Photo: David Toczko, Lone Dakota Photography Dancer: Erica De La O
Cinderella Sponsored by
Student Matinee 2012 Study Guide
www.louisvilleballet.org © 2012 Louisville Ballet
Table of Contents Introductory Activities…………………………………………..2 (Adaptable for all Grade Levels)
The Synopsis of the Ballet……………………………………..3-4 Coloring Pages…………………………………………………5-7 Cinderella and the Fairy Godmother Ugly Stepsister Cinderella and the Prince
Design Your Own Costume………...…………………………8-9 Female Figure Male Figure
About the Choreographer, Alun Jones………………………..10 About the Composer, Serge Prokofiev………………………...11 Who’s Who at the Ballet?......................................................12-13 (Adaptable for all Grade Levels)
Core Content Vocabulary & Basic Choreographic Forms…..14 (Adaptable for all Grade Levels)
A Choreographer’s Role………………………………………..15 (5th grade – High School)
Basic Ballet Terms & Positions………………………….....16-17 Responding to Dance Chart……………………………………18 (Post Activity)
Introductory Activities (Adaptable for all Grade Levels)
The following are selections of introductory activities that will familiarize students with aspects of the performance that they will see.
Story Familiarity Read the full synopsis of Cinderella to students. Ask students to relate the story to other stories that they are familiar with. In addition, encourage students to relate aspects of Cinderella to their own lives.
Dance and Drama: What is a Ballet? Discuss what a ballet is. Are there speaking parts? How is a story told? Who decides how the dancers tell a story? How do dancers learn their parts?
Art, Language Arts & Music: Listen, Draw, Write: Play selections of music from Cinderella by Prokofiev. Ask students to draw images that could go along with the music. Let students know that there are no incorrect responses. Ask students to write for two-minutes responding to the question, what does the music sound like and what does the music make them think about? Recommended excerpts: Cinderella Dreams of the Ball, Clock Scene, Cinderella Arrives at the Ball, Duet of the Prince and Cinderella
Dance: Basic Ballet Steps Introduce a small sample of commonly used steps to students. Familiarity with basic steps will provide students of all age’s reference points to enjoy the performance. Some impressive steps that are used frequently in a ballet performance are listed in the Basic Ballet Terms & Positions section of this study guide.
Math: Shape, Lines and Patterning Discuss a variety of shapes and line patterns that are frequently used in ballet choreography. Some line patterns include diagonal lines (or oblique lines), parallel lines, perpendicular lines, grid formation and staggered formation. Some shape formations include circular, square, triangular and pentagonal. Sometimes formations may also look like an object, like a flower or star. Have students watch for these patterns and formations throughout the performance.
The Synopsis of the Ballet Cinderella Louisville Ballet will present Cinderella as a 67-minute student matinee performance with one 15-minute intermission. We ask that your students remain in their seats for this intermission while we open the curtains so that they may enjoy the magic of the backstage transformation.
Photo: David Toczko, Lone Dakota Photography Dancers: Erica De La O & Kristopher Wojtera
In order to present Cinderella as a 67-minute student matinee, certain scenes have been omitted. The performance will begin with a brief synopsis of Act I. The dancers will then perform Act II & Act III, starting with Cinderella’s entrance to the Ball. For continuity, we ask that you share the entire synopsis of the ballet with your students prior to the performance.
ACT I WILL NOT BE SEEN AS PART OF THE STUDENT MATINEE Act I – Scene I: The Kitchen in Cinderella’s House It is evening and Cinderella’s stepsisters are embroidering a silk scarf. The father enters with three invitations to the Prince’s ball – two for the stepsisters and one for Cinderella. When the father leaves the room, the stepsisters tear up Cinderella’s invitation and throw it in the fire! Cinderella has been gathering wood for the fire. She enters, takes up a broom and moves wistfully about the room. The stepsisters, still quarreling, come back into the room. Suddenly, strange lights fill the room and a beggar woman enters. Cinderella sits the old woman by the fire, puts a pair of slippers on her feet and gives her the wood that she brought into the house. The old woman departs and preparations for the ball begin. When everything is ready, the stepsisters depart for the castle leaving Cinderella alone. Once again the theme of the old woman is heard, but when the door is opened Cinderella sees that the old woman has changed into her fairy godmother! Suddenly, Cinderella finds herself in a magical garden.
