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Creativity Inad




A REPORT ON CONTEMPORARY ISSUE “CREATIVITY IN ADVERTISING”  Submitted in partial fulfillment for the  Award of degree of  Master of Business Administration Submitted By: ANKIT SHARMA MBA 2th SEM Submitted To: SHILPIKHANDELWAL H.O.D. {MBA DEPTT.} APEX INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY SITAPURA, JAIPUR  1 2009-2011  ACKNOWL  ACKNOWLEDGE EDGEMENT MENT It gives me immense pleasure to present the REPORT on CONTEMPORARY ISSUE ON “ CREATIVITY IN ADVERTISING ”. I would like to thank Mrs. Shilpi Khandelwal. their efforts and providing providing the necessary guiding steps in completing the project in a standard form. I sincerely thank the efforts without whose efforts this report would not have been completed in the desired manner and within the time duration. SIGNATURE 2 2009-2011  ACKNOWL  ACKNOWLEDGE EDGEMENT MENT It gives me immense pleasure to present the REPORT on CONTEMPORARY ISSUE ON “ CREATIVITY IN ADVERTISING ”. I would like to thank Mrs. Shilpi Khandelwal. their efforts and providing providing the necessary guiding steps in completing the project in a standard form. I sincerely thank the efforts without whose efforts this report would not have been completed in the desired manner and within the time duration. SIGNATURE 2  ANKIT SHARMA SHARMA Contents:1. Executive Executive Summary 3 2. What Is Creativity 6 3. Objective of Creativity 11 4. Structure of the Methodology 12 5. Expected Result / Benefits 13 6. Characteristic of Providers 14 7. Application 15 8. What is Creativity means in Advertising 17 9. How Creativity is different from Innovation 18 10. Basics of Creativity 21 11. Creativity and leadership 25 12. Creative Technique 30 13. Dream Team - A Frame work for Great Creative performance 37 14. Kick Start Catalogue 46 3 15. Let’s Take a Break 49 16. Conclusion 56 17. Articles 57 18. Bibliography 61 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY “THE CAT IS ON THE MAT,” is not the story. “THE CAT IS ON THE DOG’S MAT,” now that’s the story.  Advetising is both art and science. The science of advertising is the analyititcal part that we have been looking at up yo this point: setting goals, deciding strategy, choosing among different creativity styles. Some people call this step convergent thinking  because the process is to distill lots of information into the core advertising strategy. What is it that adds sparkle and life to a well-planned and implemented advertising campaign? It’s th ‘ah’ factor: that brilliantly simple,but inspired creative edge. In Advertising the world is flat. Agencies are structured on a linear basis. Campaigns are created in linear formats. There are all kinds of rails and fences and obstacles to keep creative thinking linear. Advertising is a big business and ranks among the top industries in the world. The growth of the top advertising industry in any country is in direct relation, its creative senses and talents if the advertising professionals. 4 The word advertising is derived from the Latin word ‘adverto’, that means “To turn towards”. Advertising leads to attention towards something i.e. the advertising message, which is the purpose of advertising and the objective of the advertising Creative Advertising starts with proper creative planning. This includes the conceptualizing of basic ideas to 5 their final implementation. The ideas are visualized considering basic human motives.  Advertising is nothing but selling ideas. Creative thinking is the sound ground where one can reap a rich harvest of ideas. The creative part of advertising is what comes before the potential customers and it is here that the fate of the campaign and consequently of  the product being sold could be decided. Objective of the Project: Creativity is something you cannot think of as ‘Let’s stop and be creative’. You need to think of “Creativity” as a discipline, just like ‘Organization’, ‘commitments to results’, or ‘responsibility’. This project tells us the importance of Creativity in Advertising as creativity demands abundance. The foundation of creativity is in individual, and so the techniques and methods discussed in this project are just mere tools to enhance and liberate one’s creative skills. So don’t confuse the menu with meal  It is observed that “Far too many people are leading their lives lie they’re driving their cars with brakes on” this projects will enable you to know how your foot is taken off that brake pedal. Research Methodology: The information is gathered from various sources like books, periodicals and journals and sites. Limitations: Creativity is a gift most of us desire, but only a few seem to have. Project report debunks some of the myths surrounding creativity and then carefully takes through the five I’s of the creative process. It also gives the 6 insight of future creativity and the tools that can be helped to help advertising professionals to enhance and enliven their work.The subject of  creativity in advertising is something of an enigma. Project shows how creative director in an ad agency goes ‘under the skin of creative’ to use it to greater effect in their work and in wider aspects of their lives. 7 WHAT IS CREATIVITY There are many definitions of creativity. A number of them suggest that creativity is the generation of imaginative new ideas (Newell and Shaw 1972), involving a radical newness innovation or solution to a problem, and a radical reformulation of problems. Other definitions propose that a creative solution can simply integrate existing knowledge in a different way. Definitions of Creativity There are many definitions of creativity; dictionaries give the following meanings: Heritage Illustrated Dictionary: create: To cause to exist, Bring into being, Originate, To give rise to, Bring about, Produce, To be first to portray and give character to a role or part (appropriate to creating fictional characters and writing stories) creation:  An original product of human invention or imagination. Creative: characterized by originality and expressiveness, imaginative Macquarie Dictionary (an Australian dictionary) Create: to evolve from one's one thought or imagination to make by investing with new character or functions. 8 Create: author, bring into being, compose, conceive, parent, form, give rise to, and throw together  Creative: generative, ground-breaking, innovative, originate, handmade According to Boden (1998), there are three main types of creativity, involving different ways of generating the novel ideas: • The “combinational” creativity that involves new combinations of  familiar ideas. • The “exploratory” creativity that involves the generation of new ideas by the • Exploration of structured concepts. • The “transformational” creativity that involves the transformation of  some dimension of the structure, so that new structures can be generated Other related words re: creativity: Creativity creativeness, formativeness, innovation, inventiveness, originality, productivity, craftsmanship, authorship, creatorship "Being creative is seeing the same thing as everybody else but thinking of  something different" There are many aspects to creativity, but one definition would include the ability to take existing objects and combine them in different ways for new purposes. For example, Gutenberg took the wine press and the die/punch and produced a printing press. Thus, a simple definition of creativity is the 9 action of combining previously uncombined elements. From art, music and invention to household chores, this is part of the nature of being creative. 