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Est Gest Jud Tl 42

Descripción: EST GEST JUD TL 42

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UKDM 5> Fm rkhtilihmhiøb ekf rk`istrg pgr väm ek kxpkeikbtks `unkrbmtivg g aueihimf. Fgs kxpkeikbtks rk`istrmfks1 Bmturmfkzm auräeihm y hgdpktkbhim. _ribhipigs rkhtgrks y bgrdms `kbkrmfks ekf prghkeidikbtg. ^é`idkb ek fgs rkhursgs y ek fm kakhuhiøb. Fm punfihieme ekf ^k`istrg Hivif1 _unfihieme dmtkrimf y lgrdmf. Klihmhim prgnmtgrim ek fgs msikbtgs rk`istrmfks. Idpu`bmhiøb ek fm prksubhiøb ek kxmhtitue rk`istrmf. Fm punfihieme lgrdmf1 hkrtilihmhigbks, finrgs ek lmdifim y bgtms iblgrdmtivms ^KLK^KBHIMX [email protected]\MX Fky ek 3 ek aubig ek =9;0, Fky ekf ^k`istrg Hivif, huym ñftidm dgeilihmhiøb sk cm prgeuhieg pgr Fky >?/>?==, ek >= ek aufig, ekf ^k`istrg Hivif Fky >?/>?==, ek >= ek aufig, ekf ^k`istrg Hivif, huym ñftidm dgeilihmhiøb sk cm prgeuhieg pgr Fky =;/>?=;, ek > ek aufig, ek fm  Auriseihhi  Aurise ihhiøb øb \gfubtmri \gf ubtmrimm Ekhrktg ek =5 ek bgvikdnrk ek =9;3, pgr kf quk sk mpruknm kf ^k`fmdkbtg pmrm fm mpfihmhiøb ek fm Fky ekf ^k`istrg Hivif, huym ñftidm dgeilihmhiøb sk cm prgeuhieg pgr kf ^kmf Ekhrktg =0?/>??0, ek 9 ek lknrkrg Ibstruhhiøb ek fm [email protected]^B ek 8? ek bgvikdnrk ek =939 ^kmf Ekhrktg ek >5 ek aufig ek =339, pgr kf quk sk mpruknm kf Høei`g Hivif, huym ñftidm dgeilihmhiøb sk cm prgeuhieg pgr Fky =;/>?=;, ek > ek aufig, ek fm Auriseihhiøb \gfubtmrim GNAKUI\GX Hgbghkr fgs dkhmbisdgs kxistkbtks pmrm mlrgbtmr fm rkhtilihmhiøb ek fgs msikbtgs rk`istrmfks  Mbmfizmr  Mbmfiz mr fm trmdi trmditmhiø tmhiøb b ek fgs kxpkei k xpkeikbtks kbtks rk`is rk`istrmfk trmfkss Kxmdibmr kf ré`idkb ek punfihieme ekf ^k`istrg Hivif Fm rkhtilihmhiøb ekf rk`istrg pgr väm ek kxpkeikbtks `unkrbmtivg g aueihimf =. FM ^KHUILIHMHIØB EKF ^[email protected]^G _G^ \ÄM EK KS_KEIKBUKX @[NK^BMUI\G G A[EIHIMF. FGX KS_KEIKBUKX ^[email protected]^MFKX1 BMU[^MFKQM A[^ÄEIHM Y HGD_KUKBHIM Fm Fky ekf ^k`istrg Hivif, ek 3 ek aubig =9;0 prkvé egs dkhmbisdgs pmrm mlrgbtmr fm rkhtilihmhiøb ek fgs msikbtgs rk`istrmfks1 fm väm aueihimf greibmrim y kf kxpkeikbtk `unkrbmtivg. =.= \äm aueihimf greibmrim Kf mrtähufg 9> ek F^H eispgbk quk1 - Fms ibshriphigbks ibshriphigbks sgfg pukekb pukekb rkhtilihmrsk pgr skbtkbhim lirdk kb auihig greibmrig. - Fm ekdmbem sk eiri`irí hgbtrm kf Dibistkrig Lishmf y mqukffgs m quikbks sk rklikrk kf msikbtg quk bg lukrkb ekdmbembtks. ekdmbe mbtks. - Kb kstk auihig bg tikbk fu`mr fm rkstrihhiøb ek pruknms ekf ekf mrt. > F^H (quk bg meditk pruknm lrkbtk mf ckhcg ibshritg). _gr gtrm pmrtk, kf mrt. >98 ekf ^k`fmdkbtg kstmnfkhk quk fms ibshriphigbks bg pukekb rkhtilihmrsk kb virtue ek skbtkbhim rkhmäem kb prghksg pkbmf: bg gnstmbtk, kb humbtg skmb hgbtrmeihtgrigs hgb fgs ckhcgs quk fm skbtkbhim ekhfmrk prgnmegs, skríb rkhtilihmegs dkeimbtk kxpkeikbtk `unkrbmtivg. ^khukrek Kf mrtähufg 9> ek fm F^H pgbk ek rkfikvk quk kf prghkeidikbtg bgrdmf ek rkhtilihmhi rkhtilihmhiøb øb ek ibshriphigbks ks kf quk sk rkmfizm m trmvés ek ub auihig ekhfmrmtivg greibmrig, y sgfg kb fgs supukstgs kxhkphigbmfks, hgbtkdpfmegs kb fgs mrts. 98 y 95 F^H, sk pkrditirí fm rkhtilihmhiøb dkeimbtk kxpkeikbtk `unkrbmtivg. =.> Kxpkeikbtks `unkrbmtivgs M. Hgbhkptg Fm rkhtilihmhiøb pgr väm ek kxpkeikbtk `unkrbmtivg hgbstituyk gtrm ek fms lubhigbks mtrinuiems mf ^k`istrg Hivif y hgbsistk kb ubgs prghkeidikbtgs ek rkhtilihmhiøb ek sus msikbtgs kb virtue ek tätufg sulihikbtk pmrm kffg. Xk trmtm, pgr tmbtg, ek ub prghkeidikbtg ek medibistrmhiøb, ek ekrkhcg privmeg, quk sk kbhgdikbem m fgs ør`mbgs ek `kstiøb rk`istrmf g ek ibspkhhiøb g eirkhhiøb, hgb vmrims dgemfiemeks, y quk sk kbhmdibm m vmrims libmfiemeks, hgdg sgb1 hgbstituir g prkpmrmr fm hgbstituhiøb ek fgs mhtgs ek kstmeg hivif, prmhtihmr fm ibshriphiøb ek ckhcgs quk bg sk cunikrkb mhrkeitmeg mf rk`istrg ekbtrg ekf pfmzg fk`mf, sunsmbmr eklihikbhims rk`istrmfks, rkhtilihmr krrgrks, rkhgbstituir msikbtgs g rkmfizmr ekhfmrmhigbks hgb vmfgr ek sidpfk prksubhiøb (lk ek viem, sgftkräm, viuekeme g eivgrhig). N. Hfmsilihmhiøb Kb nmsk m kstm eklibihiøb pgekdgs eilkrkbhimr vmrims dgemfiemeks ek kxpkeikbtks, fgs humfks `gzmb ek ubm bmturmfkzm auräeihm keitgrimf    }         hkp 0;8 _rghkeidikbtgs Aueihimfks. H) ^k`istrg Hivif. Ukdm 5> prgpim sib quk sk fks pukem mtrinuir fgs hmrmhtkrks ek fgs prghksgs bi ek fgs prghkeidikbtgs medibistrmtivgs1 ‘ Kxpkeikbtks eiri`iegs m fm prkpmrmhiøb prkpmrmhiøb ek mhtgs ek kstmeg hivif. ‘ Kxpkeikbtks eiri`iegs m prmhtihmr ubm ibshriphiøb lukrm ekf pfmzg fk`mf (mrt. 9; b± ; ek fm F^H). ‘ Kxpkeikbtks eiri`iegs m rkhtilihmr krrgrks y sunsmbmr eklibihigbks rk`istrmfks (mrt. 98 y 9; F^H). ‘ Kxpkeikbtks eiri`iegs m gntkbkr ekhfmrmhigbks ekhfmrmhigbks hgb vmfgr ek sidpfk prksubhiøb (mrt. 9< F^H). Mekdís, y kb grekb m su prghkeidikbtg, pgekdgs eistib`uir kbtrk mqukffgs kxpkeikbtks `unkrbmtivgs quk bkhksitmb g rkquikrkb eihtmdkb lmvgrmnfk ekf Dibistkrig Lishmf, y mqukffgs kb fgs quk nmstm kf kxpkeikbtk `unkrbmtivg pmrm pgekr cmhkrsk fm rkhtilihmhiøb. H. Ckhcgs y mhtgs rkhtilihmnfks m. _rkvig kxpkeikbtk `unkrbmtivg (kx. mrt. 98 F^H) Mtkbhiøb Xk`ñb kf mrt. => ^^H, fms dkbhigbks ek iekbtieme hgbsistkb, m skr pgsinfk, kb fgs bgdnrks y mpkffiegs, bgdnrk ek fgs pmerks, bñdkrg ekf eghudkbtg bmhigbmf ek iekbtieme, bmturmfkzm, keme, kstmeg, egdihifig y bmhigbmfieme. =± Fms dkbhigbks krrøbkms ek iekbtieme, sikdprk quk kstm qukek ibeuemnfkdkbtk kstmnfkhiem pgr fms ekdís hirhubstmbhims ek fm ibshriphiøb. >± Fm ibeihmhiøb kquivghmem ekf skxg humbeg i`umfdkbtk bg cmym euem sgnrk fm iekbtieme ekf bmhieg pgr fms ekdís hirhubstmbhims, msä hgdg fm dkbhiøb rk`istrmf rkfmtivm mf skxg ek fms pkrsgbms kb fgs hmsgs ek eislgrim ek `ébkrg. _mrm rkhtilihmr fm ibeihmhiøb ek skxg kb fm ibshriphiøb ek bmhidikbtg, sk ibvksti`mrí (kx. mrt. >95 ^^H)1 - Xi fm iekbtieme qukem kstmnfkhiem pgr fms ekdís hirhubstmbhims ek fm ibshriphiøb. - Xi bg kxistk g cm kxistieg gtrm pkrsgbm hgb tmfks hirhubstmbhims y ekf skxg ibeihmeg. - Xi fm pkrsgbm pkrsgbm m quk mlkhtm fm rkhtilihmhiøb rkhtilihmhiøb bg kstí hgrrkhtmdkbtk ibshritm kb gtrg msikbtg, y - Kf skxg ekf ibshritg pgr pgr eihtmdkb ekf déeihg lgrkbsk lgrkbsk g su sustitutg. 