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Biological Science Iii




GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE FOCUS: SCIENTIFIC TRAITS AND SCIENTIFIC METHOD LET COMPETENCIES: 1. identify scientific traits and attitudes exhibited in various various situation; and 2. use scientific scientific inquiry inquiry to investigate investigate materials, materials, events, events, and and phenomena phenomena in natural natural world (designing, collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data, making conclusion and communicating result) STRUCTURED OVERVIEW BIOLOGIST SHOULD HAVE KNOWLEDGE IN SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE THE RIGHT ATTITUDE ACCURACY BELIEF CRITICAL-MINDEDNESS CRITICAL OUTLOOK CURIOSITY HUMILITY IMAGINATION INTELLECTUAL HONESTY OBJECTIVITY OPEN-MINDEDNESS RESPONSIBILITY RISK-TAKING SCIENTIFIC HUNCH STARTING THE PROBLEM GATHERING DATA FORMULATING A HYPOTHESIS TEST THE HYPOTHESIS RECORDING & ANALYSIS STATING CONCLUSION REPEATING THE WORK  COMMUNICATE WITH OTHERS 1 GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 2 IN THE NUTSHELL I. INTRODUCTION: Since the very beginning of human history, men have taken an interest in what they saw, particularly in everything that moves or grows and can be called alive. Biology is the name given to this study of living things. It is inherently interdisciplinary, requiring knowledge of the physical science and mathematics. Biology is a huge subject that gets bigger every year because of the great discovery explosion. We can think of biology’s enormous scope as having two major dimensions. First, life is structured on size scale ranging from the molecular to the global. The second dimension of  biology’s scope structures across the enormous diversity of life on Earth, now and throughout life’s history. II. SCIENTIFIC TRAITS/ ATTITUDES What attitudes do scientists manifest when engaged in an inquiry or investigation? Below are list of scientific attitudes that are qualities of scientists: SCIENTIFIC TRAIT DESCRIPTION 1. Accuracy This term refers to the attitude of being precise, exact, or   performing with care is free from mistake or error. Biologists continually check or recheck not only their own finding but also those other biologist all over the world. 2. Belief A biologist believes that everything that happens in this world has a cause or reason. 3. Critical-Mindedness A biologist bases suggestion and conclusion on evidences. When in doubt, he asked questions on the veracity of a statement in relation to the evidence presented. 4. Critical-Outlook This trait implies careful judgment. A person who possesses a critical outlook does not readily believe things he sees, reads or  hears. 5. Curiosity A biologist should be eager to know the answer on what’s happening on surrounding through asking questions. GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 6. Humility A biologist should not be proud, arrogant or assertive. He should admit that he is not free from committing errors. He recognized that there maybe better ideas and realizes that there are other  biologist or scientist whom may have to consult to arrive at correct observation and conclusion. 7. Imagination This trait implies on the creative ability of a biologist by forming a new idea from the things experienced or observed and also being resourceful in overcoming practical difficulties. 8. Objectivity In conducting experiment or observation a biologist should not be influenced by his opinions or feelings in abler to avoid biases. 9. Open-mindedness A biologist should be ready to consider any suggestions or ideas. He accepts criticism and changes his mind if reliable evidence contradicts his believes. 10. Responsibility A biologist actually participates in a task and also dutifully performs task assigned to him. 11. Risk-taking A biologist expresses his opinions and tries new ideas even at the risk of failure or criticism. 12. Scientific Hunch A hunch is a strong intuitive impression that something will happen. 3 III. SCIENTIFIC METHOD (A SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO RESEARCH) There are so many different kinds of phenomena to be explained those scientists have had to become specialist – physicist, chemist, astronomer, earth scientist, biologist, so on… With in each of these fields there are numerous subdivisions. Even so, scientists in all fields approach the problem in the same way. When a scientist announces a finding on proposes, a new idea, other scientist may repeat the work or test its conclusions. The universal approach to scientific problems is called scientific method. It helps them find the reasons for the facts or ides they are puzzled about. The scientific method took centuries to develop and has to be learned by every science student. Galileo Galilei, an Italian physicist, and Francis Bacon, an English Philosopher, are considered the principal founders of the scientific method. GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 4 The basic steps in the scientific method are: 1. DEFINING OR STATING THE PROBLEM (What question should be asked?) This includes questioning. The usual questions that arise in science include the Why, What, and How. It is important to clearly define the problem in order to delimit it. Why? Because one question frequently leads to another or even top a host of new questions. The successful solution of the smaller parts of the problem permits gradual solution of the whole. 