Act I – Scene II: The Magic Garden Fairies representing the four seasons dance for Cinderella. With her Fairy Godmother’s warning that she must leave the ball before midnight, Cinderella departs in a crystal coach escorted by the fairies and a multitude of stars. 3
WE PICK UP OUR STORY HERE: Act II: The Ball The ballroom is filled with stars and four masked ladies enter, the fairies disguised as mortals, herald Cinderella’s entrance. The prince cannot take his eyes off Cinderella and dances with her. The court is curious about her identity. No one knows who she is, least of all the ugly stepsisters, and all assume that she is a visiting princess. The ball continues and the guests are presented with oranges. The stepsisters fight over the larger of two oranges, after which the ballroom is left empty. The prince and Cinderella are then briefly alone. They have fallen in love at first sight and dance together to declare their love. When the guests return, the court festivities continue. But at the height of the celebration, the clock strikes twelve. Cinderella, terrified, flees the castle. The prediction of the Fairy Godmother is fulfilled. Cinderella is again dressed as a kitchen maid. Only the glass slippers remain, one of which she loses as she dashes home. The prince, as he pursues her, finds it and comforts himself that to find the girl he loves all he has to do is find the owner of the slipper.
– INTERMISSION – Act III – Scene I: The Kitchen in Cinderella’s House Waking up the next morning, Cinderella recalls the splendid ball and her meeting with the Prince but decides that it all must have been a dream. She finds the glass slipper and realizes that it was not a dream after all. The stepsisters tell of the fine time they had at the ball and how “popular” they were. Noise from the street heralds the arrival of the Prince, who is going from house to house in search of the unknown girl he Photo: David Toczko, Lone Dakota Photography met at the ball. When he enters Cinderella’s Dancers: Robert Dunbar & Morgan Hulen house, both stepsisters try in vain to wear the glass slipper. In desperation to get the slipper to fit her foot, one stepsister attempts to cut off her toe. To prevent this, Cinderella produces the other slipper. The Prince recognizes her as the girl he seeks and asks her to marry him. Cinderella’s Fairy Godmother appears and blesses the couple.
Act III – Scene II: The Magic Garden The Fairies and stars await the arrival of Cinderella and the Prince. They celebrate their reunion and live happily ever after.
Design Your Own Costume Female FigureCinderella’s Ball Gown, Stepsister, or the Fairy Godmother
Design Your Own Costume Male FigurePrince
About the Choreographer Alun Jones Alun Jones was born in South Wales. He studied music for nine years and received awards and diplomas for excellence in piano playing. He graduated from the Monmouthshire College of Arts and Crafts with a degree in design. Mr. Jones ballet training began with Myra Silcox in Pontypool, Wales. From there, he went to the Ballet Rambert School, where he studied with Dame Marie Rambert, D.B.E., Angela Ellis, Eileen Ward and Errol Addison. He made his professional debut with the Welsh National Opera Company in Faust, La Traviata and May Night. In 1960 he joined the London Festival Ballet, which toured throughout Europe and the Near East. After briefly dancing with the ballet company of the Zurich Opera House in Switzerland, Mr. Jones rejoined the London Festival Ballet in 1966, specializing in character roles in the major classical ballets. As a founding member of the New London Ballet, Mr. Jones toured Europe and the Orient. As technical director, he toured the