8± Humfquikr gtrg krrgr krrgr huym kviekbhim rksuftk rksuftk ek fm hgblrgbtmhgblrgbtmhiøb hgb gtrm u gtrms ibshriphigbks quk cm`mb lk ekf ckhcg hgrrkspgbeikbtk. 0;5   keitgrimf    }         hkp Fm rkhtilihmhiøb ekf rk`istrg pgr väm ek kxpkeikbtks `unkrbmtivg g aueihimf n. _rkvig kxpkeikbtk `unkrbmtivg, hgb eihtmdkb lmvgrmnfk ekf Dibistkrig Lishmf (kx. mrt. 95 F^H) =± Mqukffgs krrgrks huym kviekbhim kviekbhim rksuftk ek fm hgblrgbtmhiøb hgb fgs eghudkbtgs kb huym sgfm virtue sk cm prmhtihmeg fm ibshriphiøb. >± Fgs quk prghkekb ek eghudkbtg pñnfihg g khfksiístihg uftkrigrdkbtk uftkrigrdkbtk rkhtilihmeg. h. Nmstm kxpkeikbtk `unkrbmtivg (kx. mrt. 95 F^H) _mrm1 =± Hgdpfktmr ibshriphigbks lirdmems hgb hirhubstmbhims bg hgbghiems kb fm lkhcm ek mqukffms. Kxistkb egs pgsinifiemeks (kx. mrt >9< ^^H)1 - Humbeg fm fm ibshriphiøb ibshriphiøb ekf ckhcg ks pgsinfk kb virtue virtue ek kxpkeikbtk. - Humbeg sk trmtm ek gdisigbks ek dkbhigbks g ibeihmhigbks quk, ek kstmr kquivghmems, pgerämb rkhtilihmrsk pgr kxpkeikbtk `unkrbmtivg. Fms rk`fms ek ubg u gtrg kxpkeikbtk ri`kb tmdniéb kb kf quk tikbk pgr pgr lib hgdpfktmr fms ibshriphigbks. Bg sk rkquikrk kxpkeikbtk si fm ibshriphiøb hgdpfkdkbtmrim hgdpfkdkbtmrim pukek pukek prmhtihmrsk prmhtihmrsk kb virtue ek ekhfmrmhiøb kb fgs hmsgs, tikdpg y lgrdm skýmfmegs kb fm fky g pgr eghudkbtg pñnfihg. >± Xupridir fms hirhubstmbhims g msikbtgs bg pkrditiegs pkrditiegs g huym príhtihm sk cmym nmsmeg ek dgeg kviekbtk, sk`ñb kf prgpig msikbtg, kb tätufg dmbilikstmdkbtk ifk`mf. Kb kstk hmsg, pgr kxpkeikbtk `unkrbmtivg sgfg s gfg pukekb supridirsk (kx. mrt. >90 ^^H)1 - Fms hirhubstmbhims huym hgbstmbhim bg kstí prkvistm fk`mf g rk`fmdkbtmrimdkbtk. rk`fmdkbtmrimdkbtk. - Fgs msikbtgs sgnrk ckhcgs ckhcgs quk quk bg hgbstituykb kf gnaktg ekf ^k`istrg. - Fgs msikbtgs g hirhubstmbhims huym príhtihm sk cmym nmsmeg, ek dgeg kviekbtk, sk`ñb kf prgpig msikbtg, kb tätufg dmbilikstmdkbtk ifk`mf. - Fms meihigbks, mpgstiffms, ibtkrfibkmegs, ibtkrfibkmegs, rmspmeurms y kbdikbems bufgs: kf msikbtg sk hgbsiekrm pmrhimfdkbtk ekstruieg kb humbtgs emtgs y hirhubstmbhims rksuftkb ifk`infks kb kf kxpkeikbtk. 8± Hgrrk`ir kb fgs msikbtgs fgs eklkhtgs dkrmdkbtk dkrmdkbtk lgrdmfks, sikdprk quk sk mhrkeitkb ekniemdkbtk fgs fgs ckhcgs ek quk emb lk. _mrm kffg sk rkquikrk prkskbtmr tätufgs sulihikbtks g austilihmr hudpfiemdkbtk, dkeimbtk fgs prgpigs msikbtgs eklkhtugsgs, fgs eghudkbtgs mrhcivmegs u gtrgs dkeigs quk sk prmhtihmrgb kb virtue ek tätufg mekhumeg (kx. mrt. >99 ^^H). Xk prksudkb mhrkeitmegs1 - Fgs kxtkbeiegs kxtkbeiegs kb finrgs g rk`istrgs quk bg hgrrkspgbem. - Kb hmsg ek ibtkrvkbhiøb ek lubhigbmrig ifk`ätidg, ifk`ätidg, si sk mhrkeitm quk kakrhiø kakrhiø fm lubhiøb lubhiøb hgb eifi`kbeifi`kbhim y pkrihim greibmrims. - Kb fms ekdís lmftms, sikdprk quk, mf dkbgs, sk trmtk ek ibshriphiøb lirdmem, kxtkbeiem kb finrg, pgr grekb suhksivg, hgb fm ekniem hgbstmbhim ek fm ekhfmrmhiøb g eghudkbtgs mutébtihgs, kb virtue ekf humf sk prmhtihm. Kf mbubhig m ibtkrksmegs kb fgs trks hmsgs mbtkrigrks mbtkrigrks pukek skr `kbkrmf. 5± Hgrrk`ir lmftms kb kf dgeg ek ffkvmr fgs finrgs quk bg mlkhtkb eirkhtmdkbtk m ibshriphigbks lirdmems. keitgrimf    }         hkp 0;; _rghkeidikbtgs Aueihimfks. H) ^k`istrg Hivif. Ukdm 5> Xk ibhfuykb ibhfuykb fgs eklkhtgs ek lgrdmtg ek fgs fgs finrgs y fms lmftms hgdktiems kb fm budkrmhiøb g kb fm ibeihmhiøb mflmnétihm ek msikbtgs g pí`ibms (kx. mrt. 8?8 ^^H). Xi fgs eklkhtgs eklkhtgs sgb budkrgsgs sk mhgremrí budkrmr bukvmdkbtk kb skbtieg ibvkrsg, ibvkrsg, hgb eistibtm tibtm y sib ngrrmr fm budkrmhiøb mbtkrigr1 fm budkrmhiøb ibvkrsm ek ibshriphigbks bg sk prmhtihmrí cmstm quk sk kxtikbem fm eifi`kbhim ek hikrrk. Kb fgs kxpkeikbtks prgdgviegs pmrm hgrrk`irfgs nmstm kf mbubhig `kbkrmf m fgs ibtkrksmegs. Bg sk rkquikrk kxpkeikbtk pmrm hgrrk`ir (kx. mrt. 8?5 ^^H)1 - Humfquikr iblrmhhiøb kb kf dgeg ek ffkvmr fgs finrgs: ibhfusg kb fm eifi`kbhim ek mpkrturm, humbeg bg sk cmb prmhtihmeg kb kffgs ibshriphigbks. - Fm gdisiøb ek fm eifi`kbhim ek hikrrk g äbeihks, g humfquikr iblrmhhiøb hgdktiem kb ubm u gtrgs. ;± _rmhtihmr fm ibshriphiøb lukrm ek pfmzg. <± ^khgbstruir fms ibshriphigbks ekstruiems. Hgblgrdk m fg prkvkbieg kb kf Hmp. III ekf Uät. \I, ekf ^^H. e. Kxpkeikbtks hgb vmfgr ek sidpfk prksubhiøb (kx. mrt. 9< F^H) Kb virtue ek kxpkeikbtk `unkrbmtivg pukek ekhfmrmrsk hgb vmfgr ek sidpfk prksubhiøb1 =±. ]uk bg cm ghurrieg ckhcg ektkrdibmeg quk pueikrm mlkhtmr mf kstmeg hivif. >±. Fm bmhigbmfieme, vkhibeme g humfquikr kstmeg, si bg hgbstm kb kf ^k`istrg. 8±. Kf egdihifig ek fgs mpítriems. 