2. OBSERVING AND GATHERING INFORMATION A scientist does not merely wait for things to happen. He should go around and observe the things around him, from this process of observation; he will be able to gather data to further  understand the problem. 3. FORMULATING A HYPOTHESIS (What are possible answers to our problem?) A hypothesis is a statement that can be used to predict the outcome of future observation. It is a tentative explanation for certain behaviors, phenomena or events which occurred or will occur. (Gay, 1976) Types of Hypothesis • • Null Hypothesis H o- a claim that there is no difference between the population mean and the hypothesized value. Alternative hypothesis H 1-a claim that disagrees with null hypothesis. If the null hypothesis is rejected, we are left with no choice but to fail to reject the alternative hypothesis that is population mean is not equal to hypothesized value. Types of Variables • • • Independent variable- is the one that is changed by the biologist. To insure a fair test, a good experiment has only one independent variable. Dependent variable- is the outcome or objective of the study. The biologist observed how it responds to the changes made to independent variable. Controlled variable – are quantities that biologist wants to remain constant. 4. TEST THE HYPOTHESIS Your experiment tests whether your hypothesis is true or false. It is important for your  experiment to be a fair test. You conduct a fair test by making sure that you change only one factor at a time while keeping all other conditions the same. You should also repeat your  experiments several times to make sure that the first results weren't just an accident. GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 5 5. RECORDING AND ANALYZING DATA After collecting the data, you will need to analyze the result of the experiment. The results can be presented in various forms, such as a table, graph, or chart. 6. STARTING A CONCLUSION After the process of experimentation and data gathering, it is now important that the scientist make a conclusion. Your conclusions summarize how your results support or contradict your original hypothesis: • • • • • Summarize your science fair project results in a few sentences and use this summary to support your conclusion. Include key facts from your background research to help explain your results as needed. State whether your results support or contradict your hypothesis. (Engineering & programming projects should state whether they met their design criteria.) If appropriate, state the relationship between the independent and dependent variable. Summarize and evaluate your experimental procedure, making comments about its success and effectiveness. Suggest changes in the experimental procedure (or design) and/or possibilities for  further study. 7. REPEATING THE WORK The single feature that is most characteristic of science is its reproducibility. If scientists cannot duplicate their first results, they are forced to conclude that these were invalid. This problem occurs often. Its cause is usually some unrecognized, and hence uncontrolled, factor in the experiment (e.g., unrecognized variation in the properties of different batches of the materials used in the experiment). With luck, the inability to reproduce experiments will be discovered by the same scientists who did the first experiments. This is why scientists generally repeat their  experiments several times before reporting them in a scientific paper. 8. COMMUNICATE YOUR RESULTS To complete, the biologist will communicate his results to others by publishing their final report in a scientific journal or by presenting their results on a poster at a scientific meeting. GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 6 QUESTION AND ANSWER Direction: Select the best answer from the given choices. Competency No. 1: Identify scientific traits and attitudes exhibited in various situations. 1. In the 1850’s many scientist thought that living things could arise from nonliving things. Louis Pasteur, a French microbiologist proved to his experiment that this is false. He done it even though many scientists during that time criticized his work and the possibility of failure is quite high. What scientific attitude does Louis Pasteur posses based on this situation? A. Imagination C. Open-mindedness B. Risk-taking D. Scientific Hunch The correct answer is B. Louis Pasteur conducted his experiment against spontaneous generation. Even though during that time people believe more about it. He expresses his opinion even the risk of failure or criticism. Option A. Imagination is the creative ability of a biologist to invent a new idea. Mr. Pasteur contradict on the idea not make a new one. Option C. Open-mindedness is being receptive to arguments or ideas. Louis did not accept the idea instead he goes against it. Option D. Scientific hunch is a strong intuitive feeling concerning a future event or  result. Louis Pasteur did not have a hunch about the situation. 