U.S. with Dame Margot Fonteyn D.B.E. After a year as Assistant Artistic Director to the Irish National Ballet, he returned to the U.S. as guest teacher and choreographer with Margo Marshall’s City Ballet of Houston. Mr. Jones was the Artistic Director of the Louisville Ballet from 1978 to 2002 and for 5 years was also the Executive Director. He has a degree in design from the University of Wales, Newport and diplomas and awards from the London College of Music. In 1998 he was given the Milner Award (Kentucky’s highest award in the arts). During his 24 year tenure as Artistic Director, the repertoire consisted of 78 world premieres and 65 Louisville premieres, eleven of these were full-length ballets. Included were ten ballets by George Balanchine, nine by Antony Tudor and works by such notable choreographers as Sir Frederick Ashton, Andree Howard, John Crankco, Kurt Jooss, Paul Taylor, Choo San Goh and many others. His own works included Romeo and Juliet, Cinderella, Peter Pan, The Merry Widow and Lucy. His ballets have been performed in 24 states, as well as Bermuda, England, Portugal, Spain, India, South Africa, Hong Kong and Japan. He has been a site visitor, evaluating companies for the N.E.A, Ohio Arts Council, Southern Arts Federation and the Tennessee Arts Commission. For the past six years, he has served on the jury for the European Stage Dance Union contest in Croatia and as a member of the International Dance Council in Greece.
About the Composer Serge Prokofiev Born in Sontsovka,Ukraine on April 23, 1891, Serge Prokofiev showed precocious talent as a pianist and composer. In 1904 he entered the St. Petersburg Conservatory, where Rimsky-Korsakov, Lyadov and Tcherepnin were among his teachers; Tcherepnin and Myakovsky, who gave him valuable support, encouraged his interest in Skryabin, Debussy and Strauss. He made his debut as a pianist in 1908, quickly creating something of a sensation as an enfant terrible, unintelligible and ultra-modern – an image he was happy to cultivate. His intemperateness in his early piano pieces, and later such works as the extravagantly romantic Piano Concerto no. 1 and the ominous no. 2, attracted attention. He left the conservatory in 1914 and traveled to London, where he heard Stravinsky’s works and gained a commission from Diaghilev. The resulting score was, however, rejected (the music was used to make the Scythian Suite) a second attempt, Chout, was not staged until 1921. Meanwhile, he finished an opera on Dostoyevskt’s Gambler in 1917, a violently involved study of obsession far removed from the fantasy of his nearly contemporary Chicago opera The Love of Three Oranges, written in 1919 and performed in 1921. His pace slowed as he worked on his opera The Fiery Angel, an intense, symbolist fable of good and evil. (It had no complete performance until after his death.) Romeo and Juliet, the full-length ballet commissioned for the Bolshoi, had its premiere at Brno in 1938 and only later became a staple of the Soviet repertory; its themes of aggression and romantic love provided a receptacle for Prokofiev’s divergent impulses. In 1936 he again settled in Moscow and created a mix of incidental music for children’s entertainment titled Peter and the Wolf. With the outbreak of war he worked on more patriotic pieces such as Symphony No. 5, three piano sonatas (Nos. 6-8) and operatic setting of the scenes from Tolstoy’s War and Peace. He also worked on a full-length ballet, Cinderella. In 1946 he retired to the country; and though he went on composing, the works of his last years have been regarded as a quiet coda to his output. Even his death was overshadowed by that of Stalin on the same day, March 5, 1953.