5±. Fm kxistkbhim ek fgs ckhcgs dikbtrms pgr lukrzm dmygr skm idpgsinfk kf mhhksg mf ^k`istrg egbek eknkb hgbstmr ibshritgs. Kstms ekhfmrmhigbks pukekb skr gnaktg ek mbgtmhiøb hgblgrdk m fg eispukstg kb fm Fky. E. _ribhipigs `kbkrmfks `kbkrmfks ek fm trmditmhiøb trmditmhiøb ek fgs kxpkeikbtks ekf ^k`istrg Hivif Emem fm bmturmfkzm sui `kbkris ek kstk prghkeidikbtg, hgbvikbk skýmfmr huífks sgb fgs pribhipigs quk prksiekb su trmditmhiøb1 - _ribhipig ek grmfieme y kshriturm1 m pksmr ek su ibihimhiøb kshritm y su trmditmhiøb `kbkrmfdkbtk eghudkbtmem, ks pgsinfk cmhkr mfk`mhigbks vkrnmfks. - _ribhipig ek hgbhkbtrmhiøb1 bg cmy lmsks prkhfusivms. - _ribhipig ek hkfkrieme y khgbgdäm ek tríditks. - _ribhipig ek ibdkeimhiøb1 tgems fms mhtumhigbks sk rkmfizmb mbtk kf ør`mbg rk`istrmf hgdpktkbtk. - _ribhipig ek glihimfieme1 glihimfieme1 si nikb fm rk`fm `kbkrmf ks quk fgs kxpkeikbtks kxpkeikbtks sk ibihikb ibihikb ek glihig pgr kf Dibistkrig Lishmf, cmy hmsgs kb quk ks pgsinfk fm ibihimhiøb m ibstmbhim ekf ibtkrksmeg. =.8 Hgdpktkbhim M. Hgdpktkbhim pmrm rkhkphiøb rkhkphiøb ek sgfihitueks Hgblgrdk mf mrt. 853 ekf ^k`fmdkbtg, fm sgfihitue pmrm ibihimr kf kxpkeikbtk sk eiri`irí mf ør`mbg quk cm ek rksgfvkr, hgbtkberí fms dkbhigbks hgbghiems ek iekbtieme ekf prgdgtgr y ek quikbks tkb`mb ibtkrés 0;<   keitgrimf    }         hkp Fm rkhtilihmhiøb ekf rk`istrg pgr väm ek kxpkeikbtks `unkrbmtivg g aueihimf fk`ätidg, kxpgberí suhibtm y budkrmemdkbtk fgs ckhcgs, fms pruknms y eifi`kbhims quk mhgdpmýk y prgpgb`m y fgs lubemdkbtgs ek ekrkhcg y liamrí hgb hfmrieme y prkhisiøb fg quk sk piem. N. Hgdpktkbhim pmrm fm ibstruhhiøb ekf kxpkeikbtk m. ^k`fm `kbkrmf Ks hgdpktkbtk kf Aukz Kbhmr`meg m quk hgrrkspgbeikrk kf ^k`istrg egbek eknm prmhtihmrsk fm rksgfuhiøb prktkbeiem. Xi fm ibshriphiøb cunikrm ek prmhtihmrsk kb fgs ^k`istrgs Hgbsuftmr y Hkbtrmf, fm hgdpktkbhim skrí ekf pridkrg si kf prgdgtgr kstí egdihifimeg kb kf kxtrmbakrg, y ekf sk`ubeg, kb gtrg hmsg (mrt. 85> ^^H). Kf kxpkeikbtk skrí ibstruieg pgr kf prgpig Kbhmr`meg, quikb, gäeg kf Dibistkrig Lishmf, eihtmrí kb lgrdm ek mutg fm rksgfuhiøb quk prghkem (mrt. 858 ^^H). n. Kxhkphigbks Xk hgbtkdpfmb fms si`uikbtks kxhkphigbks1 =) Humbeg fm sgfihitue sk prkskbtk mbtk kf ^k`istrg ekf egdihifig ekf sgfihitmbtk g prgdgtgr, kf Kbhmr`meg ekf disdg ibstruirí fms eifi`kbhims gpgrtubms hgb ibtkrvkbhiøb ekf Dibistkrig Lishmf, quikb kditirí iblgrdk y, kb ubiøb ekf suyg prgpig, emrí mf kxpkeikbtk kf hursg rk`fmdkbtmrig, rkditiébegfg mf quk eknm rksgfvkr kb su hmsg. >) Kf mrt. >83 ekf ^k`fmdkbtg ektkrdibm quk kf kf Aukz Kbhmr`meg g ek _mz, g kf kbhmr`meg ekf ^k`istrg Hivif Hgbsufmr ekf egdihifig ek humfquikrm ek fgs hgbtrmykbtks, ks kf hgd pktkbtk pmrm fm ibstruhhiøb ekf kxpkeikbtk prkvig m fm hkfknrmhiøb ekf dmtridgbig hivif. 8) Ks hgdpktkbtk kf Kbhmr`meg ekf ^k`istrg ekf egdihifig ekf sgfihitmbtk rkspkhtg ek fm ibstruhhiøb ek fgs kxpkeikbtks ek hmdnig ek bgdnrks y mpkffiegs y ek eispkbsm ek idpkeidkbtgs dmtridgbimfks (mrt. > m. ^k`fm `kbkrmf Ugdk bgtm Kb mf`ubgs hmsgs, sk mtrinuyk hgdpktkbhim pmrm rksgfvkr mf Kbhmr`meg ekf ^k`istrg ekf egdihifig ekf sgfihitmbtk rkspkhtg ek fgs kxpkeikbtks pmrm ekhfmrmhigbks hgb vmfgr ek sidpfk prksubhiøb y rkspkhtg ek ektkrdibmegs kxpkeikbtks ek hmdnig ek bgdnrk y mpkffiegs. Umdniéb sk mtrinuyk hgdpktkbhim pmrm rksgfvkr fgs kxpkeikbtks prkvigs mf dmtridgbig hivif mf Kbhmr`meg ekf ^k`istrg ekf fu`mr ek hkfknrmhiøb ekf disdg. Fm Eirkhhiøb @kbkrmf ek fgs ^k`istrgs y ekf Bgtmrimeg, m trmvés ek eistibtms rksgfuhigbks, cm vkbieg mtrinuykbeg hgdpktkbhim pmrm fm rksgfuhiøb ek kxpkeikbtks m fgs Auz`megs ek _ridkrm Ibstmbhim (idpkrmbeg kf hritkrig ekf egdihifig). Xib kdnmr`g, sk`ñb kf mrt. 85> ekf ^k`fmdkbtg, ks hgdpktkbtk kf Kbhmr`meg ekf ^k`istrg egbek eknm ibshrinirsk fm rksgfuhiøb prktkbeiem: pmrm fg humf, gäeg mf Dibistkrig Lishmf, eihtmrí kb lgrdm ek mutg fm rksgfuhiøb quk prghkem. Kstm hgdpktkbhim sk kxtikbek m fm rksgfuhiøb ek fgs kxpkeikbtks ibihimegs pmrm fm hgrrkhhiøb ek lmftms kb kf dgeg ek ffkvmr fgs finrgs, hgdktiems pgr fgs Aukhks ek _mz. n. Xupukstgs kspkhimfks m) Fgs Aukhks ek _mz _mz ekf egdihifig ekf suaktg sgb hgdpktkbtks pmrm rksgfvkr fgs kxpkeikbtks ek lk ek viem g kstmeg pgr ekfk`mhiøb ekf Kbhmr`meg (mrt. 8<5.= ^^H). Bg sk rkquikrk mueikbhim ekf Dibistkrig Lishmf, bi hgdubihmhiøb m ibtkrksmegs, pkrg mqukf g kstgs pukekb hgbstituirsk kb pmrtk g cmhkr fms dmbilkstmhigbks gpgrtubms.  n) Kf Dibistkrig ek Austihim ks hgdpktkbtk pmrm rksgfvkr ektkrdibmegs kxpkeikbtks1 ‘ Kxpkeikbtks pmrm gntkbkr bmhigbmfieme kspmýgfm kspmýgfm pgr rksiekbhim y ek eispkbsm ekf rkquisitg ek fm rksiekbhim pmrm su rkhupkrmhiøb (mrt. >0 Høei`g Hivif). ‘ Kxpkeikbtks pmrm gntkbkr hmdnig ek ektkrdibmegs bgdnrks y mpkffiegs (mrt. 8<; ^^H). ‘ Kxpkeikbtks pmrm pmrm gntkbkr mutgrizmhiøb pmrm hkfknrmr dmtridgbig skhrktg y eispkbsm ekf idpkeidkbtg ek dukrtk egfgsm ekf høbyu`k mbtkrigr. Kf Dibistkrig ek Austihim rksukfvk kb lgrdm ek Grekb, m prgpukstm ek fm Eirkhhiøb @kbkrmf, prkvig iblgrdk ek fm Xuneirkhhiøb rkspkhtivm. Kf hmdnig ek bgdnrks y mpkffiegs mprgnmeg pgr kf Dibistrg mf hgbhkekr fm bmhigbmfieme bg pgerí ibshrinirsk, y msä sk mevkrtirí kb fm rksgfuhiøb, dikbtrms quk kf suaktg mlkhtmeg bg sk ibshrinm hgdg kspmýgf. h) Kf @gnikrbg ks hgdpktkbtk tmdniéb pmrm kf hmdnig ek hikrtgs bgdnrks y mpkffiegs. _ukek hgbhkekr fm bmhigbmfieme kspmýgfm pgr hmrtm ek bmturmfkzm, gtgr`mem eishrkhigbmfdkbtk dkeimbtk ^kmf Ekhrktg, humbeg kb kf ibtkrksmeg hgbhurrmb hirhubstmbhims kxhkphigbmfks. Kf kstueig ek fm hmbhkfmhiøb ek msikbtgs, tgtmf g pmrhimf, sk cm rkmfizmeg kb kf tkdm mbtkrigr. Bgs rkditidgs m fg eihcg kb kf disdg. 0;3   keitgrimf    }         hkp Fm rkhtilihmhiøb ekf rk`istrg pgr väm ek kxpkeikbtks `unkrbmtivg g aueihimf >. _^IBHI_IGX ^KHUG^KX Y BG^DMX @KBK^MFKX EKF _^GHKEIDIKBUG Xk`ñb kf mrtähufg 90 ek fm F^H, fgs kxpkeikbtks `unkrbmtivgs m quk sk rklikrk kstm Fky sk suaktmríb m fms rk`fms si`uikbtks1 =ª. _ukek prgdgvkrfgs g hgbstituirsk kb pmrtk humfquikr pkrsgbm quk tkb`m ibtkrés fk`ätidg kb fgs disdgs. Kstíb gnfi`megs m kffg fgs quk, kb su hmsg, eknkb prgdgvkr fm ibshriphiøb. >ª. Xikdprk skrí gäeg kf Dibistkrig Lishmf. 8ª. Fm ibhgmhiøb ekf kxpkeikbtk sk hgdubihmrí m fgs ibtkrksmegs, fgs humfks pgeríb cmhkr fms dmbilkstmhigbks quk kstidkb gpgrtubms. 5ª. Kb ñftidm ibstmbhim, hmnk mpkfmhiøb hgbtrm fms rksgfuhigbks mbtk fm [email protected]^B. Bg gnstmbtk, fgs kxpkeikbtks ek lk ek viem, sgftkräm g viuekz sk maustmríb m kspkhimfks bgrdms rk`fmdkbtmrims. >.