10 Another way of looking at creativity is as playing with the way things are interrelated. Creativity is the ability to generate novel and useful ideas and solutions to everyday problems and challenges. Creativity involves the translation of our unique gifts, talents and vision into an external reality that is new and useful. We must keep in mind that creativity takes place unavoidably inside our own personal, social, and cultural boundaries. The more we define our creativity by identifying with specific sets of  values, meanings, beliefs and symbols, the more our creativity will be focused and limited; the more we define our creativity by focusing on how values, meanings, beliefs and symbols are formed, the greater the chance that our creativity will become less restricted. In the creative process there are always two different (but interrelated) dimensions or levels of dynamics with which one can create: • The system which may be a particular  medium (e.g. oil painting or a particular musical form), or a particular process (like a problem solving agenda, or an approach to creativity like Synectics). The creative person manipulates that means to a creative end. The second dimension conceptual "content" is described which the by the medium describes. Again, the creative person depicts 11 changes, manipulates, and expresses somehow the idea of that content. There is no one definition of creativity that everyone can agree with. 12 Creativity researchers, mostly from the field of psychology, usually claim at being creative means being novel and appropriate. Subsumed under  the appropriateness criterion are qualities of fit, utility, and value.  At least three aspects of creativity have drawn much attention. The creative process, receiving the most attention, focuses on the mechanisms and phases involved as one partakes in a creative act. A second aspect of creativity is the creative • person. Here, personality traits of creative people are central. The environmental atmosphere and influence are concerns of a third aspect, the creative situation. Lastly, the criteria or characteristics of  • creative products have been sought. This area is of particular importance because it is the basis of any performance assessment of real world creativity and may provide a window on the other aspects of creativity. Briefly stated, creativity is often thought to exist on at least five levels: 1. A higher level versus a lower level 2. Grand versus modest 3. Big "C" versus little c 4. Paradigm-shifting versus garden-variety 13 5. Eminent versus everyday Some researchers claim other categories of creativity as well: 1. Expressive versus Productive 2. Expressive versus Inventive 14 3. Expressive versus Innovative 4. Invention versus Discovery 5. Theory versus Invention versus Discovery 6.  Accommodative versus Assimilative 7. Personal versus Public. There are three general ways of achieving a creative solution: • Serendipity • Similarity • and meditation  Also, the mode of activity one is in when being creative differs. For  example, there is a distinction between real-time creativity and multistage creativity. Real-time creativity is spur-of-the-moment, improvisational, and demands output in a short interval of time; whereas in multistage creativity, sufficient time is allowed for the generation and selection of  ideas. Creative thought can be divided into divergent and convergent reasoning. • Divergent thinking  is the intellectual ability to think of many original, diverse, and elaborate ideas. • Convergent thinking : the intellectual ability to logically evaluate critique and choose the best idea from a selection of ideas. Both abilities are required for creative output. Divergent thinking is essential to the novelty of creative products whereas convergent thinking 15 is fundamental to the appropriateness. To combine this variety of  definitions, we can say that creativity involves the generation of new ideas 16 or the recombination of known elements into something new, providing valuable solutions to a problem. It also involves motivation and emotion. Creativity “is a fundamental feature of human intelligence in general. It is grounded in everyday capacities such as the association of  ideas, reminding, perception, analogical thinking, searching a structured problem-space, and reflecting self-criticism. It involves not only a cognitive dimension (the generation of new ideas) but also motivation and emotion, and is closely linked to cultural context and personality factors.” (Boden 1998). Thus, any general definition of creativity must account for the process of recognition or discovery of novel ideas and solutions and hence most of the definition fall into one or more of these categories like as an individual talent, as a process, as a product and last but not the least as a recognition by others. OBJECTIVES OF CREATIVITY Main objectives of a creative thinking process is to think beyond existing boundaries, to awake curiosity, to break away from rational, conventional ideas and formalized procedures, to rely on the imagination, the divergent, the random and to consider multiple solutions and alternatives (Candy 1997, Schlange and Juttner 1997). The result of the creative thinking process is especially important for  businesses. Managers and managerial decisions and actions, confronted with fast-changing and ambiguous environments in business, need to develop creative solutions and creative action-based strategies to solve 17 problems, as they allow to increase understanding of problematic situations, to find multiple problems, to produce new combinations, to 18 generate multiple solutions that are different from the past, to consider  possible alternatives in various situations that could occur in the future and “to expand the opportunity horizon and competence base of firms” (dt ogilvie 1998). DESCRIPTION / STRUCTURE OF THE METHODOLOGY / ALTERNATIVE SOLUTIONS Creativity is not an innate quality of only a few selected people. Creativity is present in everyone. It can be learned, practiced and developed by the use of proven techniques which, enhancing and stimulating the creative abilities, ideas and creative results, help people to move out of their  normal problemsolving mode, to enable them to consider a wide range of alternatives and to improve productivity and quality of work. “Creativity is thus constructed as a learned ability that enables us to define new relationships between concepts or events, which seemed apparently unconnected before, and which results in a new entity of knowledge” (European Commission 1998). Knowledge and information are the basis for creativity. There are numerous creative techniques, which are also classified in many ways (Higgins 1994). In general, a certain type of question or a certain area of  application (such as marketing, product or service development, strategic and decision planning, design, quality management, etc.) often calls for a certain type or a certain group of creativity techniques. Fundamental concepts for all creative techniques are: • The suspension of premature judgement and the lack of filtering of ideas. 