2. Student Z conducts an experiment. He done it with care and he make sure that each procedure is based on the accepted standard. What trait does Student Z posses? A. Accuracy C. Humility B. Curiosity D. Honesty The correct answer is A. Student Z tries to be accurate to his experiment. He wants to make sure that his experiment is free from error. Option B. Curiosity is the desire to know. Student Z maybe wants to know the result but being accurate shown more than being curious. Option C. Humility shows when a biologist admits that he is not free from committing error. Students Z tries to make sure that he will not committing mistake. Option D. Honesty is being truthful. Student Z maybe honest but it did show in the situation. GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 7 3. In a biology class, HB’s classmate told him that he get skin disease if he touched a toad. HB went to the library and began to read all about toads to see if they really cause skin disease. What attitude does HB shown in this situation? A. Belief  C. Objectivity B. Responsibility D. Critical Outlook The correct answer is D. HB shows that he did not easily believe what somebody told him. He tries to seek for the truth through reading books. Option A. Belief, HB does not seek for the cause or reason why toads associated with skin disease instead he what’s to know if it is true or not. Option C. Responsibility, HB does not show that he participates in a certain task. Option D. Objectivity, HB does not conduct an experiment but still he is not influenced by his feeling or opinion regarding on toads. Still the best answer is D. 4. “Shallow men believe in luck. Strong men believe in cause and effect.” - Emerson What scientific trait this quote pertains to? A. B. C. D. Objectivity Imagination Curiosity Belief  The correct answer is D. If we analyzed the quote of Emerson, the words cause and effect strongly support the trait belief. A biologist believes that everything that happens in this world has a cause or reason not by pure luck. Option A, B, and C did not have connection about the quote. 5. Paolo makes a research proposal. Before he conducts the research he asked for advice of a biologist, chemist and physicist. What attitude Paolo posses? A. Humility B. Objectivity C. Responsibility D. Risk-Taking The correct answer is A. Paolo is humble because he knew that there will be better  ideas by consulting other science expert. Option B, C, and D These trait did not showed by Paolo in this situation. Each trait has been explained in previous questions. GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 8 Competency No. 2: Use scientific inquiry to investigate materials, events, and phenomena in natural world (designing, collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data, making conclusion and communicating result) 6. Constructing charts and graphs and looking for patterns are part of which step of the scientific method? A. State the problem B. Gather information C. Form a hypothesis D. Record and analyze data The correct answer is D. Graphs and Charts give the users a nice overview of the essential feature of the data. They are designed to help users obtain at a glance an intuitive feeling of the data. Usually chart and graph done during record and analyze data. Option A. State the Problem, it is a step in scientific method which seeks for a problem or question. Option B. Gather Information, Student A does not go around and observed things or  look for possible answer in books or other references. Option C. Form a hypothesis, it from a scientific guess on what will be the answer to the problem. Students A already test the hypothesis. 7. The table below shows the number of toads at a certain time in a certain place. MONTH NUMBER OF TOADS January 20 February 32 March 44 April ? What will most likely be the number of toads in April? A. 49 C. 63 B. 56 D. 70 The correct answer is B. Every month 12 toads are added in the list for that we can predict based on three consecutive months that on April there will be 56 toads already in that certain place. Option A, C, and D is maybe possible but the trend of the information in the table shows there’s higher probability that 56 toads will be in that place. GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 9 8. Action words such as places, stirs, or mixes indicate which step of the scientific method is being used. A. B. C. D. Experiment State the problem Form a conclusion Record and analyze The correct answer is A. Experiments is the best answer because the words places, stirs or mixes are done during the executing or conducting an experiment. Option B, C, and D are not related on these action words. 