= Ibihimhiøb y eksmrrgffg m) _gerí prgdgvkrfgs g hgbstituirsk kb pmrtk humfquikr humfquikr pkrsgbm quk tkb`m ibtkrés fk`ätidg kb fgs disdgs: y kstmríb gnfi`megs m kffg fgs quk, kb su hmsg, eknmb prgdgvkr fm ibshriphiøb. Xkrí gäeg sikdprk kf Dibistkrig Lishmf.  n) Fm sgfih sgfihitue itue pmrm ibihim ibihimrr kf kxpkeik kxpkeikbtk btk sk eiri`i eiri`irí rí mf ør`mb ør`mbg g quk cm ek rksgf rksgfvkr, vkr, hgbtk hgbtkberí berí fms dkbhigbks hgbghiems ek iekbtieme ekf prgdgtgr y ek quikbks tkb`mb ibtkrés fk`ätidg, kxpgberí suhibtm y budkrmemdkbtk fgs ckhcgs, fms pruknms y eifi`kbhims quk mhgdpmýk y prgpgb`m y fgs lubemdkbtgs ek ekrkhcg, y liamrí hgb hfmrieme y prkhisiøb fg quk sk piem (mrt. 853 ^^H). Fms sgfihitueks quk tikbemb m hgbhgremr kf ^k`istrg hgb fm rkmfieme, mubquk skmb eklkhtugsms, eknkríb meditirsk y sk iblgrdmrí m fgs ibtkrksmegs sgnrk kf dgeg ek sunsmbmr fgs eklkhtgs. h) Fm ibhgmhiøb sk bgtilihmrí m quikbks tkb`mb ibtkrés ibtkrés fk`ätidg, fgs humfks pgeríb cmhkr fms dmbilkstmhigbks gpgrtubms. Xk ibvksti`mrí ek glihig si cmy dís ibtkrksmegs quk fgs dkbhigbmegs kb fm sgfihitue y kf pmrmekrg ek tgegs kffgs: y sk bgtilihmrí mf Dibistkrig Lishmf (mrt. 859 ^^H). Kffg bg supgbk mfivimr m fms pmrtks ek fm hmr`m ek fm pruknm, quk sk prmhtihmrí hgb ibtkrvkbhiøb finrk y eirkhtm ekf ør`mbg hgdpktkbtk y, si hgdpmrkhikrmb, ekf Dibistkrig Lishmf y ek fms pmrtks. Mbtks ek tgdmr ekhfmrmhiøb, sk mevkrtirí mf ekhfmrmbtk fm kspkhimf rkspgbsmnifieme kb quk pukek ibhurrir. e) Fm lgrdm ek cmhkr fms bgtilihmhigbks, kb fg bg prkvistg kb fm fk`isfmhiøb kspkhimf, sk rk`irí pgr fm fky prghksmf. k) Kf Dibistkrig Lishmf hgbghkrí ek fgs kxpkeikbtks kxpkeikbtks eksek su ibihimhiøb y kditirí iblgrdk hgdg ñftidg tríditk prkvig m fm rksgfuhiøb ekf Aukz, pueikbeg prgpgbkr mbtks ek kstk fms pruknms g eifi`kbhims quk hrkm gpgrtubms. Kstgs iblgrdks sgb prkhkptivgs pkrg bg vibhufmbtks `kbkrmfdkbtk. l) Xk hgbhkekb 8 eäms cínifks, cínifks, sk`ñb kf mrt. 8;> ^^H1 =) _mrm quk fgs bgtilihmegs kb egdihifig situmeg kb fm pgnfmhiøb egbek sk si`uk kf kxpkeikbtk sk pkrsgbkb y cm`mb sus mfk`mhigbks. Kf pfmzg ks ek eikz eäms si bg rksiekb kb ksm pgnfmhiøb. >) _mrm quk fgs hgbstituiegs kb pmrtk, vistg kf kxpkeikbtk, cm`mb sus mfk`mhigbks. 8) _mrm hitmr mf Dibistkrig Lishmf y m fms pmrtks m fm príhtihm ek fm fm pruknm, pmrm quk kstms kstms kb kf disdg mhtg hgbgzhmb fg ibstruieg y kxpgb`mb humbtg m su ekrkhcg hgbeuzhm. 5) _mrm humfquikr eifi`kbhim eifi`kbhim ekbtrg ek fm pgnfmhiøb. Xk kvitmrí tgem eifmhiøb g tríditk supkrlfug g eksprgpgrhigbmeg hgb fm hmusm. ;) _mrm quk kf kf Dibistkrig Lishmf kvmhuk sus iblgrdks. keitgrimf    }         hkp 0;9 _rghkeidikbtgs Aueihimfks. H) ^k`istrg Hivif. Ukdm 5> <) _mrm eihtmr, trms kf ñftidg iblgrdk, mutg rksgfvikbeg kf kxpkeikbtk kxpkeikbtk y pmrm fm mbtkrigr bgtilihmhiøb ek kstk mf Dibistkrig Lishmf y m fms pmrtks. Kb fgs hmsgs =±, >± y 5± sk pukek mdpfimr kf pfmzg m eikz eäms cínifks si msä fg kxi`k fm `rmvkeme g fms hirhubstmbhims ek fm hmusm. Umdniéb pgerí eispgbkrsk quk, prmhtihmem fm pruknm, sk hgbhkemb cmstm eikz eäms cínifks m hmem pmrtk pmrm quk, suhksivmdkbtk, pukemb hgbghkr fg ibstruieg y kxpgbkr fg quk ekskkb. >.> Ukrdibmhiøb Fm tkrdibmhiøb ek fgs kxpkeikbtks pukek prgeuhirsk pgr trks väms1 M. _gr rksgfuhiøb Fms rksgfuhigbks ekf Kbhmr`meg bg meditikbeg kf kshritg ibihimf g pgbikbeg térdibg mf kxpkeikbtk sgb rkhurrinfks mbtk fm Eirkhhiøb @kbkrmf eurmbtk quibhk eäms cínifks, m pmrtir ek fm bgtilihmhiøb. Bg hmnk rkhursg, rkdkeig g qukam mbtk gtrgs ør`mbgs. Fm bgtilihmhiøb ek fm rksgfuhiøb quk prghkem (mutg, grekb g ^kmf Ekhrktg), kxprksmrí si ks eklibitivm g kf rkhursg quk prghkem, ør`mbg mbtk quikb cmym ek ibtkrpgbkrsk y pfmzg pmrm kbtmnfmrfg. Fm bgtilihmhiøb eklkhtugsm, bg gnstmbtk, skrí klihmz rkspkhtg ek fm pmrtk quk hgbsikbtm kxprksmdkbtk fm rksgfuhiøb g ibtkrpgb`m kf rkhursg pkrtibkbtk: msidisdg, surtirí klkhtgs pgr kf trmbshursg ek < dksks fm prmhtihmem pkrsgbmfdkbtk m fm pmrtk si hgbtuvikrm kf tkxtg äbtk`rg ek fm rksgfuhiøb, smfvg quk cunikrk ckhcg prgtkstm lgrdmf ekbtrg ek kstk pfmzg kb sgfihitue ek rkhtilihmhiøb ek fm eklihikbhim. N. _gr eksistidikbtg Dikbtrms bg rkhmi`m rksgfuhiøb eklibitivm, fgs prgdgtgrks g pmrtks pukekb eksistir ek sus prktkbsigbks pgr kshritg u grmfdkbtk dkeimbtk hgdpmrkhkbhim ekniemdkbtk eifi`kbhimem. Kf eksistidikbtg ek ubm pmrtk sk hgdubihmrí m fms ekdís y mf Dibistkrig Lishmf, quk pgeríb ibstmr fm hgbtibumhiøb ekf kxpkeikbtk ekbtrg ek fgs =? eäms cínifks si`uikbtks m fm bgtilihmhiøb. H. _gr hmeuhieme Urmbshurriegs 8 dksks eksek quk ub kxpkeikbtk g rkhursg sk pmrmfihk pgr hufpm ekf prgdgtgr g prgdgtgrks, kf Dibistkrig Lishmf y fms ekdís pmrtks, ubíbidkdkbtk, pgeríb pkeir quk sk ekhfmrk su hmeuhieme, prkvim hitmhiøb mf prgdgtgr g prgdgtgrks. U^MDIUMHIØB EK FGX KS_KEIKBUKX _gerí prgdgvkrfg humfquikr pkrsgbm quk tkb`m ibtkrés fk`ätidg Xkrí gäeg sikdprk kf Dibistkrig Lishmf Fm sgfihitue sk eiri`irí mf ør`mbg quk cm ek rksgfvkr  Fm ibhgmhiøb sk bgtilhmrí m quikbks tkb`mb ibtkrés fk`ätidg Kf Lishmf hgbghkrí fgs kxpkeikbtks eksek su ibihimhiøb y kditirí iblgrdk Kf prghkeidikbtg sk tkrdibm pgr1   ^ksgfuhiøb   Ekskstidikbtg   Hmeuhieme 0.m), tgems fms ekhisigbks kb dmtkrim ek hmfilihmhiøb (kx. mrt. >9 F^H), hgdg kb dmtkrim ek kxpkeikbtks (kx. mrt. 8;; ^^H), sgb sushkptinfks ek ub ñbihg rkhursg ek mpkfmhiøb mbtk fm [email protected]^B, kb pfmzg ek 8? eäms bmturmfks trmtíbegsk ek hmfilihmhigbks y =; eäms cínifks trmtíbegsk ek1 fm medisiøb g ibmedisiøb ibihimf ek kxpkeikbtks, ek fm rksgfuhiøb quk pgb`m térdibg m fgs disdgs g ekf rkhursg lrkbtk m fm rksgfuhiøb eihtmem kb rkpgsihiøb. Kb hmsg ek rkhurrir lrkbtk m ubm ibshriphiøb kb nmsk m fm lubhiøb hmfilihmegrm ekf ^k`istrmegr, kbtmnfmeg kf rkhursg, qukemb kb suspkbsg fgs pfmzgs kstmnfkhiegs pmrm fm ibshriphiøb hgrrkspgbeikbtk y fm prmhtihmem pkbek ek fm rksgfuhiøb eklibitivm (kx. mrt. >9 F^H). Mekdís, kb fgs rkhursgs hgbtrm fm hmfilihmhiøb rk`istrmf bg pgeríb lubemrsk pktihigbks kb tätufgs bg prkskbtmegs kb tikdpg y lgrdm. n. _rghkeidikbtg (mrts. 8;3 m 8<> ^^H) m) Kf kshritg ek rkhursg sk maustmrí m fms lgrdms ek fm sgfihitue sgfihitue y ektkrdibmrí hgb hfmrieme y prkhisiøb fgs kxtrkdgs gnaktg ek fm rkhfmdmhiøb.  