Who’s Who at the Ballet? (Adaptable for all Grade Levels)
As a member of the audience, you see the dancers on the stage. But it takes many, many more dedicated and talented people to get the dancers to the stage. Behind the scenes and out of sight a variety of talented people play an important role. Here are a few of the people backstage at the ballet:
BEFORE THE SHOW Choreographer: Person who creates the steps and patterns that make-up a dance Composer: Person who writes the music score for the ballet Costume Designer: Designs the costumes and supervises their construction Set Designer: Designs the set and scenery, supervises set construction Lighting Designer: Plans the design, colors and frequency of the light changes on-stage Wig and Make-up Designer: Designs and supervises all hairstyles, wigs and make-up
AT THE COMPANY Artistic Director: Selects the dancers in the Company, decides what ballets will be performed, and is responsible for all artistic choices Ballet Master/Mistress: In charge of all company rehearsals and classes, including staging, setting, and coaching the dancers Costume Master/Mistress: Supervises creating, fitting, repairing and cleaning the costumes. Tells the performers how to wear them and take care of them Technical Director: Runs the scene shop where all sets, scenery and props are built. Also responsible for transporting all scenery to the theater
BACKSTAGE Director of Operations: Schedules all technical rehearsals and dress rehearsals. Also determines the number of crew members necessary for performance to run smoothly Production Stage Manager: Coordinates the lighting, sets, costumes, and all backstage crew members
Stage Manager: In charge of all that happens backstage in performance and rehearsals Crew: Assist in construction, installation, and changes of the set, costumes, lights and props Dresser: Helps the dancers put on their costumes correctly
ON THE STAGE Cast: All performers on stage Dancers: Performers who dance or move to tell the story Corps de Ballet: The dancers who do not dance solos, but dance together as a group Soloists: All dancers who perform dances by themselves Ballerina: The leading Female Dancer Premiere Danseur: The leading Male Dancer
Discussion Prompts (Primary – 4th grade) Instead of presenting the list of the people backstage at the ballet, start a discussion with your students about the work it takes to put on a school program. Then discuss the size and length of a ballet production. (5th grade – High School) These are just a few of the dedicated people who work for the Louisville Ballet. What other jobs are necessary for a performing arts company? Here are a few to get the conversation started. Executive Director: makes all business decisions for the Company Marketing Director: in charge of advertising Development Director: in charge of applying for grants and soliciting donations
Core Content Vocabulary (Adaptable for all Grade Levels)
Dance Movements Locomotor: creates a pathway with your feet i.e. walk, run, leap, hop, jump, skip, slide and gallop
Nonlocomotor: does not create a pathway with your feet i.e. bend, twist, stretch, swing
Elements of Dance Space Direction: forward, backward, sideways, diagonal Pathway: straight, curved, zigzag Level: low, middle, high (both feet are off the floor) Shape: closed/open, curved/angled, can be done as a group or as an individual Size: big/small Focus: at audience or a different specified object or location
Time Tempo: fast, medium, slow Duration: the amount of time taken for each step Accent: when one accents a specific count in a phrase of movement
Force Energy: the energy used to do the movement i.e. sharp/smooth Weight: heavy/light
Basic Choreographic Forms & how to show them •
The AB choreographic form can be shown by having students do nonlocomotor movement for 4 counts followed by locomotor movement for 4 counts.
The ABA choreographic form can be shown by repeating the exercise above and adding 4 more counts of nonlocomotor movement to the end. This form inherently has a beginning, middle and end.
A Choreographer’s Role (5th grade – High School)
Choreography is the art of creating and arranging dances or ballets. Choreographers accomplish this art form by many different approaches. Some choreographers match steps and the movements of the dancers to music while others choose to start with an overall theme or ideal that they would like to express or convey through movement. Dances can be political, deal with social issues, experimental and abstract in content or be purely for entertainment.
Dance Composition Definitions •
A dance phrase is a unit of movement that has a flow and can be repeated. It is similar to a sentence phrase or musical phrase. It is moved by one or more parts of the body.
A dance theme is one or more phrases that make up the core of the dance. It is the dancer’s non-verbal core statement of his piece.
Advanced Choreographic Forms •
Call and response as a choreographic form can be described as conversational: One person moves and the other person’s movement responds to (answers) the movements of the initial mover, just as in a tap challenge.
A rondo can be described as ABACADA. The choreographic pattern begins with a main theme (A) followed by another theme or movement material, and the A theme returns after each new movement phrase.