19 Use the intermediate impossible. • Create analogies and metaphors, through symbols, etc., by finding similarities between the situation, which we wish to understand and another situation, which we already understand. Build imaginative and ideal situations (invent • the ideal vision). Find ways to make the ideal vision happen. • Relate things or ideas which were previously • unrelated. • Generate multiple solutions to a problem. Main points to increase or encourage creativity in a company are: · To be happy, to have fun · Keep channels of communication open · Trust, failure accepted · Contacts with external sources of information · Independence, initiatives taken · Support participatory decision-making and employees’ contribution · Experiment with new ideas. EXPECTED RESULTS / BENEFITS Creativity, through the generation of ideas with value, is needed in order to solve concrete problems, ease the adaptation to change, optimize the 20 performance of the organization and best practice manufacturing, and changes the attitude of the staff of the organization. Creative thought processes are also important at all stages in the R&D process. Some expected results of the creativity process are: • Innovation through new product and process ideas • Continuous improvement of products or service 21 • Productivity increase • Efficiency • Rapidity • Flexibility • Quality of products or services • High performance CHARACTERISTICS OF PROVIDERS The implementation of creative techniques within work groups, requires the assistance and advise of external consultants. One or two consultants, experts in creative techniques, is normally enough to undertake the implementation process in a company. His/hers job normally consists of  presenting the different techniques and their application method, defining the problem to be studied for the participants, initiating and clarifying the rules of the technique, gathering the necessary data and information to approach the problem, stimulating the generation of ideas of participants, and evaluating the ideas before proceeding to put them in practice. Training of management staff by experts may also be very useful. Management staff must be trained to stimulate creativity in employees, to provide motivation, to facilitate a creative climate and to encourage the use of creative techniques. Managers can also be trained to implement creative techniques by themselves. 22 APPLICATION Creativity processes are used regularly by many private and public sector  organisations of all sorts in manufacturing, services, banking, or  construction companies. Big firms such as Xerox, AT&T, Frito-Lay, as well as car manufacturing firms, software development firms, railroad pharmaceutical firms etc., use creativity techniques to increase efficiency and quality, especially in their research, strategic planning and marketing departments. Creativity techniques may be applied in almost any functional area of the company: strategic planning, corporate business strategy, product development, improvement of services, functional strategy, finance, human resources, marketing, management of collection of information, product design, software design, quality management, etc. TYPES OF FIRMS / ORGANISATIONS CONCERNED Creativity techniques can be implemented by all firms and public organizations that confront with problem solving and focus on innovation in processes, products or services. In case where the implementation of creative techniques is focused on the support of personal creativity, such as to support individual designers work for new product development, or to support individual scientists work in the laboratory, very small firms or a person can implement creative techniques for individuals. 23 In case where the company focus is to increase group creativity and to create environments where a collaborating team works creatively together, the firm must have at least 20 employees, including 3 members as management staff. 24 WHAT CREATIVITY MEANS IN ADVERTISING I once read a quote somewhere that said, "We do not separate advertising from life." Creativity is a very subjective term. Who can really say what is creative, for we all have different opinions on what we individually think is creative. Some people believe creativity is an engrained concept that you are born with it. Other people believe it is a talent that can be learned and taught. I personally believe it is a little of both. The essential elements of creativity are really imagination and inventiveness disciplined by routine skills. Your  imagination is something you are born with, it can be large and wild or it can be small and constrained. Inventiveness is something that can be disciplined, it can be taught and learned with practice and skill. Put those two concepts together and anything is possible. In advertising, agencies live and die by creative communications. Creativity is one of the reasons clients justify advertising and their choice of agencies So what exactly is creative in advertising? Some creative commercials are effective, some effective ads are creative, and other ads are neither  creative nor effective. Creativity and effectiveness ultimately join in the consumer’s minds rather than remain separate. We must then ask, what is efficiency? Well, efficiency of an ad is determined by the correct combination of its impact and retention. Impact being the ability of an ad to attract attention and retention being the ability 25 of an ad to stay on viewers’ minds. We can thus say with certainty that an advertisement needs to be creative to succeed. Its creativity needs to be 26 effective in both its impact and retention. I found the quote at the beginning of the page and thought it was just great. Although creativity in advertising is an important factor, one must remember to not be creative  just for creative sake. The creativity must also be effective. Successful creative strategies result from pinpointing an idea, a nuance, an insight, or a nugget of information gleaned from research or sometime from an intuitive understanding or quickness of human nature. The true role of the strategy is to make that intuitive leap which defines the relationship between the brand and its user. 27 HOW CREATIVITY IS DIFFERENT FROM INNOVATION Creativity versus Innovation  As this is an advertising study on the subject of “Creativity” it is only right there should be some advertising efforts to create greater understanding on behalf of the subject “Creativity” itself. For many the word ‘creativity’ has what may be called a touchy –feely nature to it, not really suitable for  the hard world of business. Yet, mention the word ‘innovation’ and suddenly the act of creating new ideas takes on a more credible resonance in certain quarters, such as the business media and various government-backed development agencies. Professor Simon Majaro of Cranfield School of Management defines innovation in this manner in his book Managing Ideas for Profit (Majaro, 1992): ‘Creativity is the thinking process that helps us generate ideas. Innovation is the practical application of such ideas towards meeting the organization’s objectives in a more effective way.’ But this means all ideas are creative. In reality, many ideas will be rejected. Using the working definition of creativity, it would recognize that, to be ‘creative’, the idea must offer some form of added value. Innovation can instead be defined as the ‘adoption, adaptation, or  implementation by a third party of someone’s creativity (ie an added value product)’. When appraising a painting, one does not say: ‘artist is being 28 innovative.’ Should another artist adopt some element of this work , such as its style, subject matter, materials or techniques used, then the original 29 work can be said to be innovative; it has inspired the application of some creative element of the original work by a third party. Thus, creative thinking in a disciplined manner can play a real role in innovation. “Creativity and innovation are normally complementary activities, since creativity generates the basis of innovation, which, in its development, raises difficulties that must be solved once again; with creativity…It is not possible to conceive innovation without creative ideas, as these are the starting point.” (European Commission 1998).Innovation results when creativity occurs within the right organizational culture. The right organizational culture is one that provides through creativity processes (creative techniques) the possibilities for the development of  personal and group creativity skills. We can define creativity IMT as the establishment of skills by implementing creativity generation techniques. 