative sections constitute quite it different system of "questions" and "answers" (see Figs. • 6 and 22). Here the law of h:llancc and symmetrical periodisation is replaced by regularities of IIsymmttry. ltnst Positive and negative sections embrace each other like the ascending and descending parts of a wave. The conditions of organisation in the CS system are inversely related to those in the symmetrical pcriodisation: one providu for a process of merging, the other for dividing its constituents ; the former emphasises the orgallic Ulli� in time, the l:lI(er snrveys the material in space. The CS forms assume the character of an uninterrupted time process, revolving in the ;lrc of a wave, while the symmetrical periodisation breaks the material into metrical components of lines, rhymes and strophes, as in the construction of a verse. 77 9. And what do the two sy.tems look like when examined in number relations ? The key�numben of the overtone system are wlwlt numben: those of the octave-2. 4. 8 j of the fifth-3, 6, J 2 j of the major third-5, 1o. etc. While in the OS !lystcm the key number is inatiana/: v5-1 ' -=0.618034° -: 2 . -'-' . . The irrational character becomes still more explicit if the formula is written a!I follows (which again conceals the Fibonacci series): The acoustic system rats on, the gtOmelmal proportions. (Sce App. 111.) O� system on The characteristic 3-5-8 proportion u only approximately correct and u expres� sible only in ilTational numben (e.g. 5:8'0906J • . . ). The: minor third in pcntatony can be proved to be somewhat larger than it is in the tempered system.· 10. It may be symbolic that in the diatonic system the partial. toncs range aboDl while in the chromatic Iystem btlow the fWldamental note (see Fig. 68). It is of some interest that R.iemann derives the minor triads from "under"-tones: and the major triadJ from "over" -lonea. In the case of CS alp44 chords this relation is also valid, inversely; the minor third falll above and the major third below the key-nole. Although Riemann's concept may be • The order·number of the minor third in Ihe lempered .yatem it I " 9 and in the pc:nlatonic .)'Stc:nl, " 21 . (The thirds of the .o-c.aIkd Trans· daaubiaD. pentatony come close to the ma.ior third,) contestable it is still worth considering the fact that the lwo mosl inltnse GS intervals produceable within the compass of an octave are identical with the chord Riemann produced by inverting and projecting the major triad in the lower range (C-AI>-F) : 8 = C-A�. 5 = C-F. The leitmotif of the Miraculous Mandarin· receives tU intensity from just these CS intervals: Ap-F- GI-F. (See Fig. 31.) • In the Kore of the,wow Mandarin each person iJ repretental by a tone.symbol with whose aid we may weU "read" the plol of the pantomime. The Mandarin may be rec08ni,aI (rom the notel G'-I: from the nula J::;--Op ur 1':;-0;- II (0, -AI ur (Ap-F) ; the Girl O'-A' · I�)--...:c the: ve:ry beginning of the work. The (act that the complimena. of the Old Gallant are intended (or the Girl i. shown also by the music: Ihe basic chord of the Old Gallant, more than thirty timel, leads to the Girl', symbol: Wc mention only three brief aampJeI, After the entry o( the Mandarin the pentatonic ostinato undulates from the Mandarin', G'-I-' notes to the Girl's tone.,ymb..,): or later when he i.t trying to reach the Girl: Gi,1 We ace the .iOlt of the two .ymbolt at Ihe very end 0( the work: A detailed analysia of the pantomime wu publisbed by the $lw/ia Mruicol'pa (Vo!. I No. 2, pp. 363-432, in German). author in 79 A particularly effective application of these inverted relations can be observed at tbe climax, in the C.major sccne or ',ard's C4Sllt, when the nage is plungcd into darkness: FlO. Dlue­ 73 1 1 . It is easy to sec that the symmetry centre o f the penta· tonic scale is the re: do-,o-re +la-mi Similarly, de!,rree re constitutes the symmetry centre of the major and minor scales - and that of the acoustic scale, too. The antithetic relationship of the two systems becomes evi· dent it wc rcalil.e that the basic step of pentatony. the plagal IIl�mi cadence and the basic step of classical hannony: the dominant·tonic sO-.