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Different Leadership Styles And The Effectiveness Of These.

Human Resources Management By Dr Tahirjaved




D erent ea ers p styles and the effectiveness of these leadership approach Presented By Doctor Tahir Javed 04/29/09 [email protected] 1 A Leadership Story • • • A group of workers and their leaders are set a task  of clearing a road through a dense jungle on a remote island to get to the coast where an estuary provides a perfect site for a port. The leaders organise the labour into efficient units and monitor the distribution and use of  capital assets – progress is excellent. The leaders continue to monitor 04/29/09 d ti t @ h 2 A Leadership Story • • • • • Then, one day amidst all the hustle and bustle and activity, one person climbs up a nearby tree. The person surveys the scene from the top of the tree. And shouts down to the assembled group below… “Wrong Way!” (Story adapted from Stephen Covey (2004) “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People” Simon & Schuster). “Management is doing thi i ht l hi i 04/29/09 d ti t @ h 3 Leadership Attributes • Leadership Attributes Emotional        04/29/09 Ethical Rational Trust Confidence Respect Commitment Character Courage Passion      d ti Communicator General Knowledge Technical Skills Example Risk Taker t @ h     Honesty Integrity Equitable Moral 4 Types of Leadership Style Autocratic: Leader makes decisions without reference to anyone else High degree of dependency on the leader Can create de-motivation and alienation of staff  May be valuable in some types of  business where decisions need to 04/29/09 be made quickly d ti t and @ h decisively •  –  –  –  – 5 Types of Leadership Style • Democratic: Encourages decision making from different perspectives – leadership may be emphasised throughout the organisation Consultative: process of  consultation before decisions are taken Persuasive: Leader takes decision and seeks to persuade others that the decision is correct d ti 04/29/09 t @ h •  –  – 6 Types of Leadership Style • Democratic:  –  –  –  – 04/29/09 May help motivation and involvement Workers feel ownership of the firm and its ideas Improves the sharing of ideas and experiences within the business Can delay decision making d ti t @ h 7 Types of Leadership Style • Laissez-Faire:  – ‘Let it be’ – the th e leadership responsibilities are shared by all Can be very useful in businesses where creative ideas are important Can be highly motivational, as people have control over their working life Can make coordination and decision making time-consuming and lacking in overall direction 04/29/09 d ti t @ h 8 Relies on good team work   –  –  – Types of Leadership Style • • • • Paternalistic: Leader acts as a ‘father figure’ Paternalistic leader makes decision but may consult Believes in the need to support staff  04/29/09 d ti t @ h 9 Change Leadership • • • • The most challenging aspect of  business is leading and managing change The business environment is subject to fast-paced economic and social change Modern business must adapt and be flexible to survive Problems in leading change stem mainly from human resource 04/29/09 d ti t @ h 10 Change Leadership • • Leaders need to be aware of how change impacts on workers: Series of self-esteem states identified by Adams et al and cited by Garrett  –  – 04/29/09 Adams, J. Hayes, J. and Hopson, B.(eds) (1976) Transition: understanding and managing change personal change London, Martin Robertson Garrett, V. (1997) Managing Change in School leadership for the 21st century Brett Davies and Linda Ellison, London, Routledge d ti t @ h 11 Change Leadership 1. Immobilisation – as rumours of the change circulate, the individual feels some sense of  shock and possible disbelief – so much so that they deem it worthy of doing nothing. 2. Minimisation: As the change becomes clearer, people try to fit fi t in the change with their own personal position and may try to believe that it will not affect them. 3. Depression: as reality begins to dawn staff may feel alienated and angry, feelings of a lack of control of events overtake people and they feel depressed as they try to reconcile what is happening with their own personal situation. 4. Acceptance/letting go: The lowest point in self-esteem finally sees people starting to accept the inevitable. Fear of the future is a feature of this stage. 5. Testing out: Individuals begin to interact with wi th the change, they start to ask questions to see how they might work with the change. 6. Search for meaning: Individuals begin to work with wi th the change and see how they might be able to make the change work for them t hem – self esteem begins to rise. 7. Internalisation: the change is understood and adopted within the indivi dual’s own understanding – they now know how to work with w ith it and feel a renewed sense of confidence and self esteem. 04/29/09 d ti t @ h 12 Theories of Leadership 04/29/09 d ti t @ h 13 Theories of Leadership • • Trait theories: A Trait Approach(19001950s): Leaders are born, not made. The focus of  early leadership research was to find personal traits that distinguished leaders from followers Is there a set of characteristics that determine a good leader? Personality? Dominance and personal presence? Charisma? Self confidence? Achievement? a clear vision? 