Theme and variation format can be described as a dance phrase or section of a dance with subsequent dance phrases or sections being variations of the original. This would A, A1, A2, A3.
The narrative choreographic form tells a story or conveys an idea. The sequence of the story determines the structure of the dance.
Discussion Prompt What choreographic forms would be present in Cinderella? Answer: all of them. In a full length ballet all choreographic forms are utilized. Have students watch for different choreographic forms during the performance. 15
Basic Ballet Terms and Positions Classical ballet terms are French in origin. As a result a ballet dancer can take a class almost anywhere in the world and understand the exercises and combinations of steps that the teacher wants performed. The five positions – the basic foot positions through which all ballet movements begin, pass through and end.
Arabesque (ah-rah-besk’) – the dancer stands on one leg with the other leg raised and extended straight behind the body parallel to the floor.
Ballerina (bal-eh-re’-na) – the principle female dancer of a ballet company. Ballon (bal-lon’) – the bounciness and lightness of steps which would make the dancer seem to float on air.
Battement (baht-mahn’) – the extension of a leg and return to its original position. Corps de Ballet (cor-da-bah-le’) – all other professional dancers in a ballet company; they typically perform in groups, backing the soloists and principle dancers.
Danseur (dan-seur’) – the principle male dancer of a ballet company, the partner of the ballerina.
Divertissement (dee-vehr-tees-mahn’) – short dances inserted into ballet to feature soloists or small groups of dancers.
Jeté (je-tay’) – a jump from one foot to the other where the weight of the body is transferred from the starting foot to the landing foot.
Pas de Deux (pah duh duh) – a dance or variation for two dancers. Plié (plee-ay’) – to bend the knee or knees. 16
Pirouette (peer-oo-wet’) – the complete turn of the body with the dancer balanced on one foot.
En Pointe (on-pwahnt) – dancing on the extreme tips of the toes. Port de bras (pore-de-bra) – the graceful way that arms, hands and fingers are held and moved while doing steps with the feet.
Rond de jambe (rawn duh zhahmb) – a circular movement of the leg.
Soloists – the middle tier of the dancers in a professional company; highly talented, they perform large parts but usually not leading roles.
Tour en l’air (toor ahn lair’) – a turn in the air, generally performed by male dancers. Turn out – the outward rotation of the whole leg from the hip socket to the floor. Tutu (too’too) – the classical ballet skirt, usually made of many layers of net and tulle. Discussion Prompt: (Adaptable for all ages) Go through the list of ballet terms with your students and have them match the terms with core content terms. For example: Plié is a nonlocomotor movement performed at middle level. Jeté is a locomotor movement going from middle level to high level and returning to middle level.
Responding to Dance Chart (Post Activity) Opportunities for viewing live and recorded dance performances are integral to dance education. These opportunities enable students to become totally involved in dance – engaged visually, physically, emotionally and intellectually. The suggestions in the Responding to Dance Chart can help teachers to structure formal response activities. Preparation – establish the focus for viewing the work First Impression – encourage students to respond spontaneously (no wrong answers) Description – ask students to describe what they saw/heard Analysis of content – encourage students to: • Examine how components worked together to achieve certain effects. • Identify evidence of particular cultures, styles or time periods represented in the work. Even though the story was based on a fairy tale, how did you come to your decision? • Did the use of props add or take away from the story? • How would the performance have been different without props? Interpretation – encourage students to: • Reflect on and discuss what the work means to each of them. • Ask how their responses are influenced by their own experiences and perceptions of the world? • Reflect on whether Whitney Hall at the Kentucky Center was an appropriate venue for this performance? Why or why not? • Ask if it makes a difference where a production is presented? Background information – Share information with students on the contributors to the ballet (choreographer, composer) and the historical and cultural context in which the original work was created. Level of importance – ask students to think on the question: • How do the arts add to or take away from their learning experience? Informed judgment – Ask students to consider their first impressions and whether or not their initial opinions have changed as a result of discussion and reflection.