+do cadence: ate precise mi"or images o f each other, related to the n' symmetry centre: symmetry centre so � do re Bartok's chromatic system results in mi � /a plagal, while his diatonic sYltem in authentic, harmonic interconnectionl: the basic stel' of the fonner (sec App. being T-S-T and that of the latter, T-D-T 11). In traditional music the motif·line usually attains itl most sixth lur pl'rf,'c'l funrthl Cif th,' honic'. TIll' dimax uf the sixth il basically a pruperty uf classical music tense I'uinl nn du,' where it functions as the subdomimmt. 80 FIO. 74 Actually, the most intense hannonic function in classical music is represented by the subdominant, but it comes as a surprise that the: minor subdom£nant, being the in tensest of all subdominant chords, is essentially a characteristic Conn of "CS tension" (intervals 2, 3, 5, 8): FIC. 75 and conversely, the dominant harmonies arc built on deJ,'Tccs of the nearest overtones IC, E, 8 I. This means nothing less than that the technique of tension-relaxation in classical music is closely related to the dual principle of CS and acoustic cor­ relations: subdominant tension is, in fact, a CS tensio", while dominant-tonic presems an overtolle relationship. The S-T turn in the CS system can be reduced or re-la tu the la·mi close so frequently found in ancient pentatonic melodies. Compare with the " changing fifth" and six-four types of old Hungarian peasant songs: r�f!rl[fffr-J I1D1IJJJj1DJ!fh+n; , 1'10. 76 8, J 2. Bart6k's diatonic mwic is always inspired by an optimism and serenity, his chromatic music by a dark, moreover, irrational and demoniac passion. This involuntarily bring! to mind the chromatic experiments of Liszt and Moussorgsky, probing the gloomy depths of life. Let us recall the late piano pieces of Liszt: Grey Cl"uds, UnJueky Stars, Prtludi" Funebre, the death�music R. WQgntr, Vene<:ia, the ghostly Lugubre Gondola, all these are written in a tone-system of distance modc:ls. Or the scene of B01U Godunov's frenzy. where Moussorgsky avails himself of a perfect "axis system". All in all, coherent whok, which negates the chromatic and diatonic systems form a representing two sides of the same coin, one of and at the same time complements, the other. They constitute contrast in unity: affirm and deny, presuppose and exclude each other.· • The aame duality appears in the frequent use of the ttmtpll"lItlU " � keys. Two triads which merge SJIft_trital9 diMOlve each other bccaUle the equi­ distance creata • floating tonality, 10 annihilAte. it. The progranune of the Firs' SlriIIt Cbw/d-"iIIncu" and "recovery"-iI bucd on the duality meeting ofF minor and A major. TheJe two triads complement each other, in a closed distance model ( I : ] modeJ): F-Ap-C + A-Cf-E = F-Ap-A-C­ qrE. a® ':: ' ' ,, "" . C, f ....... A . ' [ fl 8 . A -j.r In the piano piece "See-saw, dickor),--F Here we have the origin ofthe well.known Bart6k "signi1lurt�".· It . fA A "- FlO. 78 (Cf. Two Portraits, Swiss Violin Concerto, Bagatelles Nos. 1 3 and 14. Ten easy piano pieces : "Dedication" and "Dawn", Mikrokosmos No. 10, etc.) This type, combined with the acoustic fourth (e.g. C major chord with B and F#), appears at the most splendid moments, as in the flowcr·gardcn of Bluebeard')i Castle, or as the symbol 79. of the "flaming. golden-haired noon" : Fig. • Thu chord has a counterpart: the minor chord with nu.jor JeveluJI. e.g. D-F-A-C" which it ;uw�ys associ:ued with pain ;md J.lousion ill Hart6k', dramatic works and songs ("Your leitmotif" wrote Bart6k 10 Slefi Ceyer). We giyc three brief examples from IJfwbumJ'J Gwlh ; .11....' ....., .,.."....,. 11." ......... ... ..i ,.... ,",,', , i , . , , " , I ." his lem:IoI" At the cud ..r IItUlIJtfuJ', (,"01,,,# wc he... d..;: ....'u,,1 Cl I: A C, tonic leitmotif C-E;-O--U, Py .he iuven;'JII Il,e ••'...., C-Ep-G minor chord it uarufonncd into the C-A-F m:aj()r rhunJ. h�1 on the augmented triad C.-F-A: (rom here die di.Jorg�lIjlinJ; dli..""Cl l:1riM�, the j"vcni.on or the 1'10· 79 Since the acoustic system is merely an inversion of the CS, we can obtain diatonic harmonies by rtllnsjng the layers of the dlplld chord: 1'10. 