9. Information from Books, Experts, and the Internet is used for which step of  the scientific method. A. B. C. D. Form a conclusion Form a hypothesis Gather information Record and analyze data The correct answer is C. Books, experts, and the internet are ways of obtaining information for that the best answer is gather information Option B, C, and D are not the right answer because you need to gather first the needed information before you proceed in these three procedures. 10.The word Determines usually means this step of the scientific method is being used. A. B. C. D. Experimental State the problem Form a conclusion Record and analyze data The correct answer is C. The definition of determines is to make up one’s mind or  resolved. The problem has already resolved that means we already reached the conclusion. Option A, B, and D are not the correct answer because if you use determine you already done these steps. EVALUATE YOURSELF Direction: Select the best answer from the given choices. GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 10 1. What does a person possess when he respects the ideas and opinions of  others, even if they contradict his own ideas? A curious mind B. An open mind C. A Intelligent mind D. Compassion A. 2. In a biology class, Aida already finished her experiment. She compares her  findings to others. What do you think Aida’s trait based on this situation? A. B. C. D. Insecure Curiosity Objectivity Accuracy 3. This is the set of steps that scientists follow The Scientific Exploration B. The Scientific Method C. A Theory D. Logic A. 4. A biologist believes in a Chinese proverb that “If one does not dare to enter the tiger’s liar, how can one obtain tiger clubs?” What is the scientific trait pertaining this quote? A. B. C. D. Critical Mindedness Scientific Hunch Critical Outlook Risk Taking 5. Student K always states to his fellow classmates that everything that happens in this world has a cause or reason. What trait does he posses based on his statement? A. Belief  B. Humility C. Curiosity D. Objectivity 6. In science fair, Ramon a sophomore student is one of the participants. One of  the judges approaches him and criticizes his work. He accepts all of these. He believes through criticisms he will be better someday. What scientific trait does Ramon have? A. B. C. D. Belief  Risk-Taking Open-Mindedness Critical-Mindedness GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 11 7. According to English Biologist Samuel Smiles (1812-1904), “He who never  made a mistake, never made a discovery.” What scientific trait does this imply? A. B. C. D. Humility Curiosity Accuracy Risk-Taking 8. It is an orderly, systematic approach to the problem solving. A. B. C. D. Experiment Conclusion Scientific Method Dimensional Analysis 9. Asking a question is part of which step of the scientific method? A. B. C. D. Experimentation Statement of the problem Forming hypothesis Gathering information 10. This is the starting point of any scientific investigation. A. B. C. D. Problem Hypothesis Experiment Observation 11. This is a proposed solution to a scientific problem. A. Law B. Data C. Theory D. Conclusion 12. A botanist plants two rows of corn for experimentation. She puts fertilizer on row 1 but does not put fertilizer on row 2. Both rows receive the same amount of  water and light intensity. She checks the growth of the corn over the course of 5 months. What is a constant in this experiment? A. B. C. D. Plant height Amount of water  Corn with fertilizer  Corn without fertilizer  13. When a biologist performs an experiment, it is the factor being tested. A. Theory GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 12 B. Control C. Variable D. Hypothesis 14. If and then are words used for which step of the scientific method? A. B. C. D. Experiment State the problem Form a hypothesis Form a conclusion 15. A student decided to set up an experiment to see if cats preferred skim milk over 2%milk. She put out a cup of milk for 5 kittens and then measured how much the kittens drank over the course of a day. The same kittens were used and the milk was served at the same temperature. The student discovered that the cats liked the 2% milk more than the skim milk. What is wrong with the above experiment? A. There are no constants present B. There is no independent variable. C. Repeated experimentation is needed. D. The milk should be served at different temperatures. 16. A scientific study showed that the depth at which algae were found in a lake varied from day to day. On clear days, the algae were found as much as 6 meters below the surface of the water but were only 1 meter below the surface on cloudy days. Which hypothesis best explains these observations? A. B. C. D. Precipitation affects the growth of algae. Wind currents affect the growth of algae Light intensity affects the growth of algae. Nitrogen concentration affects the growth of algae. 