30 BASICS OF CREATIVITY Creative Thinking Skills Can Be Learned!! What can I do to Increase my creativity?? The first task in becoming more creative is giving you permission to do things creatively. The second is overcoming your  personal blocks to creativity. For some people, being creative involves trying not to be embarrassed by their own ideas; for others, it is a matter of being aware that things can be done in many different ways. Some people are selfaware or confident enough to have fewer inhibitions and can just let their  creative natures work. Surround yourself with people who love and support you and you will be even more creative. Spend time meditating on your own worthiness, reading about other creative people and creative solutions, concentrating on the positive power of your own creative forces - these activities, combined with a belief in your own intuition and creative abilities, will help improve your confidence. Action Steps Here are a few additional things you can do to improve your creativity: • Study books on creative thinking techniques and put them into practice •  Attend courses on creative thinking and put the ideas into practice. 31 • Keep a daily journal  and record your thoughts, ideas, sketches, etc. as soon as you get them. Review your journal regularly and see what ideas can be developed. • Indulge in relaxation activities and sports to give the mind a rest and time for the subconscious to digest information. • Develop an interest in a variety of different things , preferably well away from your normal sphere of work. For example, read comic books or magazines you wouldn't normally get. This keeps the brain busy with new things. It is a common trait of creative people that they are interested in a wide variety of subjects. • Don't work too hard  -you need time away from a problem to be creative after periods of intense focus. It really helps to think of  creativity as a skill or set of skills. By practicing, one can get better  at using them. So whenever you have a chance try and do mundane things in novel ways - it will make them more entertaining and you will get more used to expressing your abilities. Practicing at overcoming irrational inhibitions will also help to improve your  creativity. When you're at a standstill, and you witness somebody with a vital and flowing creative force, it can be intimidating. The thing that's easy to miss when you're caught up in the magic of somebody doing something effortlessly that seems impossible is that it doesn't happen all at once.  Anything can be achieved by breaking it down into its component parts. Creativity requires patience and a willingness to work for a creative 32 outcome rather than simply wait for enlightenment. Still, it is important to creativity to happen. This can be encouraged by setting up an 33 environment that encourages creative output, a comfortable space within which you feel non-threatened and able to create.  A program to improve your personal creativity might include the following steps. 1. First set a measurable goal. Some goals might be:  to generate 10% more solutions within 6 months to come up with an original solution for problem "X" within 2 weeks to practice generating ideas bybrainstorming (for example, "find at least 100 ideas for a new pen")  to find a new and effective way to relate to my children that results in them wanting to spend more time with me. 2. Second, set up criteria to indicate whether or not you have or are reaching your goal. Typical criteria are: a) the ideas are novel (in that particular context) b) the ideas are useful, they solve the problem or meet the challenge c) the ideas can be implemented within an appropriate time and budget 3. Third, read and learn about creativity techniques which are one of  the sections of the Creativity Web. This information can be 34 gathered from books, conferences, other people, software products and the Internet. Spend time with people who you believe are 35 creative and ask them how they did it. There are many paths to creativity. 4. Fourth, surround yourself with people who love and respect you; people who encourage you to take risks. 5. Fifth, celebrate your progress in reaching your creativity goals. 6. Finally, begin thinking of yourself as a creative person. Surround that identity with beliefs about your creative abilities. Learn the skills of creativity, act creatively every opportunity you get and find environments that support creative behavior. Creativity is increased by acknowledging that it exists and by nurturing  it. Create a sensory stimulating environment , increase awareness of that environment and provide sufficient quiet time to allow that ensory stimulation to be translated into external reality ... a poem, a bridge, a meal, a song, a quilt, a business report, a game, a dance, a garden. Flood yourself with information in your chosen area of creativity then deliberately expose yourself to information outside your area. Respect and care for your creativity as you would a child. Attend to your needs, listen to your creative inner voice, and spend time with yourself. Manage stress in your life as much as possible. Practice meditation or some kind of peaceful, relaxing activity such as handwork or quiet exercise. Avoid becoming too entrenched in your  routines. Don't allow your beliefs to distort your perceptions. A useful technique is to deliberately and consciously attempt to integrate opposites 36 at every opportunity within your own mind. Develop the attitude that your  creative work is important even if others do not share your belief; allow 37 such judgmental attitudes to be their problem, not yours. Practice using affirmations and reframing (seeing things from another angle or in another  context) to de-program your self critical habits. Creativity is not a gift of some sort, it is a state of being ("un etat d'ame", as they say in French). Learning a creativity- increasing technique of some sort will give you some tools and help you, but will not automatically change your point of view about yourself and your creativity; your belief  and value systems about creativity and creativity myths must change as well. Creativity and Leadership "Everyone has creative potential, but creative people think they are creative." Self-esteem is one of the most important elements of creativity. People must believe in their ability to develop original ideas and they must continue to believe in themselves after repeated failures. Creativity flourishes in an environment that rewards attempts, as well as successes, and is conducive to failure. People must feel comfortable failing before they will repeatedly take risks or attempt creative approaches. Roger von Oech labels four stages of the creative process: • Explorer . Finding new ideas and resources from which an idea may be built. 38 • Artist. Transforming ideas (gathered by the explorer) into something new. • Judge. Ideas developed by the artist are evaluated and their merits are weighed; suggestions are offered on how they can be improved or further  developed. • Warrior . Implementation of the ideas approved by the judge requiring persistence and determination. Secrets to Creative Problem Solving • Be an optimist • Take your time • Get enough information • Brainstorm by yourself  • Redefine the problem • Plan for results • Break the routine • Make a minus a plus • Don't give up. •  Allow yourself to daydream •  Ask questions • Have a sense of humor  • Tolerate ambiguity 39 CREATIVE FORCES Force-Field Analysis Force-field analysis characterizes the conflicting forces in a situation. The recommended approach to this method is to outline the points involved in 40 problematic situations at the problem exploration stage, followed by recognizing factors likely to help or hinder at the action planning and implementation stages. 