8001 The diatonic effect is due to the alpha-inversion being governed by perCect firths, major thirds and minor sevenths (i.e. the nearest overtones - which were exclude4 Plo. Oob U.B·-7 by lh�qlph4 chQr4$): However paradoxical it may seem. the chord which has a major third above the key-note and a minor third below it. makes the most "diatonic". most opened impression in BartOk's music: 14 \I 11 L&!�UI,I V..I... c..".t. And to complete the concatenation, it should be poillll'u out that the inllersion of alpha contains the very kernel of the .u;uu:Hic chord : FlO. 82 It happens frequently that an ambiguous bass is sometimes represented by C and sometimes by F,: 86 This is me case in the "axis melody" ofthe theme in Movement III of Music/or Strings. PtrClUS;OIl anti Ctlesta: f� I:,z : �� f?' ,- ft' . . . F.' Plo. 8.t We may summarise these analyses as follows: os TYPES Acoumc TYPES (chromatic system) (diatonic system) Pentatony Overtone chord and scale Alpha chord . Invc:rsion or alpha I :2. Succession or thirds and I :3. 1 :5 models firths with major char­ acteristics Forms of equ;:J intervals : . Fomu of equal intervals : whole-lone scale chord in firths diminished seventh augmented triad. con· chord in fourths sisting of major thirds augmented triad, consisting of minor sixths Particular significance may be attributed to the fact that J",1tatrJllY is most characteristic of Bart6k's chromatic (CS) system while alJtrtone chords prevail in his diatonic system. This duality, in our opinion, would seem to express the two most ancient endeavours of music. The physiological apparatus of our ears (with the logarithmic structure of the cochlea) enables us most readily to perceive the sl1-la-so-mi (2:3:5) relations at the earliest stage, of which both primitive folk music and our simplest children's songs provide unequivocal evidence. In primitive musie-cultures the sense for major tonality and functional attractions arc quite unknown.· The devl"lupmt·nt of Iwrmon;c thinking derives from a quite different sourCe, namdy the overtone series. This could only have COlRe into its own with instrumental music, and it is no accidt'nt that functional musical thinking is hardly more than a few cellturirs old. Pentatony may be deduced from the Pythagorc;m tonal system-grouping the nearest fifths and fourths-harmonic music from the overtone series. Incidentally, pentatony is of mtlodi" linear origin, being of "horizontal" exlent (in time) while the overtone system is of harmonic origin and has a "vertical" (spatial) dimension. Would it be too daring to suppose that the roots of pentatonic and acoustic thinking were the two points of origin of all music.·. (If so, then Bart6k has penetrated to its inmost cor('.) • "Pentatony does not .ulfer the dominant-tonic cadence:' (Bart6k: Hungarian Folk Music. 1933). "In this scale the fifth hat no prevailing role" (BMI6k: Hunguian .·olk Music and New Hungarian Mu�ic, 19:10). On the olhu hand "the frequent use of Ihe fourth intervab in our melodies sU88n1cd to w the use. of fuufth-chords" (Bart6k: The influence of peaaant music on modern music, 1920) . . be poa.sible to trace baCk •• BatI6k himKlr IllOnily believtd that "il ....iII on Ihe fllce of the Slobc euoenli.Uy 10 • few parent-fotm., archetypes, ancient Ityles" (Bart6k: rexarch and nationalislll, a1l lhc (olk mwlc 1937) · 88 The first is justified by "inner" hearing, based on the ,,,,riD­ [olicm structure of the ear; the second by "external" hearing, controlled by the physical of consonance. The former is, therefore (ense, expressive and emotionally charged, the latter colourful, impressive and Stnsuow. The above claim is supported by the scientific observation that GS is to be met with in organ;c matter only. Pcntatony, with all its tension, could nddler have come into being wilhoUl the aid of human emotion. The acoustic harmony on the other hand, may develop independently of the phenomenon of human life or of human intervention-a vibrating column of air in a pipe (or a string) is enough to bring it about. Pentatonic and acoustic trends follow contradictory counes, Physiological efforts tend to organist and create tmsion, while physical efforts disorganise by striving to aboJish tension. Here the thesis may be advanced that the OS creates a dostd world and carries an inner tension, white the acoustic system is Optft and strives to release tension through its overtone consonances. It may be added that this closedness is an organic feature of GS (see Figs. 24, 25 and 26 for examples independent of Bart6k's tone-system) and this quality is responsible for the capacity of GS to organise. & an illustration: CS can be easily brought about if we bind a simple "knot" with a paper ribbon ; without exception, every proportion of this knot will display geometric golden secdon.