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Enzymes In Detergent Industry




ENZYMES USED IN CLEANING Pushneet Sahdra  Tejaswita Sachdeva CONTENTS: • History • Introduction • Understanding enzymes • How it works? • Work use areas • Production of enzymes • Composition of an enzyme detergent • Protein versus genetic engineered enzymes • Detergent enzymes   PROTEASES(SEBRITEBP)   AMYLASES(SEBRITEBA AND SEBRITEA)  LIPASES(SEBRITEL)  CELLULASES(SEBRITECOLOR) • Miscellaneous detergent enzymes • Enzymes formulation • Production of enzyme based detergents • Enzyme stabilization • Application of enzyme based detergents • Benefits of enzymes • Conclusions • Bibliography What is an enzyme? picture 1 picture 2 Enzymes are proteins, composed of hundred of amino-acids, which are produced by living organisms. They are responsible for a number of reactions and biological activities in plants, animals, human beings and micro-organisms. They are found in the human digestive system to break down carbohydrates (sugars), fats or proteins present in food. The smaller pieces can be absorbed into the blood stream. Each enzyme is a made of a sequence of amino acids (like pearl on a string, picture 1) folded into a unique three-dimensional structure that determines the function of the enzyme. Even the slightest change in the sequence of the amino acids can alter the shape and function of the enzyme. Only a small part of the enzyme participates in the catalysis of biochemical reactions: the active site (picture 2). Enzymes are therefore very specific (e.g. a cellulose can only degrade cellulose). Enzymes are essential for all metabolic processes, but are not themselves living materials. They are distinguishable from other proteins because they are known as biological catalysts (substances which speed up reactions but which do not get used up themselves). UNDERSTANDING ENZYMES Enzymes are proteins created by living cells that exist in organisms such as plants, animals and bacteria and are used to digest waste. When added to organic material like dirt, grease and oil, they immediately go to work breaking down the organic material within these substances. This natural “dust to dust” process that constantly occurs in our environment keeps waste material from overrunning us. The four  basic enzymatic systems are those that break down fats and greases (lipase); proteins (protease); cellulose such as wood, cotton and paper (cellulase); and carbohydrates and starches (amylase). Dirt has layers of fine film composed of “substrate” such as grease, oils, fats, bacteria, germs, dust mites, nonorganic material and organic microorganisms. These films are bonded to each other and to the surface by amino and fatty acids (organic acids composed of proteins, fats or fatty oils). Most cleaners emulsify some of these dirt films but may not break down the lower levels held together by amino and fatty acids. Usually the top layers of the films are removed but some of the lower levels are left to collect bacteria. As a result, re-soiling can occur much faster. HOW THEY WORK When activated, enzymes attack or digest the amino and fatty acids that bond the films of dirt together. They also emulsify them so they can be completely removed from the surface. Researchers believe that in the activation process, when the substrate and enzymes come in contact with each other, the enzymes physically curl and twist—in what is called a “conformational change.” This physical change initiates the contact between the enzyme and substrate which is necessary to “catalyze” the reaction. A catalyst is a substance that speeds or slows a chemical reaction without being involved in the reaction itself. Put another way, enzymes are che mical catalysts that accelerate the natural biodegrading, or breaking down, of organic substrate, which comprises most soils. Enzymes dissolve and break down protein and organic matter, diminishing odors caused by staining agents such as urine, feces, vomit, pet odors, spoiled foods and mildew. Enzymes are derived from living organisms and are harmless to humans, animals, marine life and general ecology. They are non-toxic, non-irritating, non-gaseous, non-flammable, non-pathogenic and typically safe to use. There are thousands of different enzymes, each having specific, individual characteristics. Since an enzyme that breaks down proteins (protease) will not react on fats or oils, and effective enzymatic cleaning system must contain enough different classes and types of enzymes to assure proper catalytic reaction. In concentrated form, this greatly speed up the natural “dust to dust” process. One way to demonstrate the effectiveness of enzyme digesters is to mix warm water and the enzyme product in a small cup (per recommended dilution ratio). Then place a few pieces of dry cat food into the cup. After 10 to 15 minutes, the cat food will be totally dissolved. This breakdown of protein will demonstrate, and help you more fully understand, how the chemical works on other microscopic bacteria and proteins. WORK USE AREAS Drain Openers. Follow label for correct mixing instructions, then pour into clogged drains Always start by working on lower level floors drains first. If your workers start at the upper levels, the dislodged and dissolved protein will further plug lower level plumbing. It is best to use drain openers at night or over a weekend to give the enzyme several hours to do its job. Enzymes are not fast acting like acid-type drain openers and they require a few hours to work properly; however, they are much safer for workers and plumbing. Carpets. Enzymes work well for blood stain removal and they are very effective in reducing (or in most cases, eliminating) odors caused by urine, vomit and other organic-related odors. When odors are in carpet backing, use a carpet syringe and inject 1 ounce of undiluted enzymes through the backing onto the sub-floor. Several injections are required to cover a large area. Each injection should cover a 3-foot diameter area. Enzymes can be used on all other water-safe fabrics that contain odor or stains caused by the same organic matter that also stain carpeting. Restrooms. When mopping, mix enzymes with warm water to the correct dilution ratio and mop floors. Do not rinse floors, but air dry, allowing the enzymes time to react with bacterial matter. Enzymes will be absorbed into the floor mortar joints, allowing deep odor