n) Xgfg pgeríb skr eishutiems fms hukstigbks rkfmhigbmems eirkhtm g ibdkeimtmdkbtk hgb fm ekhisiøb rkhurriem. _geríb rkhcmzmrsk fgs eghudkbtgs g pruknms quk pueikrgb prkskbtmrsk gpgrtubmdkbtk, smfvg quk skm ek ibtkrés pñnfihg su medisiøb. h) Kf rkhursg pukek prkskbtmrsk mbtk humfquikr ør`mbg ekf ^k`istrg Hivif. Hivif. Xk emrí ibdkeimtg trmsfmeg mf ør`mbg huym ekhisiøb sk rkhurrm, quikb fg bgtilihmrí, kb su hmsg, m fm gtrm pmrtk, y sikdprk mf Dibistkrig Lishmf: y hgb fms mfk`mhigbks ek fgs bgtilihmegs k iblgrdks ekf prgpig ør`mbg, sk kfkvmrí mf hgdpktkbtk. Kstk pgerí grekbmr eifi`kbhims pmrm dkagr prgvkkr, pmrm mhrkeitmr fgs kxtrkdgs quk keitgrimf    }         hkp 0<= _rghkeidikbtgs Aueihimfks. H) ^k`istrg Hivif. Ukdm 5> m su auihig bg cmymb qukemeg sulihikbtkdkbtk prgnmegs, hgb hitmhiøb y mueikbhim ek fms pmrtks y ekf Dibistkrig Lishmf. Xi kf lmffg rkhurrieg rkhurrieg sk cunikrm fiditmeg fiditmeg m ekhfmrmr fm lmftm ek prksupukstgs ekf prghkeidikbtg y tmf lmftm bg lukrm mprkhimem, kf ør`mbg ekhisgr pgerí rksgfvkr pgr sä fm hukstiøb ek lgbeg g ekvgfvkr fms mhtumhigbks. Ek mprkhimrsk lmftm ek prksupukstgs g fm gdisiøb ek ub tríditk kskbhimf, kf ør`mbg ekhisgr pgerí, nikb rkpgbkr fms mhtumhigbks, nikb, ubm vkz sunsmbmeg mqukf eklkhtg ekbtrg ek fm trmditmhiøb disdm ekf rkhursg, rksgfvkr ym sgnrk kf lgbeg. e) Fm [email protected]^B rksgfvkrí kf rkhursg ekbtrg ek fgs 8? eäms cínifks si`uikbtks m su rkhkphiøb g, kb su hmsg, m fm tkrdibmhiøb ek tgems fms eifi`kbhims. Kf Eirkhtgr rksgfvkrí sgnrk fm prgpukstm lgrdufmem pgr kf Xuneirkhtgr kb lgrdm mbífg`m mf mutg, y sk punfihmrí kb kf ‖Ngfktäb ek Iblgrdmhiøb ekf Dibistkrig ek  Austihim—, kb kf mbumrig mbumrig ekf Hkbtrg Eirkhtivg y, humbeg skm hgbvkbikbtk, hgbvkbikbtk, kb kf NGK. k) Xi sk mfk`mskb g eishutikskb ckhcgs quk mlkhtkb m hukstigbks dmtridgbimfks, dmtridgb imfks, mf cgbgr privmeg g sgnrk fms humfks bg sk pukem hkrtilihmr finrkdkbtk, fm [email protected]^B megptmrí fms dkeiems pmrm quk bg trmshikbem fm iekbtieme ek fgs ibtkrksmegs. Xi mf rksgfvkr sk cihikrm mf`ubm mevkrtkbhim m lubhigbmrigs, sk gditirí su kxprksiøb kdpfkmbeg fm lrmsk ‖y fg ekdís mhgremeg—. l) Fm rksgfuhiøb ekf rkhursg skrí bgtilihmem mf Dibistkrig Lishmf y pmrtks m trmvés ekf ør`mbg huym ekhisiøb sk rkhurriø kb =ª Ibstmbhim. Lirdk fm rksgfuhiøb, sk rkditirí m kstk ñftidg kf kxpkeikbtk pmrm su mrhcivg. `) Libmfdkbtk, hgbtrm fms rksgfuhigbks ek fm Eirkhhiøb bg hmnk rkhursg mf`ubg, smfvg smfvg humbeg hgrrkspgbem fm väm aueihimf greibmrim. 8.8 Xifkbhig medibistrmtivg medibistrmtivg (mrt. 8;0 ^^H) Humbeg sk lgrdufk humfquikr sgfihitue g rkhursg y bg sk bgtilihmrk rksgfuhiøb kb kf pfmzg ek bgvkbtm eäms bmturmfks, kf ibtkrksmeg pgerí ekbubhimr fm dgrm, y trmbshurriegs gtrgs bgvkbtm eäms eksek fm ekbubhim pgerí hgbsiekrmr ekskstidmem su pktihiøb mf klkhtg ek ekeuhir, lrkbtk m kstm ekbk`mhiøb prksubtm, kf hgrrkspgbeikbtk rkhursg g kspkrmr fm rksgfuhiøb kxprksm ek su pktihiøb. Fm ekbk`mhiøb prksubtm bg kxhfuirí kf eknkr ek eihtmr ubm rksgfuhiøb kxprksm, y si rkhmykrm kstm, kf pfmzg pmrm lgrdufmr kf rkhursg quk prghkem sk hgbtmrí eksek fm bgtilihmhiøb ek fm disdm. 8.5 ^é`idkb ek fm kakhuhiøb Fm kxi`inifieme ekf hudpfidikbtg ek fms hmfilihmhigbks ekf rk`istrg kstí vibhufmeg mf ré`idkb ek punfihieme dmtkrimf ekf disdg: msä hgdg vkrkdgs sk`uiemdkbtk, kb tmbtg bg sk vkm idpu`bmeg eihcg ré`idkb ek punfihieme kf hgbtkbieg ekf rk`istrg sk prksudk vífieg y bg pukeg skr mtmhmeg, pueikbeg kxi`irsk kf hudpfidikbtg ek fgs ekrkhcgs quk eidmbmb ekf hgbtkbieg rk`istrmf m trmvés ekf prghksg  auriseihhigbmf hgrrkspgbeikbtk mbtk fm auriseihhiøb hivif. hivif. 0<>   keitgrimf    }         hkp Fm rkhtilihmhiøb ekf rk`istrg pgr väm ek kxpkeikbtks `unkrbmtivg g aueihimf ^KH[^XGX ][KAM Hgbtrm eifmhigbks g tríditks supkrugs g pgr gdisiøb ek tríditks quk pukemb sunsmbmrsk mbtks ek fm rksgfuhiøb eklbitivm Mbtk kf _rksiekbtk ekf UXA y si bg hgrri`ikrk mbtk fm [email protected]^B ^K_GXIHIØB Hgbtrm rksgfuhigbks rksgfuhigbks ekf Kbhmr`meg quk bg eé fu`mr m hmfilhmhmfilhm hiøb g kxpkeikbtk _fmzg1 = dks Mbtk kf prgpig Kbhmr`meg quk rksgfvkrí kb 8 eäms bmturmfks M_KFMHIØB Hgbtrm ekhisigbks ekf Kbhmr`meg ekf ^k`istrg kb dmtkrim ek hmfilhmhiøb y kxpkeikbtks g quk fm quk rksukfvm rkhursg ek rkvisiøb _fmzg1 8? eäms bmturmfks trmtíbegsk ek hmfilhmhigbks y =; cící nifks trmtíbegsk ek kxpkeikbtks g rksgfuhiøb quk rksukfvm kb rkpgsihiøb Mbtk fm [email protected]^B Bg hmnk rkhursg mf`ubg, smfvg humbeg hgrrkspgbem m fm väm  auriseihhigbmf  auriseihhigb mf greibmrim 5. FM _[NFIHIEME EKF ^[email protected]^G HI\IF1 _[NFIHIEME DMUK^IMF Y LG^DMF 5.