04/29/09 Ability to formulate d ti t @ h  –  –  –  –  –  – 14 Theories of Leadership • Trait theories: Are such characteristics inherently gender biased? Do such characteristics produce good leaders? Is leadership more than  just bringing about change? Does this imply that leaders are born not bred?  –  –  –  – 04/29/09 d ti t @ h 15 Criticism The search was not successful--100s of  studies lead to the conclusion that there was no such set of personal characteristics that by themselves distinguished leaders from non-leaders. A few traits such as above average intelligence, responsibility, self  confidence, and persistence were associated with leaders, but they are not sufficient explanations. Later studies of leadership characteristics led to the conclusion that there were a few general traits that were associated with effective leadership such as self04/29/09 d ti t @ h confidence, stress tolerance, emotional 16 • • Theories of Leadership • Behavioural: Imply that leaders can be trained – focus on the way of doing things Structure based behavioural theories – focus on the leader instituting structures – task  orientated Relationship based behavioural theories – focus on the development and maintenance of  orientated 04/29/09 relationships d ti – process t @ h •  –  – 17 Theories of Leadership • • • Contingency Theories: Leadership as being more flexible – different leadership styles used at different times depending on the circumstance. Suggests leadership is not a fixed series of characteristics that can be transposed into different contexts But the thorny questions are what traits or styles with what situations What are the basic situations? What are the basic styles? 04/29/09 d ti t @ h • 18 Conclusions for Contingency Theory In high-control situations, task-oriented leaders are more effective than relationsoriented leaders. In moderate-control situations, relationsoriented leaders are more effective than task-oriented leaders. In low-control situations, task-oriented leaders are more effective than relationsoriented leaders. Avoid situations where you are likely to fail. Match your leadership style with the appropriate situation; seek situations 04/29/09 d ti t @ h • • • • • 19 • Adoption of Theories of  Leadership May depend on:  –  –  –  –  –  – 04/29/09 Type of staff  History of the business Culture of the business Quality of the relationships Nature of the changes needed Accepted norms within the institution d ti t @ h 20 Theories of Leadership • Transformational:  – • Widespread changes to a business or organisation Requires:  –  –  –  –  – 04/29/09 Long term strategic planning Clear objectives Clear vision Leading by example – walk the walk  Efficiency of systems and processes d ti t @ h 21 Theories of Leadership • Invitational Leadership: Improving the atmosphere and message sent out by the organisation Focus on reducing negative messages sent out through the everyday actions of  the business both externally and, crucially, internally Review internal processes to reduce these Build relationships and sense of  belonging and identity with the organisation – that gets communicated to customers, c ustomers, 04/29/09 etc. d ti t @ h 22  –  –  –  – Theories of Leadership • Transactional Theories:  –  –  –  – 04/29/09 Focus on the management of the organisation Focus on procedures and efficiency Focus on working to rules and contracts Managing current issues and problems d ti t @ h 23 Factors Affecting Style • Leadership style may be dependent on various factors:  –  –  –  –  – 04/29/09 Risk - decision making and change initiatives based on degree of risk involved Type of business – creative business or supply driven? How important change is – change for change’s sake? Organisational culture – may be long embedded and difficult to change Nature of the task – needing cooperation? Direction? Structure? d ti t @ h 24 Conclusion “The most effective leaders make no demands, they just define and communicate the course, provide resources, and get in front of the team”. Effectiveness Leader effectiveness depends on the appropriate matching of  leadership behavior with the situation. 04/29/09 d ti t @ h 25 1. Effecti Effectivene veness ss depends depends upon upon matching leadership behavior style with the maturity of the group in a specific situation. 2. Rememb Remember er knowing knowing and doing doing are different things. 3. Leaders Leaders must must develop develop flexibi flexibility lity to change style. 4. Matching Matching style style and and situation situation is is not the only leadership role; group development is another important role, that is, moving the group to readiness and responsibility is also an leadership 04/29/0 9 d trole. i t @ h 26 Behavioural Leadership Approach (Michigan) 1. JOB-CENTRED LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR Attempts to build work group performance by paying attention to the efficient completion of the task. Primary emphasis is on the task  2. EMPLOYEE-CENTRED EMPLOYEE-CENT RED LEADERSHIP BEHAVIOUR Attempts to build work group performance by paying attention to 04/2the 9/ 09 d ti t @ human aspects ofh the group. • • 27