· Fig. 85. • It is no accident Ihat penl_S0n.. 10 common in living n:ature, arc roreign 10 the: inorganic world. J,r_r:,_ ,:,. .. '�=::::;= , :':;---:-�' , : o·6,3 no. 85 It is th.i! property of the pentagram that GIJtIM aUudes to in Faust, Part I : MltPH.: Let me admit; a tiny obstacle Forbids my walking out of here: It is the druid's foot upon your threshold. FAUST: The penJagram distresses you? But tell me, then, you son of hell, If this impedes you, how did you come in? How can your kind of spirit be deceived ? MZPH.: Observe! The lines are poorly drawn; That one, the: angle pointing outward, Is, you see, a little open . • • Although the important question ofthythm and metre cannot be dt"alt with hcre at allY Icngth, il few oU15tanuing feOlturcs will be pointed out. Bartok's rhythm is governed by as strict laws as has been shown to rule his form and harmony. The drcufar character of Movement 1 of the Sonala jor T1.£'0 PianllS and Ptrewsion is in no small degree due to the "absolute" odd metre, 3 times 3 eighths, while the Finale owes its static character to its "absolute" even metre, 2 times 2 eighths. In Movement n, even and odd bars are intentionally alternated. (Bartok was very much interested in the potentialities of "even" and "odd" metres. In the SrC()ru/ Piano Conctrlo, Mov. 11 of Music, Violin ClInurlo, Diverlimenlo, Mikrokosmos }lu. 137, themes presented in even�metred bars return in odd rhythms, or vice versa.) The rhythms with a "strong" ending in Movement I have counterparts with "weak" endings in the Finale (see Fig. 87). PlO. 86 Consequently the themes of Movement I constitute a dosrd, and those of the Finale an oJun form. But the polar principle prevails also within the even and odd metres: u + _ + .. and u_+_" units are periodically alter­ nating in the odd-metred themes, while an alternation of " + - + -" and 11_ + _ + " units provide the rhythmic pattern of the even-metred tunes. 9' MovEMENT 1 ,....+- r>' ��ftlgftf�<1 . . ' :- : "' , + --=-+ _ .... , _ . 't"---=-- MOVEM£NT m r:i;:r;l �� -#hl 'ii:�.,�ffinefjt!,f (l"(hrIQ.Tj - ... : �+ .. +... - ... � �... ..- + - + - + -...- - ... - + -- + -1 --- ....--. ...--... � -+ - +- + + - + - - + cl...... .. .. 9' PlO. 87 - + - + -­ ---. r -+- + That is why we feel the following idioms to be so revealing of Barl6k. 93 rlo. BB As a final example. let us compare the opening and closing bars of the Sonatafor Two PitJ1l0S and Pemus;on. All." . Sl� 0..•• , ",ItIt. ...., 1iV-l ul ru. ,h.I.. ... .� .f ...."'. \JlJTIIJmJI.rm:JI... PIO. 8g The opening bar gives the impression of descent, as it were , into a well "which is immensely deep, or should we say. has no bottom at all" (Thomas Mann). The low shivering sounds of the timpani really seem to emanate from the negative pole of life, from a phase of precontiousness-the key of which is FI, the lowest point in the circle of fifths. Towards the close of the work, the "filliped" cymbal sounded with the nail and the light sticks dancing on the nOm of the side.drum, produce ostinatos which gambol joyfully over the work, with "slender anklcS" on the paths of ligh': in C major, the highest point i.n the circle of fifths, and counterpole of F#. In this way the extreme points of the composition may be regarded as negative and positive potes so that the analogy of a magnetic field offers itself, a current being developed between t,wo opposite poles. The Lento-with its utterly iRIIrliadald now-is represented by the lowest, the Allegro-with its 95 articulated rhylhm-by Ihe rughesl drum effect. On the onc side a linear, on Ihe olher, a rhythmic-spatial clement. Nevc:rlheless, the mosl interesting circumstance is thal Ihe dimensions of the comple" work were not accidental: it reRccts the unilY of Ihe correlated principles of the closed circle and open symnutry. 