17. Tessa designed an experiment to find out which mouthwash was most effective against some bacteria. She cut out four different circles from a paper  towel and soaked each circle in a different mouthwash. She put the circles on a nutrient agar-coated Petri dish that was covered with bacteria commonly found in the mouth. She then incubated the plate for 24 hours. The picture shows the results of this test. Which of the following should Sarah do to improve her  experiment? A. B. C. D. Use a smaller Petri dish. Use different kinds of bacteria Use the same size paper circles for all mouthwashes. Use the same type of mouthwash on each paper circle 18. An experiment for a new asthma medication was set up into two groups. Group one was given the new drug for asthma, while group 2 was given a sugar  pill. What purpose does the sugar pill serve? GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 13 A. B. C. D. Control Constant Dependent variable Experimental variable 19. A student decides to set up an experiment to see if detergent affects the growth of seeds. He sets up 10 seed pots. Five of the seed pots will receive a small amount of detergent in the soil and will be placed in the sun. The other 5 seed pots will not receive detergent and will be placed in the shade. All 10 seed pots will receive the same amount of water, the same number of seeds, and the same type of seeds. He grows the seeds for two months and charts the growth every 2 days. What is wrong with his experiment? . A. There is no control set-up B. More than one variable is being tested. C. There is no way of measuring the outcome. D. The student should have a larger number of pots. 20. A scientist testing the effects of a chemical on apple yield sprays an orchard with the chemical. A second orchard does not receive the chemical. In the fall, the number of apples harvested from each forest is counted. Which of the following is the independent (manipulated) variable in the experiment? A. B. C. D. The chemical The first orchard The number of apples The second orchard 21. The orchard sprayed with the chemical yields an average of 60 apples per  tree, while the other orchard yields an average of 40 apples per tree. Based on the data, what should the scientist do? A. B. C. D. Report his data Test the chemical on other plants Determine that the results were inconclusive Determine that the chemical increases apple yield 22. What is the step in the scientific method that requires an educated guess? A. Experimentation B. Testing the data C. Communicating result D. Formulating a hypothesis 23. What is the basis for a conclusion? A. Hypothesis B. Observation C. Experimentation GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 14 D. Experimental result 24. Which of the following describe a hypothesis? A. B. C. D. Conclusion Observation Tentative answer  All the above 25. It is the measurable factor in an experiment. A. B. C. D. Control Constant Dependent variable Independent variable 26. Ultimately, all scientific knowledge come which of the following: A. B. C. D. Textbooks Observation Experimentation both experimentation & observation 27. In science, what is the logical explanation for observed fact called? A. B. C. D. Guess Theory Factual Barometer  28. In order for the apple tree experiment to be valid scientifically, how should both orchards be treated? A. B. C. D. Receive the same amount of sunlight Have the same species of apple tree Receive the same amount of water  all of these 29. How do theories help scientists? Prove hypotheses B. Determine truth from lies C. Explain large bodies of data D. Propose new ideas about how the world works A. GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 15 30. If a theory is challenged by new evidence, which of the following could occur? A. The evidence is wrong B. The theory could be altered C. The theory is accepted, not the evidence D. A vote is taken on whether to accept the new evidence KEY TO CORRECTION 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 B D B D A C D C B A D B C C C C C GENERAL EDUCATION: BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 A B A D D D C C D B D C B BIBLIOGRAPHY Campbell, Neil A. and Jane B. Reece. (2001). Essential Biology. New York: Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. Chang, Raymond. (2005). Chemistry. Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies. Essenfeld, Bernie E. et al. (1996). Biology. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishing. Company, Inc. Kuzma, Jan W and Stephen E. Bohnenblust (2005). Basic Statistics for Health Sciences. Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies. Sevilla, Consuelo G. et al. (1992). Research Methods. Quezon City: re printing Company, Inc. Storer, Tracy I. et al. (1979). General; Zoology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.