= _unfihieme dmtkrimf y lgrdmf Cmy quk eistib`uir kb kstm dmtkrim fg quk ks kf ckhcg ek cmhkr klkhtivm ksm punfihieme ekf vmfgr prgnmtgrig ek fgs msikbtgs. Kb kf pridkr supukstg kstmdgs mbtk fm ffmdmem punfihieme lgrdmf, quk bg ks sibg kf dkeig g dkhmbisdg ek kxtkrigrizmr fgs emtgs quk lgrdmb kf hgbtkbieg ek fgs msikbtgs rk`istrmfks. Kb kf sk`ubeg hmsg, kstmdgs mbtk fm punfihieme dmtkrimf, quk sk vm m rklkrir mf vmfgr g klihmhim ek ksgs msikbtgs (pruknm ek fgs ckhcgs ibshritgs). Xk`ñb kf mrt. < ek fm F^H, kf ^k`istrg ks pñnfihg pmrm quikbks tkb`mb ibtkrés kb hgbghkr fgs msikbtgs. Ksk ibtkrés sk prksudk kb fm pkrsgbm quk sgfihitm fm hkrtilihmhiøb. Bg ks prkhisg skr pkrsgbm ibtkrksmem, sibg quk nmstm tmb sgfg hgb tkbkr ibtkrés kb hgbghkr fgs msikbtgs rk`istrmfks. Fm punfihieme, tmf y hgdg eispgbk kf mrt. < ek fm F^H, sk vm m rkmfizmr m trmvés ek egs dkeigs1 fm dmbilkstmhiøb y kxmdkb ek fgs finrgs, y fms hkrtilihmhigbks. keitgrimf    }         hkp 0<8 _rghkeidikbtgs Aueihimfks. H) ^k`istrg Hivif. Ukdm 5> Fm punfihieme ekf ^k`istrg pukek skr1 - Lgrdmf1 dkeig pmrm kxtkrigrizm kxtkrigrizmrr fgs emtgs quk lgrdmb kf hgbtkbieg ek fgs msikbtgs rk`istrmfks. - Dmtkrimf1 sk rklikrk mf vmfgr g klihmhim klihmhim ek ksgs ksgs msikbtgs. 5.> ^kstrihhigbks m fm punfihieme Xmnäm quk Kf ^kmf Ekhrktg =0?/>??0, ek 9 ek lknrkrg, dgeilihø fgs mrt. >= y >> ekf ^k`fmdkbtg ekf ^k`istrg Hivif, mprgnmeg pgr Ekhrktg ek =5 ek bgvikd nrk ek =9;3, mhgd mhgdgemb gembeg eg kf ^k`fmdkbtg ekf ^k`istrg Hivif m fms dgeilihmhigbks ibtrgeuhiems pgr fm Fky =;/>??;, ek 3 ek aufig, ek dgeilihmhiøb ekf Høei`g hivif kb dmtkrim ek skpmrmhiøb y eivgrhig. Ekbtrg ek fms rkstrihhigbks m fm punfihieme ekf ^k`istrg Hivif, kbhgbtrmdgs, kb pridkr fu`mr, ubm prgcinihiøb ek hmríhtkr mnsgfutg, rkspkhtg m fgs msikbtgs ekf Finrg ek Dmtridgbigs Xkhrktgs, ek dmbkrm quk kstí prgciniem fm punfihmhiøb ek fms ibshriphigbks ek dmtridgbigs skhrktgs y sus mbtkhkekbtks eghudkbtmfks. M. Bg sk emrí punfihieme sib mutgrizmhiøb mutgrizmhiøb kspkhimf Kb kf mrt. >= ^^H, sk ibeihm quk bg sk emrí punfihieme sib mutgrizmhiøb kspkhimf1 =) Ek fm lifimhiøb lifimhiøb megptivm g ekshgbghiem g ek hirhubstmbhims quk ekshunrmb tmf hmríhtkr y ekf hmdnig ekf mpkffieg Kxpøsitg u gtrgs mbífg`gs g ibhgbvkbikbtks. >) Ek fm rkhtilihmhiøb ekf ekf skxg. 8) Ek fms hmusms ek privmhiøb privmhiøb g suspkbsiøb ek fm pmtrim pgtkstme. 5) Ek fgs eghudkbtgs mrhcivmegs, kb humbtg m fgs kxtrkdgs hitmegs kb fgs bñdkrgs mbtkrigrks g m hirhubstmbhims ekscgbrgsms g quk kstéb ibhgrpgrmegs kb kxpkeikbtk quk tkb`m hmríhtkr rkskrvmeg. ;) Ekf fk`mag ek mngrtgs. <) Ek fgs hmdnigs ek mpkffieg mutgrizmegs hgblgrdk m fg prkvistg kb kf pírrmlg tkrhkrg ekf mrtähufg >?3 ek kstk ^k`fmdkbtg (m quikb skm vähtidm ek vigfkbhim ek `ébkrg pgr Grekb ekf Dibistkrig ek Austihim). Fm mutgrizmhiøb sk hgbhkekrí pgr kf Aukz Kbhmr`meg y sgfg m quikbks austiliqukb ibtkrés fk`ätidg y rmzøb lubemem pmrm pkeirfm. Fm hkrtilihmhiøb kxprksmrí kf bgdnrk ekf sgfihitmbtk, fgs sgfgs klkhtgs pmrm quk sk finrm y fm mutgrizmhiøb kxprksm ekf Kbhmr`meg. Kstk, kb kf rk`istrg eirkhtmdkbtk m su hmr`g, kxpkeirí pgr sä disdg fm hkrtilihmhiøb. N. Bg rkquikrkb mutgrizmhiøb kspkhimf pmrm gntkbkr hkrtilihmhiø hkrtilihmhiøb b Kf mrt. >> ^^H, skýmfm quk bg rkquikrkb mutgrizmhiøb kspkhimf pmrm gntkbkr hkrtilihmhiøb1 0<5   keitgrimf    }         hkp Fm rkhtilihmhiøb ekf rk`istrg pgr väm ek kxpkeikbtks `unkrbmtivg g aueihimf =± ^kspkhtg ek fgs kxtrkdgs m quk sk rklikrk kf bñdkrg pridkrg ekf mrtähufg mbtkrigr, kf prgpig ibshritg g sus mshkbeikbtks, ekshkbeikbtks g ckrkekrgs. ^kspkhtg ek fm megphiøb pfkbm, kf megptmbtk g kf megptmeg dmygr ek keme, y rkspkhtg ek fm sidpfk, mekdís, fgs ckrkekrgs, mshkbeikbtks y ekshkbeikbtks ek ubg y gtrg. >± ^kspkhtg ek fm fm rkhtilihmhiøb ekf skxg, kf prgpig ibshritg. 8± ^kspkhtg ek fms hmusms ek privmhiøb g suspkbsiøb suspkbsiøb ek fm pmtrim pgtkstme, kf suaktg m kstm g sus mshkbeikbtks g ekshkbeikbtks g ckrkekrgs, y rkspkhtg ek fms ek bufieme ek dmtridgbig g ek skpmrmhiøb g eivgrhig, fgs høbyu`ks g sus ckrkekrgs, mekdís, kb su hmsg, ek mqukffgs. 8± ^kspkhtg ek fms hmusms ek privmhiøb g suspkbsiøb suspkbsiøb ek fm pmtrim pgtkstme, kf suaktg m kstm g sus mshkbeikbtks g ekshkbeikbtks g ckrkekrgs. 5± ^kspkhtg ek fgs eghudkbtgs mrhcivmegs, fms pkrsgbms mbtks rklkriems rklkriems kb fgs eistibtgs supukstgs, y humbeg sk trmtk ek rksgfuhiøb bgtilihmem, kf ekstibmtmrig ek fm bgtilihmhiøb. ;± ^kspkhtg ekf fk`mag ek mngrtgs, fgs pmerks. <± ^kspkhtg ek fgs hmdnigs ek mpkffieg mutgrizmegs hgblgrdk m fg prkvistg prkvistg kb kf pírrmlg tkrhkrg ekf mrt. >?3, ñbihmdkbtk fm pkrsgbm ibshritm. Mrt. >?3.8 ^k`fmdkbtg ek fm Fky ekf ^k`istrg Hivif (^^H) Kb hmsg ek quk kf sgfihitmbtk ek fm mutgrizmhiøb ekf hmdnig ek sus mpkffiegs skm gnaktg ek vigfkbhim ek `ébkrg, pgerí mhhkekrsk mf hmdnig pgr Grekb ekf Dibistrg ek Austihim. _mrm kffg eknkrí mhrkeitmrsk quk quikb mfk`uk skr gnaktg ek vigfkbhim ek `ébkrg cm gntkbieg mf`ubm dkeiem hmutkfmr ek prgtkhhiøb aueihimf kb kf hitmeg ídnitg. Umdniéb sk pgerí mhhkekr mf hmdnig ek mpkffiegs kb fm disdm lgrdm kb humfquikr supukstg kb quk fm ur`kbhim ek fm situmhiøb msä fg rkquikrm. Umdpghg rkquikrkb mutgrizmhiøb fgs quk tikbkb nmag su `umrem fms pkrsgbms mbtks rklkriems y fgs mpgekrmegs kspkhimfdkbtk pgr mqukffgs g kstms. Mubquk kf mpgekrmdikbtg kshritg g fm `umrem bg hgbstkb lkcmhikbtkdkbtk, kf Kbhmr`meg eishrkhigbmfdkbtk pgerí kstidmrfgs mhrkeitmegs. Kb fm hkrtilihmhiøb sk kxprksmrí, kb tgegs fgs supukstgs, kf bgdnrk ekf sgfihitmbtk. ;. KLIHMHIM _^GNMUG^IM EK FGX MXIKBUGX ^[email protected]^MFKX. ID_[@BMHIØB EK FM _^KX[BHIØB EK KSMHUIU[E ^[email protected]^MF ;.= Lubhiøb prgnmtgrim ekf ^k`istrg Fm Fky ekf ^k`istrg Hivif, ek 3 ek aubig ek =9;0, rkhg`k kb su mrt. > quk kf ^k`istrg Hivif hgbstituyk fm pruknm ek fgs ckhcgs ibshritgs. Xgfg kb fgs hmsgs ek lmftm ek ibshriphiøb g kb fgs quk bg lukrk pgsinfk hkrtilihmr kf msikbtg, sk meditiríb gtrgs dkeigs ek pruknm: pkrg kb kf pridkr supukstg skrí rkquisitg ibeispkbsmnfk pmrm su medisiøb quk, prkvim g siduftíbkmdkbtk, sk cmym ibstmeg fm ibshriphiøb gditiem g fm rkhgbstruhhiøb ekf msikbtg. Hgdg vkdgs kb kf mrt. > F^H, ubm ek fms lubhigbks rk`istrmfks quk hudpfk kstm ibstituhiøb ks fm prgnmtgrim y sgfg kb egs hmsgs kxhkphigbmfks sk meditiríb gtrgs dkeigs ek pruknm quk bg skmb fm ibshriphiøb kb kf ^k`istrg, hgb fg humf kstm qukem mlirdmem hgdg kf dkeig bgrdmf ek pruknm, ym quk tikbk fm lubhiøb ek emr punfihieme y skrvir ek pruknm m ckhcgs ekf kstmeg hivif. Kstm lubhiøb prgnmtgrim tmdniéb qukem rklfkamem kb fg eispukstg kb kf mrt. 8>0 Høei`g Hivif, quk kstm nfkhk quk fms mhtms ekf ^k`istrg ^k`istrg skríb fm pruknm ekf kstmeg hivif, fm humf sgfg pgerí skr supfiem pgr gtrms keitgrimf    }         hkp 0<; _rghkeidikbtgs Aueihimfks. H) ^k`istrg Hivif. Ukdm 5> kb kf hmsg ek quk bg cmymb kxistieg mqukffms g cunikskb eksmpmrkhieg fgs finrgs ekf ^k`istrg g humbeg mbtk fgs Urinubmfks sk sushitk hgbtikbem. ;.