removal. Remember that you cannot use an enzyme digester at the same time that a disinfectant cleaner is applied. The residue of the disinfectant will kill the live organisms of the enzymes. Use one or the other—never both digester and disinfectant together. You can also spray enzymes on and a round urinals and other odor-producing fixtures. Regular  applications of enzymes will eliminate the source of the odor. When spraying, use a stream, not a mist. Enzymes applied as a mist can easily be inhaled into the lungs. Enzymes are living organisms and could cause medical problems if inhaled. Cost Effectiveness. Enzymes are not costly; however, care should be taken to correctly use these products. You need to identify specific areas that are present or potential problem areas. You can then work the enzymes into your present program at proper frequencies to ensure desired results. Using enzymes in a haphazard manner with no scheduled routine will not only waste product, but also more importantly will waste valuable labor. Enzymes are economical and safe to use within a wide work-use area. They can be injected directly into mattresses to reduce urine smells or poured into kitchen or  restroom drains to unclog grease or hair deposits. The primary caution is not to permit inhalation of  sprayed (misted) product. Some good candidates for bacteria / enzymes digesters are health care facilities, schools, industrial plants, health clubs, correctional facilities, offices, restaurants, and food service operations. The list can be expanded to include any and all areas that have stains and odors from protein or organic matter. Work use areas for enzymes are expanding, and new applications open up daily in the sanitary maintenance field. Enzymatic cleaners are new technology that allows for many uses by cleaning professionals Production of enzymes Enzyme molecules are far too complex to synthesize by purely chemical means, and so the only way to make them is to use living organisms. The problem is that enzymes produced by microorganisms in the wild are often expressed in tiny amounts and mixed up with many other  enzymes and proteins. These micro-organisms can also be very difficult to cultivate under  industrial conditions, and they may create undesirable by-products. Modern industrial cultivation of enzymes begins with fermentation of a vial of dried or frozen micro-organisms called a production strain. This production strain is selected to produce large amounts of the enzymes of interest. The produc tion strain is first cultivated in a small flask  containing nutrients and agar. The flask is placed in an incubator which provides the optimal temperature for the previously frozen or dried cells to germinate. On ce the flask is ready, the cells are transferred to a seed fermenter, which is a large tank containing previously sterilized raw materials and water, known as the medium. Seed fermentation allows the cells to reproduce and adapt to the environment and nutrients that they will encounter later on. The cells are then transferred to a larger tank, the main fermenter, where temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen are carefully controlled to optimize enzyme production. Additional nutrients may be added to enhance productivity. When main fermentation is complete, the mixture of cells, nutrients and enzymes, referred to as the broth, is ready for filtration and purification. Protein versus genetic engineered enzymes Protein engineering is technique used to alter the gene encoding for an enzyme in order to change or obtain new properties. The genetic integrity of the organism producing the enzyme is not changed. Each enzyme consists of several hundreds of amino acids located in such a delicate threedimensional structure. This structure determines the properties of the enzyme such as reactivity, stability and specificity. Based on protein engineering, scientists can construct slightly altered enzymes by modifying the gene encoding for the enzyme. Engineered organisms then produce the modified enzyme which is subsequently tested to evaluate whether the structure/function models have been correct. Such innovative methods have led to the discovery of detergent enzymes which are much more active, efficient and / or robust in terms of pH, temperature and / or chemical stability ( e.g. vs bleach). Genetic engineering is the alteration of the genes of the organisms. The genetic integrity of the organism producing the enzyme is changed for ever. Usually such enzymes are used in a confined environment and are sometimes engineered in a such way that they can not survive in the natural environment.Such alterations can be effected by breeding and by mutation - the natural processes that for billions of years have formed the ba sis for the evolution of new organisms. The process whereby genes mutate to achieve small (but sometimes beneficial) alterations is called mutagenesis. P&G now can screen for wild-type microorganisms / genes in line with the identified consumer  need, e.g. an alkaline cold wash enzyme. "Compressing" the above mentioned natural evolution  process into a short-term period, i.e. a limited number of cycles of directed evolution is a major  challenge in using mutagenesis to improve a strain of micro-organisms / a gene. Key is to start from the right substrate screen. Thousands up to millions of mutants therefore have to be tested to find the optimal strain. Nowadays, this classical method of screening micro-organisms for   beneficial mutations has become a high-tech process. To be able to test this massive amount of  mutants, which are only available in microgram quan tities, efficient automatic system are available which are capable of simultaneously scanning dozens of plates filled with mutant strains of micro-organisms. Without the need for human intervention, robots measure the enzyme activity produced by the individual mutants in a highly efficient manner. What once took years is now achieved in a few days. Such robots are capable of discovering hundreds of new, interesting mutant strains of micro-organisms / genes that research scientists can further test and characterize using other systems. Bibliography 12. www.Chemical Function Definitions - 13.www. Enzyme and Bacterial Cleaning 14.www. Enzymes in washing powders Biotech Learning Hub 15. www.Understanding Enzymes Used In 16.Book- Chemistry Of the Textile Industry(page-157-160)