11,e symbol oflhe circle is w, while the laller can be expressed by Ihe powers of2 (�'=4, 4'= 16, 16'= 256; Ihe next power is already too large). The time-value of the whole work (the above-mentioned 6432 eighths) is 804 whole notes, and this is precisdy the producl of: It can be deduced from Ihe foregoing Ihat onc and the same regularity is established throughout many different dimensions of the work, through form, key, harmony, proportions, rhythm, dynamics, colour, etc. Considering the date (1937) and olher particulars, one may risk the supposition thal Banok probably intended the SunG/G for Two Pianos and PnCWJion to be a crowning piece: the Makrokosmos of the Mikrokosmos ( 1 92�37). What role did Bartok's art play in the music of our century? His chromatic system has its roots in Eastern folk music and in pentatony; his acoustic Ifstem he owed to Western harmonic thinking, He himlelf admitted his indebtedness to folk music and Ihe French impressionists as the IWO most descisivc inRuences on his an.· • "The two TOOlI orour ut oOgin..ta in folk music and the: new French mutic," wrote &..16k ("Zoh£n Kod£ly": 19:U). ThiJ decluatton dcscrvcs attention fo.- it is well known th..t he rarely, ir ever, eomrrUlled hinuclr on hi, own eompositions-Ihouah he liked to emphuile their relation to rolklore, mainly ....ith . the Intention of pro­ pal&tingfoU: mlDic. "Let my music lpeak ror itIClf, I lay no claim to any nplanation or my worb'" Should his posltlon in music be summed up in a single sentence it might run as follows: Bart6k achieved somelhing that had before his time, the symbolic handshake between East and West: it synthesis of the music of Orient and Occident. • This essay is the introductory part of the author's book, "Bart6k's Style" published in Hungarian in 1953. A following chapter tackles the "dramatic" principles of Uart6k's music, especially of his instrumental works. We must not forget that Barl6k is, in fact, a dramatic temperament, as all creative genius in whose character the bents for logic and heroism, arc united. 91 Appendix I Referring to the &1Ulta JM Two PialU)S aM PertuSJ;oTl, it is of intC'rtst to point out a few particulan of Movement L In hs. �35-247 wc again notice the two-folt! aOillity of the axis; on the one hand the G# ostinato running through the part and the D counterpole. and on the other hand the constricting funnel-shaped motivic progressions, wedged in the D-GI principal branch and later in the F-B secondary branch. �D -----� --- If,J ----- _h'!'lo' tJ, r H d'rEilI'JJJ4l'J1" ;! If ."[!".cr�f·- < ." 1ft J., ... • ·r • • • .� nc. go 99 The four sections of the secondary theme in the recapitulation (bs. 292-33°) are based on the four poles of the IoniC axis $0 that their Outer and inner parts, respectively, correspond with each other in their pole-countcrpole relations. FIC. 91 The axis construction of the coda is equally unambiguous (bs. 417-431). In accordance with the polar scheme the augmented principal theme appears in E\), then in A, and finally in Eb + A, over the disjointed Eb-Gb-A-C major-minor (gamma) accompaniment chord5. E I - CI -A - C AXIS FIO. 92 lOO The development in Movement 11 ofMusicfor Slrings. Percussion and Celesta presents an exemplary axis eonstruclion: F10, 93 The appearance of the EtJ-F#-A-C is always ;l.ccenluated by the bass drum, The Ilccompll.nimcnt, which rcmainJ unclumged throughout, stresses the A and E� coulllcrpolcs (blla chords): no. 94 B.8,--I) '0' It is evideot both from the accompaniment and the dynamics that the Elt-A polarity fornu the backbone of the structure. And finally Fig. 95 gives some strongly marked axis melodies. ! � I@f It;r r IT 1@\trT'� . I'ltl. 95 .0. Appendix I I A few examples are given to iUwtrate the interrelations expounded in connection with Fig. 13. The order of keys of the Fi,sl ROMc is as follows: C tonic, E dominant, A� subdominant and C lonic. Movement I of the c,metrt# is subdivided by the five·fold recurrence of the principal theme: h. 76 F tonic (exposition) D� subdominant (fint part of development) h. 231 A dominant (second part of development) h. 3 1 3 F tonic (recapitulation) h. 386 F tonic (cod.) h. 488 A similar arrangement is to be