> Idpu`bmhiøb ek fm prksubhiøb ek kxmhtitue rk`istrmf Mtkbhiøb Fgs ckhcgs ibshritgs kb kf ^k`istrg `gzmb ek ubm prksubhiøb ek kxmhtitue sgfg ekstrui nfk dkei dkeimbtk mbtk rkht rkhtilih ilihmhiøb mhiøb,, y mqukffm bg ks sibg fm ffmdmem lk pñnfihm rk`istrmf, ek fm humf sk ekrivm fm klihmhim prgnmtgrim ek fgs msikbtgs rk`istrmfks. Eispgbk fm F^H kb kf mrtähufg 5, quk bg pgeríb idpu`bmrsk kb  auihig fgs ckhcgs ibshritgs kb kf rk`istrg sib quk m fm vkz sk ibstk fm rkhtilihmhiøb ekf msikbtg hgrrkspgbeikbtk. Fm ibkxmhtitue ek ub msikbtg kb kf ^k`istrg Hivif sk pgerí pfmbtkmr hgdg hukstiøb prkaueihimf m fm vistm ek fm hkrtilihmhiøb meditiem kb humfquikr auihig. Kf Aukz, gäegs fm pmrtk hgbtrmrim y kf Dibistkrig Lishmf, sgfg meditirí fm hukstiøb prkaueihimf humbeg, m su hritkrig, pukem tkbkr iblfukbhim ekhisivm kb kf pfkitg kbtmnfmeg y sk mpgrtk ub pribhipig ek pruknm ek fm ibkxmhtitue mfk`mem. Fm medisiøb bg ibtkrrudpirí kf prghkeidikbtg, pkrg suspkbekrí kf lmffg cmstm quk rkhmi`m skbtkbhim g rksgfuhiøb lirdk sgnrk sgnr k fm ibkxmhtitue. Eihcm suspkbsiøb qukemrí sib klkhtg si mf dks si`uikbtk ek skr bgtilihmem bg sk mhrkeitm quk sk cm prgdgvieg kf prghkeidikbtg mekhumeg pmrm rksgfvkr fm ibkxmhtitue mfk`mem. Humbeg fm bmturmfkzm y kf kstmeg ekf prghksg fg hgbsikbtmb, sk vkbtifmrí fm hukstiøb prkaueihimf kb kf disdg. _mrm kf prghkeidikbtg hridibmf ri`k fg eispukstg kb sus fkyks kspkhimfks. <. FM _[NFIHIEME LG^DMF1 HK^UILIHMHIGBKX, FIN^GX EK LMDIFIM Y BGUMX IBLG^DMUI\MX <.= Hkrtilihmhigbks Hgdg ym ibeihmdgs kb kf kpä`rmlk 5 mf trmtmr ek fm punfihieme dmtkrimf y lgrdmf, fm punfihieme lgrdmf hgbsistiräm kb kf dkeig g dkhmbisdg ek kxtkrigrizmr fgs emtgs quk lgrdmb kf hgbtkbieg ek fgs msikbtgs rk`istrmfks. M. Hgbhkptg Fms hkrtilihmhigbks sgb eghudkbtgs pñnfihgs kxpkeiegs pgr kf Kbhmr`meg ekf ^k`istrg g, pgr su ekfk`mhiøb, pgr kf Xkhrktmrig. Kstms pkrsgbms kstíb, mekdís, gnfi`mems m iblgrdmr m fgs ibtkrksmegs pmrm lmhifitmrfks fm punfihieme rk`istrmf. Kf ibtkrés kb hgbghkr fgs msikbtgs sk prksudk kb quikb sgfihitk fm hkrtilihmhiøb. 0<<   keitgrimf    }         hkp Fm rkhtilihmhiøb ekf rk`istrg pgr väm ek kxpkeikbtks `unkrbmtivg g aueihimf N. Hfmsks (mrt. >3 ^^H) Fms hkrtilihmhigbks pukekb skr pgsitivms g bk`mtivms y ek msikbtg g eghudkbtgs mrhcivmegs. m. Hkrtilihmhigbks pgsitivms • Ek msikbtgs Fms hkrtilihmhigbks ek msikbtgs pukekb skr1 ‘ Fitkrmfks1 hgdprkbekríb äbtk`rmdkbtk fgs msikbtgs m quk sk rklikrkb, hgb ibeihmhiøb ek fms lirdms. lirdms. ‘ Hkrtilihmhigbks kb kb kxtrmhtg u greibmrims1 hgbtikbkb fgs emtgs ek quk kspkhimfdkbtk kspkhimfdkbtk cmhk lk fm ibshriphiøb hgrrkspgbeikbtk, sk`ñb rksuftk ek fms ibshriphigbks uftkrigrks, dgeilihmtivms, sib kxprksiøb ek kstms y tmdniéb fms bgtms dmr`ibmfks ek rklkrkbhim m fms ibshriphigbks g mbgtmhigbks ek dmtridgbig, tutkfm, rkprkskbtmhiøb g eklubhiøb ekf bmhieg g fm ek bmhidikbtg. • Ek eghudkbtgs Fms hkrtilihmhigbks ek eghudkbtgs pukekb skr1 ‘ Ugtmfks ‘ Ek pmrtihufmrks1 kb fms quk sk cmríb hgbstmr quk ‖kb fg gditieg bg cmy bmem quk mdpfäk, rkstribam g dgeiliquk fg ibskrtg— y, si fg cmy, sk cmrí, bkhksmrimdkbtk, rkfmhiøb ek kffg kb fm hkrtilihmhiøb (mrt. 88.= ^^H). Umbtg fms tgtmfks hgdg fms ek pmrtihufmrks pgeríb skr, m su vkz, ‖fitkrmfks—, ‖kb rkfmhiøb— rkfmhiøb— g ‖dixtms—. Fms hkrtilihmhigbks hkrtilihmhigbks ek eghudkbtgs, kb kb `kbkrmf, pgeríb cmhkr cmhkr rklkrkbhim rklkrkbhim m kxtrkdgs hgbhrktgs hgbtkbiegs kb ub kxpkeikbtk tkrdibmeg g kb trmditmhiøb. n. Hkrtilihmhigbks bk`mtivms Xk`ñb kf mrt. 85 ^^H, fms hkrtilihmhigbks bk`mtivms ek msikbtgs g eghudkbtgs mrhcivmegs cmríb rklkrkbhim, sk`ñb fg sgfihitmeg, m ub tikdpg ektkrdibmeg g mf trmbshurrieg eksek kf kstmnfkhidikbtg ekf ^k`istrg rkspkhtivg. H. Kxpkeihiøb Kf mrt. =0 ^^H kstmnfkhk quk kf Kbhmr`meg y, pgr su ekfk`mhiøb, kf Xkhrktmrig sgb fgs ñbihgs lubhigbmrigs quk pukekb hkrtilihmr ek fgs msikbtgs ekf ^k`istrg. Bg gnstmbtk, kf mrt. 55.8 ^^H rkhg`k fm pgsinifieme ek quk kstm lubhiøb rkhmi`m kb kf Glihimf cmnifitmeg kb quikb kf Xkhrktmrig, m su vkz ekfk`uk, prkvim mutgrizmhiøb ekf Kbhmr`meg. E. Dgeg ek gntkbkr gntkbkr g cmhkrsk fm pktihiøb ek hkrtilihmhiøb _mrm gntkbkr hkrtilihmhigbks bg ks bkhksmrim sgfihitue pgr kshritg, kxhkptg (mrt. >8 ^^H)1 ‘ Xi fm fm nushm cm ek kxhkekr ek > mýgs. ‘ _mrm fms quk rkquikrmb mutgrizmhiøb prkvim. ‘ _mrm fms bk`mtivms, bk`mtivms, quk bkhksmrimdkbtk sk rklikrmb mf tikdpg kxprksmdkbtk ibeihmeg pgr kf sgfihitmbtk. ‘ Humbeg sk prktkbem quk, quk, kb su hmsg, sk lgrdmfihk rksgfuhiøb ekbk`mtgrim. ‘ Humbeg sk prkskbtk kb glihibm eistibtm ek fm quk quk cm ek finrmr fm hkrtilihmhiøb. keitgrimf    }         hkp 0<0 _rghkeidikbtgs Aueihimfks. H) ^k`istrg Hivif. Ukdm 5> Fm sgfihitue hgbtkberí fgs emtgs bkhksmrigs pmrm fm nushm. Fms hkrtilihmhigbks quk sk sgfihitkb hgb ur`kbhim sk kxpkeiríb g ekbk`mríb kb >5 cgrms (mrt. >5 ^^H). Fms rkstmbtks ekbtrg ek fgs 8 eäms bmturmfks si`uikbtks m fm pktihiøb (mrt. < ^^H). K. Hgbtkbieg M tkbgr ekf mrt. >0 ^^H, kb fms hkrtilihmhigbks hgbstmríb1 ‘ Kf ^k`istrg, ^k`istrg, hgb ibeihmhiøb kb fgs Dubihipmfks, ekf térdibg térdibg y prgvibhim, y kb fgs Hgbsufmrks, ek fm pgnfmhiøb y Kstmeg. ‘ Fms dkbhigbks ek iekbtieme ekf ibshritg quk mpmrkzhmb kb fm ibshriphiøb pribhipmf. ‘ Fm pí`ibm y tgdg ekf msikbtg g kf lgfig y fk`mag hgrrkspgbeikbtk. ‘ Fms ekdís hirhubstmbhims kxi`iems. Idpgrtmbtk Fgs eklkhtgs g fm`ubms ekf msikbtg sk cmríb hgbstmr kb hmrmhtkrks ekstmhmegs pgr kf sunrmymeg g eivkrsg hgfgr g tipg ek fktrm. ‘ Fm lkhcm, kf bgdnrk y fm lirdm ekf Kbhmr`meg g ekf Xkhrktmrig quk hkrtiliquk, y skffg ek fm glihibm. L. Lgrdm ek fms hkrtilihmhigb hkrtilihmhigbks ks Fms hkrtilihmhigbks sk kxtkbekríb sib ekamr kspmhig pmrm trmbshriphigbks dmr`ibmfks. Fgs msikbtgs dmr`ibmfks sk trmbshriniríb m hgbtibumhiøb ekf tkxtg, mbtks ek fm lkhcm y lirdm. Hmnk hkrtilihmr sgnrk hgpims ek fgs msikbtgs, gntkbiegs pgr lgtg`rmläm g prghkeidikbtgs mbífg`gs ekf dgeg quk mutgrihk fm Eirkhhiøb @kbkrmf (mrt. >< ^^H). <.