1. Members of the group identify and list the driving and restraining forces (perhaps using a suitable brainstorming or brain writing technique) openly discussing their understanding of them. 2. The group leader is representative of the current position as a horizontal line across the middle of the page. The leader will draw all the driving forces as arrows that either pull or push the line upwards, and all the restraining forces as arrows that pull or push the line downwards (see below). Where driving and restraining are paired use arrow thickness to signify strength of impact of a force and arrow length to show how complicated it would be to adapt. It is normally best for the team to reach agreement on these details. 41 3. The diagram should then be used to find as many possible combinations of moving the centre line in the desired direction. Try to: Find ways to strengthen or add positive forces a. Find ways to weaken or remove negative forces  b. Recognize that the negative forces are too strong and abandon the idea. 42 CREATIVE TECHNIQUE “How do you come with a creative idea when faced with a blank sheet of paper?” ‘Easy. Don’t have a blank sheet of   paper.’  Every working day, creative directors are faced with emands to come up with creative solutions to the problems. Some outstanding creative heads may display what is called unconscious competence in appearing to be able to come up with ideas inuitively. There is no magic wand for coming up with ideas, but there are some echniques and process to help being creative. These tecniques, coupled with a knowledge and understanding of the creative process -- with its five stages  Information  Incubation  Illumination  Integration,  Illustration -- will help considerably to improve one’s creative abilities. CREATIVE RANGE: Whenever faced with a well-defined task, such as coming up eith an idea for a launch product or phottocall, establish a ‘Creative Range’. Pose what is called ‘the Safe Bet’ questin: ‘What is the very least, the safest, most 43 conservative idea that can be used?’ Then check ‘ what is the most outrageous idea that could solve the problem?’ so as to create the Extreme Option. By these two question , intial limiting parameters are created. The above can be visualised as below, Safe Bet Extreme Option Option THE CREATIVE RANGE  After creating the Creative Range of the situation see, ‘What further ideas can you come up and then jot downall the ideas that come to mind. Thus, by establishing the ‘Creative Range, you have already taken the pressure off yourself and at the very least you have a safe option to fall back on, and more importantly you ar harnessing the incremental nature of the creative process. This also helps to suspend judgements because you are not automatically screening every idea but merely filing in the ‘Creative Range’. 44 45 SNAKES AND LADDERS: Snakes and Ladders is good technique that helps use of the incremental nature of creativity to quickly establish an overview of a situation,identifying strengths and weakness, and to establish tactics to improve the positives and reduce the negatives of a task at hand. Draw a grid on a sheet of paper to represent the squares of a snakes and ladders board. Imagine the objective of the task is at the top left-hand corner on the winning square. You are the start, at the bottom left-hand corner. Draw five short ladders and five long snakes. The objective can be anything from: ‘ How can I improve my creativity’ and so on… This is an excellent way of getting a handle on everything you need to consider. It also facilitates incremental to\hought as you come up with deas. . 46 Below is give one example of how to launch a product creatively Personality  of MD  Lack of  Brand  Credibility  Lack of Brand  Awareness  Media  Apath  y  Interesting  Photograp  hy  Forthcoming  EventsExhibition  Competitor  Activity  Limited  Budget  News value  of Story  Timing  of lanch  47 Group Techniques to Generate Creativity Brainstorming - Groups generate as many ideas as possible, listing ideas on a chart so that group members may modify them or combine them to create additional ideas. Criticism is not allowed during brainstorming, nor  is evaluation of ideas. Storyboarding - An adaptation of brainstorming, but it is primarily nonverbal so articulate group members are not able to dominate the Finish Start process. Storyboarding uses a process similar to parliamentary procedure to gain support of an idea before it can remain part of the discussion. Storyboarding allows group members to produce data and solutions to problems generating ideas off of previous suggestions. Nominal Group Technique - Focuses attention on individual members' ideas by having members write down their ideas/solutions on their own 48 before sharing them with the group. Ideas are all recorded, everyone votes to prioritize ideas, and then discussion is held on only the top ones before another vote is taken. This technique allows everyone to participate and contribute ideas before the group reaches its decision. Roadblocks to Creativity Thinking there is one right answer  - Many of us have the tendency to stop looking for alternative right answers after the first answer has been found. Often it is the third, fifth or tenth right answer that is what we need to solve a problem in an innovative way. "That's not logical" - Logic is an important creative thinking tool when you are searching for ideas, however, excessive logical thinking can short circuit your creative process. 49 Following the rules - You often have to break out of pattern to discover  another. Being practical - Practical people know how to get into an open frame of  mind, listen to their imagination and build on the ideas they find there. Avoiding ambiguity - Too much specificity can stifle your imagination! Being afraid of making a mistake - Errors are a sign that you are diverging from the norm. If you are not failing every now and then it is a sign you are not being very innovative. 50 DREAM TEAM: A FRAME WORK FOR GREAT CREATIVE PERFORMANCE Dream Team is a list of rules of creative teamwork that form the foundation of all the methods. Whichever technique you’re using, Dream Team rules is like a framework whenever you’re working as a team. They provide creative space to let imagination fly and launch all the team members on their way to original ideas. Dream team Tools in the company would keep the playful atmosphere, in order to refine their tem-working skills and build up creativity. They are both rules for the top-quality creative performance and strategies that can be used as highly effective methods of communication in meetings. 51 DREAM TEAM RULES: • Switch On All Five Senses The best ideas take time. The more one thinks about the product, analyses it, examines it from every angle - plays with it, in other words the more freely great ideas will flow. Get the information you can get hold of  which can be used as triggers. Feel the product to activate all your  senses. The key factor is that physically coming face to face with the product itself will stimulate all five senses and have positive and inspiring effect on the process of generating ideas. ‘Creative without strategy is called Art. Creative with strategy is called Advertising.’  • Set Clear Goals The goal and solution are like question and answer. Only a good question can give a satisfactory answer. What Does A Goal Achieve?  