seen in Movement I of Sonald IQr Two PimrDs tUUI Percussion: C tonic (exposition) h. 32 E dominant (fint part of development) h. 161, 195 subdominant (second part of development) b. 232 Cl b. 27. C tonic (recapitulation) In the tlUrd example of page 45 these relations are: D-AJ-F#. The principal theme in Movement PttclLSsilft J tmtI 11 of Mwit jor Strings, CtltsllJ is particularly cogent, because here we find the cupola-structure and tonic-tonic�ominant-tonic con­ is &-Bb struction of the new-type Hungarian folk songs. The tonic represented by the C-F# counterpoles, the dominant by counterpoles (not by G). The second entry of the tonic provides the exact "tonal answer" of the C-FI axis: G-C tones change into C-G and C�F� into F#-C#. (M) T PlO. !)6 A similar associalion of dominant and Ionic is evident in bs. 1,1-1,8 of Movement 1 or the Diue" ilMft/oj the E(,-A dominant counterpoles correspond to the F-8 tonic counterpoles: • A CS9 ' . .� F hO· 97 or at the recapitulation: The lower majur second degree (e.g. BtJ in C tonality) might justifiably be ( alled the "bart6kcan dominant" owing rrequent occurrence in his music : (0 its PlO. 99 which can again be explained by the regularities dealt wilh above. The opening bars of the MirtUu/olLf Mandarin illustrate how the tonic and subdominant are linked; the D# tonic swings towards the subdominant F and B counterpoles: no. 100 006 It is interesting to note that, in Bart6k's music, the three functions play a symbolic role too, particularly in his stage works. In Bluebeard's Castle this sign-language always goes hand in hand with the plot and contents of the drama. The sub­ dominant has a negative meaning being reserved for the expres­ sion of fever and passion. All positive movements start with the dominant. The static pillan of the opera and the pointJ of rest are based on the tonic. The downward pull of the action in the MirDtulow MlUlwin is also expressed by the functional relations. The dominant start of the pantomime (in C) reflects the throbbing excitement oflife. whereas the subdominant end of the work (in F) depicts the death of the Mandarin. The intermediate scenes-nearly half of the music-especially where the Mandarin satisfies his desire, are written in the tonic C. Beginning G Climax. C End F DOMINANT TONIC SUBDOMINANT The succession of scenes follows the same descending orderI a triple descent from the dominant heights to the subdominant depths, as if expressing the idea that the work moves towards a "fateful" abyss: DOMINANT IUBDOWlNANT TONIC 1. Viaitor (Old Callant)--+It. Visilor (Youth)--+3. Vililor (Mandarin) I. Wa!lZ Murder I. ------ _+2. W.ltz -+ _+2. Murder -+3. Murder ---- Punuit It is for this reason that the scenes, situated one below the other on the above plan, are varianls-devcloped from the same material; e.g. the music oflhe First Murder originates in the basic chord of the Fint Visitor (Old Gallant): 10' (_. "C) r# : , PlO. 101 In thl" plot of Ihe: Wooden Prime all this is inversely (nu", 'rh.. scenes follow an ascntt/ing line, incessandy going up the: T-D-8-T grades : EXPOSITION MIDDLE PART Prelude TONIC Princess DOMINANT Prince SUBDOMINANT Forest TONIC Stream DOMINANT Making of the doll SUBDOMINANT Dance of the Wooden Prince TONIC I . Scene (No. 120) TONIC 2. Scene (No. 128) DOMINANT 3. Scene (No. 1 32) SUBDOMINANT Conclusion TONIC RECAPITULATION "" end of exposition TONIC Wooden Prince (No. 1 49) DOMINANT Princess and the Stream SUBDOMINANT Denouement TONIC For example, here follows the axiS structure of lilt: first scene-Dance of the Princess :· • A detailed analysu or the work was published in the author's " Darlltk's Dramaturgy": Stage works and Can.ata prorana (Editio Music:. lJlltlapol. 1964) • 08 • E - Af - C' - G AXIS An.,nU• .kr&...oI.. Cr,..,... . l,OIll 0...,... No.l$ c..du.u E.I _h. no. 102 log Appendix I I I An exact golden section can only he constructed geomc:trically­ it cannot be obtained mathematically. i.e. by means of rational numben. The key-number of the CS is irrational (similar to Tt). Here is an example of the uEudoxus" construction, with square and semi-circle. ,- , J , \ \\ 06111.. \ PlO. 103 and another based on the Pythagorean proportion. PlO. "0 104 The hypotenuse