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Biochemistry Notes-study Guide

Study Guide for a unit on Biochemistry created for a middle school life science class.




  Biochemistry Notes-study guide Biochemistry Notes Energy transfer through cells from photorespiration.jpg  Photosynthesis  from  CO2+H2O+water -> sugar + O2Two partsLight reaction: hydrogen is removed from water to form oxygenDark reaction: carbon dioxide is converted to sugar.Opposite reaction to respirationTakes place in the chloroplasts (using chlorophyll)Respirationsugar + oxygen -> energy + carbon dioxideCompletely the opposite of photosynthesistakes place in the mitochondria of cells  Biochemistry Notes  2 parts aerobic respiration -- takes place in the presence of oxygen anaerobic respiration -- takes place without oxygenalso called fermentation produces alcohol (plants) or lactic acid (muscles)energy released from glucose converted to a more available form of energyATP <-> ADP + P + energyC6H12O6 + 6O2 -> 6H2O + 6CO2 + 36 ATPOrganic moleculesElementstop 3: carbon, hydrogen, oxygennext 2: nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorousBondsStructureOrganic CompoundsCarbohydratesMade up of sugarsElements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygenProteinsMade up of amino acidsElements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfurLipids/FatsMade up of fatty acids and glycerolElements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen (just like carbs)EnzymesEnzymes are proteinsEnzymes speed up the process of just about every chemical reaction in a cell.They are called catalystsEnzymes work according to the lock and key theoryEnzymes attache to substrate at active siteThis connection serves to speed up a chemical reactionWhen reaction is completed, enzyme and substrate separate. from  Structure determines functionFactors influencing enzyme functionpH7 is optimaltoo high or too low is no good.  Biochemistry Notes  temptoo high - enzyme is denatured (destroyed)too low - not enough energy for reactionconcentrations of enzyme and substratetoo much of one and/or too little of the other is no good.Basic ConceptsChemical elements tend toward stabilityadding or losing electronsorganic compounds are the result of this trend toward stabilityStructure is the key to biochemistryexample: lock and key theory for enzymes, neurotransmittersEnergy moves from where there's more to where there is less2nd principle of thermodynamics: entropy increases toward randomnessOrganic systems seek to maintain homeostasis maintenance of stable internal environment despite changes to external environment. Dynamic equilibrium The process of various cellular and organ systems working together to maintain the homeostasis of a living, complexorganismSystems rely on feedback mechanisms example: thermostat and furnacefeedback can be neural (nerve messages) or chemical (hormones, blood levels)Surface areaMany body systems make use of increased surface areaAllows systems to do a lot of processing in a relatively small spaceExample: digestive system