The goal is in clear view and acts a focal point, leading to a clearly defined objective. It helps to prevent chaos and time-wasting discussions. Fine - Tuning the Goal Saves Time and Nervous Energy Of course it isn’t possible to achieve a clear goal and straightforward definition of the goal at the first attempt. Often it is only while you are formulating the goal that you realize that brief does not describe the product fully, that the target group is not defined precisely enough or that there is no clear strategic positioning. 52 •  Always Separate The Ideas Phase From The Evaluation Phase: Ideas need imagination more than knowledge, so it’s important to keep the stage when ideas are being generated strictly separate from the stage when they’re being evaluated. In this stage people should set their  imaginations to roam free, and no limits to be set on creative gameplaying. •  Avoid Idea Killers How would you like your ideas to be received – Sabotaged, Sniggered at or simply Ignored? Idea killers have one thing in common: they always work!! Everything from verbal stun-gun to the wry twitch at the corner of  somebody’s mouth is capable of trampling down the first little shoot of an idea. Idea Killers in Your Own Head Often the killer phases of others do less damage than the little voice inside our own heads, whispering, “ Forget it, it doesn’t work”!  Our own ideas killers are particularly are deadly because we often are not conscious of  them. They are the product exaggerated expectations we have of  ourselves, or of the belief that we have to come up with ideas that are brilliant from the word they go—a strategy almost certainly doomed to failure. 53 The 10 Best Responses to Idea-Killer Phrases  Nothing will come out of that. Not if you just dismiss the idea  Let’s just wait and see what happens What, until everyone else has overtaken us?   That doesn’t work!! But it’s great idea  We do things differently!! So, no change there  This mail shot idea doesn’t work!! But what if…?  That’s ridiculous!! So what it is  We’ll come back to your idea. All right. When?  The client will never accept that!! Give it a chance  What’s so original about that? The fact that no one else has thought of it  Anyone could come up with that. Exactly • Use Doodles To Visualize Your Ideas 54 Your ideas must be visual if it’s really going to take root in others people’s heads. Often it only takes a quick scribble, a few lines to bring the idea to life. Think about it: your ideas are mostly internal images that only you can see. A doodle releases the idea from your head and so raises your chances of enthusing others. Three Arguments In Favor Of Doodles  Doodles are an essential means of communication, enabling the others in the team to see, and therefore understand, the images in your head.  Doodles reinforce the associations of internal images and so trigger  new ideas new playful way.  Doodles enables teams to develop raw ideas in gradual stages and so prevent good ideas from being killed off prematurely. • Look For The Positive In Other People’s Ideas If you want to promote the flow of ideas, look for the positive aspects of other people’s ideas. Even if you don’t get anywhere with an idea first, put forth the question, ‘What’s in it that we can use?’ There will always be some aspect that can be build on; replace your inner  CRITIC with an inner CREATIVE and exploit all possibilities from this new perspective. Take the idea’s good point and improve it by developing and cultivating the seed of the idea. This strategy makes flexible and opens new perspective. One can learn to think What if…?  And this will develop in time into an inner attitude, which will open doors to new ideas instead of  closing them. 55 Thinking What If…? What would be the advantage of losing your job tomorrow?  Anything that looks like a catastrophe at first may reveal a whole, surprising series of positive aspects on a second look. Develop the play of  ideas a little more and losing your job opens the door to new freedom, new opportunities, and a new future. Thinking “What if …? Is a conceptual switch, a change of perspective? You look at the very same thing from a different perspective. And you can be sure that there are hundreds of other standpoints that you’ve never  envisaged • Make Mistakes And Have Fun Doing It  “To swear off making mistakes is very easy; all you have to do is swear off having ideas” Mistakes are basic learning principle, accompanying all great discoveries and often lending to brilliant ideas. Get rid of the compulsion to come up with nothing but good ideas that are ready to use! Say everything that occurs to you, no matter how silly it sounds – it could be the raw material for the brilliant idea. So Make Mistakes & Enjoy it!!  A Fool’s Freedom The greatest fear of many people is making mistakes and looking silly I front of other people. Learn to live with this fear, by making a fool of  56 you deliberately but staying in control. Put yourself in a ridiculous position by making an abstruse suggestion, and exaggerate it to the point where you have to laugh at yourself. By doing so you can achieve a degree of inner freedom that allows you to leave familiar  paths behind and let your imagination run free. • Develop Your Sense Of Humour  Humour is the healthy way of creating a ‘distance’ between one’s self and the problem, a way of standing back and looking at a problem with perspective!! Humour reveals new aspects. Humour disarms, relaxes, and releases happiness hormones, it’s also infectious, and so it’s one of the most important creative tools for teams looking for great ways to communicate ideas. Don’t just make jokes at other people’s expense, however. Instead, look out for a really funny topic in meetings – yourself. Learn to laugh at yourself. Anyone who can see what’s absurd and laughable about him gains a new freedom and gives the team a creative boost. • Select Ideas Creatively  Sometimes the really interesting ideas are simply eliminated or talked out during the evaluation phase. Anything unusual, wild, uncomfortable, or  harder to translate into action, gets dropped. At this stage, you need to make new ideas from old, in order to save potentially great initiatives. Three Ways to Evaluate and Select Ideas: In the final analysis, there are three ways to reach a decision about which of the basic ideas should be worked up: 57  Democratically: - The team leader invites every member of the meeting to give a score to the ideas they think are best and deserve to be worked up for the presentation. The idea with most points wins.  Use the Brief as a Yardstick: - The main criteria from the client’s brief are used as the yardstick for assessing which ideas have reached the objectives.  Creative Director or Art Director: - Depending on the agency culture, it is of course possible that the creative director or the art director will be the one to decree which of the starter ideas will developed for the presentation • Turning Ideas Into Action  Art Direction brings an idea to life, determining whether it gives the campaign the boost that it needs or weakens it by going off on the wrong course. To Decide the Best Course of Action  What does the basic idea need, for the solution to hit the bull’s eye?  What change could give the idea an emotional kick?  What weak points does the idea have, what seems implausible? How could it be improved?  Is the idea to the point? What works better?  What substitute or alternate can be used to improve the idea? 58   Add new elements  Change a copy  Develop new headlines  What could be done to make idea so appealing that people will want to see it more than once? What results Can You Expect From The Dream Team Rules?  