Preview only show first 10 pages with watermark. For full document please download

Group Behavior





Foundations of Group Behavior & Understanding Work Team NISHA HARIYANI Definition of a Group A collection of individuals, the members accept a common task, become interdependent in their performance, and interact with one another to promote its accomplishment Harold H. Kelley  and J.W. Thibaut  The Nature of groups Three views :  Normative views describes how a group is to be organized and how its activities are to be carried out.  Group dynamics consists of a set of  techniques.  Dynamics of Group Formation  Theory of PropinquityPropinquity- People associate with one another due to geographical proximity.  Balance TheoryTheory- People who have similar  attitudes toward certain objects and goals tend to form a group.  Exchange TheoryTheory- The reward-cost outcomes of  interactions serve as the basis for group formation Various Types of Groups Formal groups Informal Groups      Command groups Task groups   Friendship groups Interest groups     Small groups Large groups Primary groups Secondary groups Coalitions Membership groups Reference groups Formal Groups   These groups are formed by the organization to carry out specific tasks. It includes two types:  Command group  Task groups  Formal Groups contd… Command Group:  Represented in the organization chart.  Permanent in nature.  Members report to common supervisors.  Functional reporting relationship exists. Task groups:  Formed to carry out specific tasks.  Temporary in nature. Informal Groups  Informal groups are formed by the employees themselves. Hence they are not formally structured. They are of two types:   Friendship groups  Interest groups Other types Include Small groups:  Only a few members.  Face-to-face interaction and better  communication is possible. Large groups:  Members is very high.  Personal interaction is not possible. Primary group:  It is made up of members who have similar and loyalties and has a feeling of friendship fr iendship towards each other. Secondary groups:  They share same values and beliefs, but because of the size of the group, gr oup, they do not interact often with each other  Coalitions:  They are created by members for a specific purposed and do not have a formal structure. Membership groups:  They are the groups to which individual actually belongs. Reference groups:  It is actually the groups to which an individual would like to belong. Stages of Group Development Stages of Group Development The five-Stage Model: Adjourning/Mourning Completion, ending or evolution Performing Achieving the purpose Norming Agreeing purpose and conduct Storming Resolving differences Forming Initial meeting together  Punctuated Equilibrium Model PunctuatedEquilibrium Model  Temporary groups go through transitions between inertia and activity. Sequence of actions: 2. Set etttin ing g gr grou oup p di dire rect ctio ion n 3. First ph phas ase e of of in inert rtiia 4. Hal alff-way way po poin intt tr tran ansi siti tion on 5. Major changes 6. Sec econ ond d pha hase se of in iner erti tia a 7. Acc cce elerated ac activity Group Structure It helps shape the behavior of its members, predict the behavior and guide the performance of  the group as a whole.  Formal leadership  Leader’s behavior has a significant impact on the group behavior and performance  Style of a leader is imitated by the members of  the group. Roles Set of behavior pattern which an individual occupying a certain position in society is expected to display.   Dimensions of role are:  Role Identity Role perception Role Expectations Role Conflict Norms Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members. Norms pertaining to performance related process  Appearance norms  Norms pertaining to informal social arrangements  Norms that regulate the allocation of resources  Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or  group members by others. Example : a cabin of one’s own an air conditioner etc Size of a Group Groups of 5-7 members exercise the best elements of both small and large groups.  Social Loafing - The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. Composition of a Group  Most group activities require a variety of  skills and knowledge. Research studies show that heterogeneous groups are likely to perform effectively. more Group Tasks The effectiveness of a group is influenced by the complexity and the interdependence of the task to be performed by its members.  Large groups facilitate pooling of information e.g. addition of a diverse perspective to a problemsolving committee.  Group Processes  The processes that go on within a work group e.g. communication patterns, group decision processes, leader behaviour, power dynamics, conflict interactions etc.  Synergy.  Social facilitation effect. Dynamics of Informal Groups Norms and roles in informal groups  Norms: Roles: sharper, plant, monitor evaluator, team worker, implementer,  co coordinator, complete fisher, resource specialist investigator, Significance of Informal Groups: Informal group are quite powerful and influential because the members of the group have a lot in common and depend on each other to carry our  organizational activities.  Difficulties and problems Associated with informal Groups  Prevent organizational changes  Role conflict  Increased scope for rumor   Pressure to conform to group norms Dynamics of formal work Groups Although group dynamics is generally associated with informal norms and roles, formally designated work groups also have noticeable dynamics. Example: Committee Positive Attributes of Committees It facilitates the integration of the ideas and opinions of the members.  It brings together people with varied experience, knowledge and abilities.  It helps in the development and growth of human resources  It helps in the development and growth of human resources  Negative Attributes of Committees  very time-consuming and costly.  responsible for a bad decision or mistake Understanding Understanding Work Teams Definition of Work Teams A small number of people with complemen-tary skills who are committed to a common purpose, common performance goals, and an approach for  which they hold themselves mutually accountable”. -G. Moorhead and R.W. Griffin Benefits of Work Teams • Enhanced performance • Employee benefits • Reduced costs • Organizational enhancements Team Versus Group: What’s the Difference Work Group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of  responsibility. Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of  Types of Teams Problem-Solving Teams Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. Self-Managed Work Teams Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of  their former supervisors. Types of Teams (cont’d) Cross-Functional Teams Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. • Task forces • Committee s Types of Teams Virtual Teams  Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. Team Effectiveness • Providing a supportive environment: •. Relevant skills and role clarity: • Focus on superordiante goals. • Team rewards: Shaping Individuals Into Team Players  Selection: Good interpersonal skills  Training: Can be trained by specialists  Rewards: Financial or non financial rewards Applying Group Concepts to Teams: Towards Creating Effective Teams Size of work teams  Abilities of members  Allocation of work roles  Strong commitment to a common purpose  Specifying clear and realistic performance goals  Good leadership and effective structure  Preventing social loafing and determining accountability  Proper evaluation and reward systems  Generating mutual trust among team members  Teams and Total Quality Management TQM means process improvement and employee involvement is the key to process improvement.  Teams and Workforce Diversity Diversified teams provide unique and innovative solutions, but at the same time, they are cohesive. Teams and Workforce Diversity Advantages  Multiple perspectives  Greater openness to new ideas  Multiple interpretations Increased creativity  Increased problem actions solving skills Disadvantages Ambiguity Complexity Confusion interpretations Miscommunication Difficulty in reaching a single agreement Difficulty in agreeing on specific