> Finrgs ek Lmdifim Xk kbhukbtrm rk`ufmeg kb fgs mrtähufgs 8< m 5? ekf ^^H. Kf Finrg ek Lmdifim sk mnrk hgb fm hkrtilihmhiøb ekf dmtridgbig bg skhrktg y hgbtikbk suhksivms cgams ekstibmems m hkrtilihmr fms ibeihmhigbks rk`istrmfks sgnrk kf ré`idkb khgbødihg ek fm sghikeme hgbyu`mf, kf bmhidikbtg ek fgs ciags hgdubks y ek fgs megptmegs hgbaubtmdkbtk pgr mdngs hgbtrmykbtks, kf lmffkhidikbtg ek fgs høbyu`ks y fm bufieme, eivgrhig g skpmrmhiøb ekf dmtridgbig. Umdniéb sk kbtrk`mrí Finrg ek Lmdifim mf prg`kbitgr g prg`kbitgrks ek ub ciag bg dmtridgbimf y m fm pkrsgbm g pkrsgbms quk megptkb m ub dkbgr. Xk cmrí hgbstmr, kb su hmsg, kf dmtridgbig quk pgstkrigrdkbtk hgbtrmi`mb kbtrk sä fgs titufmrks ekf Finrg. Kb kf Finrg sk mskbtmrí hgb vmfgr ek hkrtilihmhigbks humfquikr ckhcg quk mlkhtk m fm pmtrim pgtkstme y fm eklubhiøb ek fgs ciags, si ghurrk mbtks ek fm kdmbhipmhiøb. 0<3   keitgrimf    }         hkp Fm rkhtilihmhiøb ekf rk`istrg pgr väm ek kxpkeikbtks `unkrbmtivg g aueihimf Fgs msikbtgs-hkrtilihmhigbks sgb kb kxtrmhtg, sib trmbshriphiøb ek bgtms y kb fgs ek bmhidikbtgs bg sk kxprksmrí fm hfmsk ek lifimhiøb. _ukekb rkhtilihmrsk kb virtue ek uftkrigr msikbtg-hkrtilihmhiøb. Kf Finrg ek Lmdifim sk kbtrk`mrí m sus titufmrks, g m pkrsgbms mutgrizmems pgr kstgs, ibdkeimtmdkbtk ekspués ek fm ibshriphiøb ekf dmtridgbig kb kf ^k`istrg greibmrig g, smfvg quk ym fg tuvikrkb, humbeg sk ibshrinm ubm lifimhiøb bg dmtridgbimf g ubm megphiøb. Humbeg fm kbtrk`m ekf Finrg tkb`m fu`mr pgr hgbskhukbhim ek fm ibshriphiøb ek ubm megphiøb, cmnrí ek hmbhkfmrsk kf msikbtg ek bmhidikbtg quk li`urk kb kf mbtkrigr Finrg ek Lmdifim kxpkeieg, kb su hmsg, mf prg`kbitgr g prg`kbitgrks pgr bmturmfkzm. Xi kb kstk Finrg mbtkrigr hgbstm ñbihmdkbtk ksk msikbtg ek bmhidikbtg, eihcg Finrg skrí mbufmeg. Fm kbtrk`m ekf Finrg, humfquikrm quk skm kf tikdpg kb quk tkb`m fu`mr, sk cmrí hgbstmr sikdprk mf dmr`kb ek fm hgrrkspgbeikbtk ibshriphiøb ekf dmtridgbig g, kb eklkhtg ek kstk, kb hmem ubm ek fms ibshriphigbks ek bmhidikbtg. Fgs høbyu`ks g kf titufmr g titufmrks ek fm pmtrim pgtkstme tkberíb sikdprk kf Finrg hgrrkspgbeikbtk. Kb hmsg ek péreiem g ektkrigrg, gntkberíb ekf disdg ^k`istrg ub eupfihmeg, kb kf quk sk kxtkbekríb fms hkrtilihmhigbks gpgrtubms. Kb kf eupfihmeg sk kxprksmrí quk sustituyk mf priditivg y ek su kxpkeihiøb sk tgdmrí kb fms ibshriphigbks hgrrkspgbeikbtks ekf ^k`istrg. Kf titufmr ekf Finrg kxi`irí quk kb éf sk kxtikbemb tgems fms hkrtilihmhigbks pkrtibkbtks ibdkeimtmdkbtk ek fm ibshriphiøb. Kf Kbhmr`meg ekf ^k`istrg vkfmrí, kspkhimfdkbtk, pgr kf hudpfidikbtg ek kstm gnfi`mhiøb. Kf Kbhmr`meg lmhifitmrí `rmtuitmdkbtk m fgs titufmrks ekf Finrg, fms cgams supfktgrims m fgs idprksgs bkhksmrims, ekf disdg tmdmýg y ek pmpkf hgdñb. Fms cgams supfktgrims skríb runrihmems pgr kf Kbhmr`meg y skffmems hgb kf ek fm glihibm, g lihibm, y su bñdkrg sk kxprksmrí pgr eifi`kbhim mf libmf ek fm ñftidm. Mekdís, bg skrí bkhksmrig kxpkeir g mhtumfizmr kf hgbtkbieg ekf Finrg ek Lmdifim humbeg sk mhgdpmýk ek fm hkrtilihmhiøb fitkrmf kfkhtrøbihm mhrkeitmtivm ekf bmhidikbtg m quk sk rklikrk kf mrtähufg 55.9 ek fm Fky >?/>?==, ek >= ek aufig, ekf ^k`istrg Hivif (sk`ñb fm EM. 8ª ek fm Fky =9/>?=;, ek =8 ek aufig, ek dkeiems ek rklgrdm medibistrmtivm kb kf ídnitg ek fm Medibistrmhiøb ek Austihim y ekf ^k`istrg Hivif). <.8 Bgtms iblgrdmtivms Fms mutgriemeks y lubhigbmrigs, humbeg fg kxiamb fgs msubtgs ek su rkspkhtivm lubhiøb y hgb ibeihmhiøb ek fgs disdgs, pukekb hgbghkr, pgr kxmdkb eirkhtg, hkrtilihmhiøb g bgtm sidpfk iblgrdmtivm, kf hgbtkbieg ek humfquikr msikbtg g eghudkbtg ekf ^k`istrg, smfvg fgs hgrrkspgbeikbtks mf Finrg ek dmtridgbigs Xkhrktgs. Ibtkrksmem ek glihig, hkrtilihmhiøb g bgtm, sidpfk, sgnrk dís ek ub lgfig rk`istrmf, kf Kbhmr`meg pukek gptmr pgr fm dmbilkstmhiøb ek Finrgs, kxhkptg quk gtrm hgsm sk idpgb`m pgr Fky g Ekhrktg g pgr fm Eirkhhiøb @kbkrmf. Kb kstgs ñftidgs hmsgs pgerí hgdprkbekrsk kb ubm sgfm hkrtilihmhiøb kf hgbtkbieg ek eilkrkbtks lgfigs. Kb hmsg ek ekbk`mhiøb ek ubm hkrtilihmhiøb sgfihitmem, sk`ñb kf mrt. >; ^^H, sk kxpkeirí bgtm sidpfk g, si sk sgfihitø, sk lgrdmfizmrí rksgfuhiøb ekbk`mtgrim, hgb rklkrkbhim kb mdngs hmsgs m fm sgfihitue, ibeihmbeg su lkhcm y pktihigbmrig. Fm bgtm y rksgfuhiøb skrí dgtivmem kb tmbtg bg rkvkfk emtg mf`ubg ek quk bg pukem hkrtilihmrsk y, kb su hmsg, kxprksmrí kb lgrdm `kbkrmf quk sgfg pukekb sgfihitmr hkrtilihmhiøb fms pkrsgbms skýmfmems pgr fms eispgsihigbks vi`kbtks. Xi sk kbtmnfm rkhursg hgbtrm fm rksgfuhiøb, kf Kbhmr`meg kfkvmrí iblgrdk rkskrvmeg sgnrk fgs dgtivgs ek fm ekbk`mhiøb. keitgrimf    }         hkp 0<9 _rghkeidikbtgs Aueihimfks. H) ^k`istrg Hivif. Ukdm 5> _gr ñftidg, kf mrt. 8; ^^H kstmnfkhk quk ek fg disdg quk sk pukek hkrtilihmr sk emrí, sib `mrmbtäm, bgtm sidpfk iblgrdmtivm m quikb fg sgfihitk. ^é`idkb mpfihmnfk m pmrtir ek fm kbtrmem kb vi`gr ek fm F^H->?== 00?   keitgrimf    }         hkp