They produce a bigger catch of valuable ideas.  They give the team a creative boost.  They build structured freedom and prevent sessions of  destructive chaos.  They foster faith in the team and enhance motivation.  They allow a brilliant ‘group brain’ to develop.  They promote all sorts of fun and increase individual creative potential. They save time, money and nervous energy in the hunt for ideas. 59 KICKSTART CATALOGUE What is Kickstart Catalogue? Kickstart Catalogue offers strategies likely to promote great ideas for  campaigns. There are no discussions within the catalogue itself about what is good or bad advertising, nor are the tips on how to improve layout or copy. A Toolkit for the Brain Systematic analysis of the work produced by creative reveals certain patterns and strategies in their thinking. Some creative strength lies in analogy, while others always try to induce a change of perspective and others develop ideas by turning every day’s situating on their heads. One thing is clearing every case even the best creative use only the part the spectrum of possible ways of thinking. If your strengths lie, for example in the filed of metaphor or comparative juxtaposition, then you probably don’t combine or reframe things very often. This catalogue is a tool box containing an inexhaustible supply of new brain tools which one can use to expand their own strategies. This is incredibly useful when you are looking for new unusual campaign ideas for the press, TV and cinemas, events, promotions, packaging, web banners, brochures or direct mailing. 60  Without Words “A picture is worth a thousand words”  The object of this little exercise is to display the central advertising statement about the product at a glance and without using the words. It’s the best to start by working out a goal with single-minded proposition. For  Example: ‘How can you show without words that the new sports car  accelerates faster than any other car?’ Here, first look for pictorial way to represent “Acceleration”. The key question is: ‘What are the key features of “acceleration” and how can it be represented pictorially, without words?’ Think of the era of silent movies and how ingenious the actors had to be to convey complex situation and feelings without words. Jokes which don’t need words are another fruitful source of non-verbal stories to tell. 61  Mixing & Matching  The goal of Kickstart questions is to represent the central advertising statement clearly and convincing by combining or associating different things. This method of developing visual advertising messages is one of  the most frequently used today and offers infinite possibilities. Try it for  yourself- there are no limits in your imagination. Combination as Creative Strategy One of the most important creative strategies is to combine two concepts or objects that were previously unconnected, so as to produce something completely new. The result should be a simple, unambiguous advertising message. Combine elements in such a way so as to make the benefit immediately apparent: the product, parts of  the product, people from the target group, the product’s raw material, the original problem, the benefit, the context, plants, packaging, or people who have nothing to do with. The less things you combine have to do with each other originally, the more exciting and surprisingly the result will be.  Comparative Juxtaposition Comparative Juxtaposition such as ‘before and after’ are undoubtedly some of the classics of advertising. To tap into new sources of inspiration for comparisons, one can use the method to compose typical pairs of  opposites, like ‘before and after’, which can then be used to stimulate advertising ideas. List of Pairs of Opposites: • • Old-Fashioned- Fashionable 62  • • Blindness- Vision • • Ugly- Attractive • • Mass produced- Exclusive • • Past- Future, etc. Exaggeration Exaggeration in the depiction of features of the product, problem situations or solutions can grab the viewer’s attention and emphasizes the benefit. Use distortion and overstatement to develop great ideas; with stating clear  message and simple, to avoid any misunderstanding that would lead the target group to make any negative associations. Don’t have any qualms about exaggerating things, but do it with a wink so that the credibility of  your message doesn’t suffer.  Provocation & Shock Tactics  Attention is in short supply nowadays, so if you want people to notice your  campaign, be provocative! Provoking means challenging, inciting, stimuling. But be careful: being seen is not the same as being looked at. Provocation takes you across a frontier, but it requires skill and will only lend you to your goal if you think about what you’re doing: for example, drawing attention to social issues, or warning people of dangers.   A Change of Perspective 63  A change of perspective is first of all an excellent way to generate a creative impulse during the process of looking for ideas,and secondly it can be used in advertising to show the target group new or interesting perspectives on the product. There are two ways to use the Change of Perspective as a creative tool. First, they can be used spatially, by showing objects or situations from unusual viewpoints: bird’s eye view, extreme close-up, extreme distance, detached from space and time. From outer space, or simply from possible angle. The second way is to imagine yourself leaving your body and slipping inside other people, objects or animals. Many creative symbolically take on other identities to get a creative boost from the new view point of view. For example: Walt Disney, used to “become” the figure he was currently drawing, going so far as to speak, gesture and stand like the character in his imagination.  Symbols & Signs  A symbol is a visual image that stands for an object, a concept or a situation. The drawing of a stylized car next to a spanner represents a car  workshop, a cigarettes with a line across it means “ No Smoking”. The meaning of Some Signs derives from a casual connectionSmoke is a sign of fire. Another function of many symbols is to convey information that can’t be expressed in words.   Absurd, Surreal, Bizarre 64 Plunging into the world of the absurd, the surreal and the bizarre is fasc fa scin ina ati ting ng in it itse self lf,, an and d it al also so op open ens s up a ri ric ch so sour urce ce of id idea eas. s. Contradiction, Contrad iction, exaggeration, exaggeration, distort distortion, ion, fantas fantasizing izing and zany ideas are the tools one need to create something absurd or surreal. 65  Change the Product   Altering the produc productt means changin changing g its shape shape,, cutting it into pieces, adding things, subtracting things, bending it, squeezing it, bringing it to life, blowing it up, making it transparent, transplanting it to another body or  letting it rot. There are endless possibilities of changing it physically or  giving it a new meaning. Talk non-sense and really take off. You can’t  judge whether whether what what you have have is good good or bad   Alternative Uses Playful approaches approaches to the idea of finding new uses for the product. Where the pro produc ductt co could uld be us used ed,, ou outs tside ide of its or origi igina nall co conte ntext xt? ? Wh What at ne new w situations could it be put to emphasize the benefit, highlight a feature through thro ugh exa exagge ggeratio ration, n, or rev reveal eal a new perspectiv perspective e or an une unexpe xpected cted function  Double Meanings This refers to visual and as well as non verbal double meanings. Most visual ambiguity is based on optical illusions which are a playful way to attract the viewer’s attention. Most verbal ambiguity, on the other hand, makes its point by wordplay or suggestions, leading the reader along a path pa th tha thatt us usua ually lly en ends ds in an al alte terna rnativ tive e mea meanin ning. g. Bo Both th ty type pes s inv involv olve e people playfully by inviting them to see both meanings in a context that makes sense. 66  Play With Words Playing with words means making pictures with them. Its an invitation to expe ex peri rime ment nt wi with th ty type pe,, so th that at th the e co copy py tu turn rns s in into to pi pict ctur ures es an and d th the e typog typ ogra raphy phy be beco comes mes the mes messa sage ge.. Tr Try y to br brea eak k do down wn the bo boun unds ds of  normal copy to make the content leap out. Then style your words like a clue in a crossword puzzle. This will help you to scrutinize your Ad copy as a source of ideas about design (preferably fun ones) and present the message even more clearly and effectively. 67 LET’S TAKE A BREAK…  A group of carpenters are at work. However, their attention is divided  between their work... ...and a TV set, where a man hanging  over a chasm is clinging on to a woman for dear life. "Pakde rehna," the woman screams. "Chodna nahin," the man pleads. The workers watch... the couple on screen keep up the "Pakde rehna-chodna nahin"  strain for an incredibly long period. 68 Fed up with the melodrama, one of the carpenters gets up in disgust. "Arre, yeh bhi koi film hai!"  he exclaims. Instantly, the man on screen  plummets. Surprised, the carpenter peers at the can of  Fevicol he has picked up. Slowly, he turns... Wanting to continue with his work, he walks over to the TV  and picks up a can of Fevicol   placed on top of it. ...and eyes another TV, atop which a tub of Fevicol is  perched. The man on screen is still dangling over the chasm. "Chodna nahi..."  Headline: Fevicol Ka Jodd Hai Tootega Nahin…  Agency: O&M (National Winning Award) 69 Client: Pidilite Industries 70 Anti- Smoking Campaign 71 Best Social Message Award 72 Conclusion:  The foundation for creativity is in individual, and so these methods and techniques are to be taken as tools and stimuli, to give you more freedom of choice and so enhance and liberate your creative skills.  There is no one right way to be creative. Creativity is a living process with many possible strategies, and the creative outcomes to which they lead will depend on the context and the individual.  If one person has learnt how to develop really creative ideas, it stands to reason that everyone else can.  Creativity demands abundance, which is why the objective is to increase the possible choices, and so improve flexibility.  Don’t confuse the menu with the meal: theoretical knowledge will do nothing to increase your creativity. Try the methods out, experience will nourish you and become a part of your strategies in future.  If something doesn’t work for you, stop using it and try something else.  Have fun! 73 ARTICLES “ What’s The Future Of Advertising”  After Hours Correspondent DNA Tuesday, November 08, 2005 It cannot be denied that as one of the most rapidly growing professions in India - advertising - is undergoing a lot of change. To tap these changes, to incorporate consumer and media perspectives, and to celebrate their  60-year existence in the industry, the Advertising Agencies Association of  India (AAAI) is organising a three-day symposium discussing the future of  advertising in India. Primarily focusing on traditional and contemporary methods in advertising, the symposium will include consumer reactions and influences with respect to the profession. “Predominantly, we are trying to identify the current challenges in advertising and the different ways to meet them. The industry per say is witnessing a lot more ways to reach out to their  consumers like MMS, blogs, the internet, and ad guys need to catch up on these new techniques,” says Colvyn Harris, CEO, JWT India, who is also one of the keynote speakers during the event. Targeted towards the burgeoning and existing advertising, media and marketing professionals, the symposium will examine the future consumers, communication challenges and new media. “The industry today needs a thrust and much greater recognition in the international 74 scenario. Though it has been advancing rapidly, there needs to be a lot more effort to speed up the growth,” says ad man Piyush Pandey, who will 75 be addressing the event with respect to positioning of advertising beyond boundaries. The symposium will attract a galaxy of eminent speakers (including the minister of state for tourism Renuka Chowdhury and ad guru Prahlad Kakkar) who will share their unique perspectives on the future world in the areas of connecting with audiences. “Agencies Need To Think Creatively” PTI [FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 11, 2005 MUMBAI: Advertising agencies in India should come out of their traditional styles and start thinking "out of the box" in order to push the creative frontiers to new heights, Piyush Pandey, a well-known advertising expert said on Friday. "We have to struggle to see that the good ideas are accepted by the clients, and see the day of the light and eventually converted into a real creative Ad," Pandey, Executive Chairman and National Creative Director  Ogilvy said at a symposium, organised by Advertising Agencies  Association of India (AAAI) here. "Instead of convincing the clients, we always make excuses that the client does not accept the new idea or say why tinkle around with the idea that is working, as sales figures are doing well," he said. "This very attitude has to be changed and the creative people should come out with ideas that touch the psyche of a common man and see to it that they convince their  clients about the non-conventional ideas and give their gut feeling a chance", Pandey said. He was of the opinion that the advertising community should develop a habit of not seeing beyond the obvious, and starts seeing beyond the 30 76 yard circle in cricket field, "so that we could clear that and see the boundary lines". "We, as creative people, should always do constant soul searching to do things better and in a different manner and not think of any framework and boundaries to restrict our  creativity", he said and gave a recent example of the Hutch ad's with the `Chhota Recharge' offer. “Piyush Pandey Adds Another Feather To His Cap” The Team (13 December 2002 12:30 pm) MUMBAI: There's no stopping Ogilvy & Mather group president and national creative director  Piyush Pandey who is moving from strength to strength. Pandey has bagged yet another international award. This time he has been judged the 'Creative Person of The Year Asia Pacific for 2002,' by Hong Kong based Media Magazine. The award comes in recognition of his contribution to the advertising industry and efforts to raise the creative standards across the industry. “It’s an achievement for us as well as (for) India. We are happy that India has made its mark at yet another global forum.  And we're sure many more Indians will walk this floor," Pandey was quoted as saying in The Times of India. Ogilvy & Mather has bagged quite a few awards this year: the most memorable one being the 77 Gold Lion in the press and poster category for its `Second-hand smoke kills' anti-smoking campaign for the Cancer Patients Aid Association (CPAA); and silver for the `overloaded bus' spot for Fevicol, at the Cannes Lions, International Advertising Festival held in June this year. The antismoking ad also won a silver Pencil at the One Show 2002 and a bronze at the Clio Awards 2002.Similarly, Pidilite Industries Limited --- the makers of Fevicol ---- has won several international advertising awards. 78