Foundations of Group Behavior & Understanding Work Team
Definition of a Group
A collection of individuals, the members accept a common task, become interdependent in their performance, and interact with one another to promote its accomplishment Harold H. Kelley and J.W. Thibaut
The Nature of groups
Three views :
Normative views describes how a group is
to be organized and how its activities are to be carried out.
Group dynamics consists of a set of
Dynamics of Group Formation
Theory of PropinquityPropinquity- People associate with
one another due to geographical proximity.
Balance TheoryTheory- People who have similar
attitudes toward certain objects and goals tend to form a group.
Exchange TheoryTheory- The reward-cost outcomes of
interactions serve as the basis for group formation
Various Types of Groups
Command groups Task groups
Friendship groups Interest groups
Small groups Large groups Primary groups Secondary groups Coalitions Membership groups Reference groups
These groups are formed by the organization to carry out specific tasks.
It includes two types: Command group Task groups
Formal Groups contd… Command Group:
Represented in the organization chart.
Permanent in nature.
Members report to common supervisors.
Functional reporting relationship exists.
Task groups: Formed to carry out specific tasks. Temporary in nature.
Informal groups are formed by the employees themselves. Hence they are not formally structured.
They are of two types:
Other types Include Small groups: Only a few members. Face-to-face interaction and better communication is possible. Large groups: Members is very high. Personal interaction is not possible.
Primary group: It
is made up of members who have similar and loyalties and has a feeling of friendship fr iendship towards each other.
Secondary groups: They
share same values and beliefs, but because of the size of the group, gr oup, they do not interact often with each other
are created by members for a specific purposed and do not have a formal structure.
Membership groups: They are the groups to which individual actually belongs. Reference groups: It is actually the groups to which an individual would like to belong.
Stages of Group Development
Stages of Group Development The five-Stage Model: Adjourning/Mourning Completion, ending or evolution Performing Achieving the purpose Norming Agreeing purpose and conduct Storming Resolving differences Forming Initial meeting together
Punctuated Equilibrium Model PunctuatedEquilibrium Model
Temporary groups go through transitions between inertia and activity.
Sequence of actions: 2. Set etttin ing g gr grou oup p di dire rect ctio ion n 3.
First ph phas ase e of of in inert rtiia
4. Hal alff-way way po poin intt tr tran ansi siti tion on 5.
6. Sec econ ond d pha hase se of in iner erti tia a 7.
Acc cce elerated ac activity
Group Structure It helps shape the behavior of its members, predict the behavior and guide the performance of the group as a whole.
Leader’s behavior has a significant impact on
the group behavior and performance
Style of a leader is imitated by the members of
Roles Set of behavior pattern which an individual occupying a certain position in society is expected to display.
Dimensions of role are:
Role Identity Role
Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members. Norms pertaining to performance related process Appearance norms Norms pertaining to informal social arrangements Norms that regulate the allocation of resources
Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Example : a cabin of one’s own an air conditioner etc
Size of a Group Groups of 5-7 members exercise the best elements of both small and large groups.
Social Loafing - The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.
Composition of a Group
Most group activities
skills and knowledge. Research studies show that
groups are likely to perform effectively.
The effectiveness of a group is influenced by the complexity and the interdependence of the task to be performed by its members.
Large groups facilitate pooling of information e.g. addition of a diverse perspective to a problemsolving committee.
The processes that go on within a work group
processes, leader behaviour, power dynamics, conflict interactions etc.
Dynamics of Informal Groups Norms and roles in informal groups
coordinator, complete fisher, resource specialist
Significance of Informal Groups: Informal group are quite powerful and influential because the members of the group have a lot in common and depend on each other to carry our organizational activities.
Difficulties and problems Associated with informal Groups
Prevent organizational changes
Increased scope for rumor
Pressure to conform to group norms
Dynamics of formal work Groups Although group dynamics is generally associated with
designated work groups also have noticeable dynamics. Example: Committee
Positive Attributes of Committees It facilitates the integration of the ideas and opinions of the members.
It brings together people with varied experience, knowledge and abilities.
It helps in the development and growth of human resources
It helps in the development and growth of human resources
Negative Attributes of Committees
very time-consuming and costly.
responsible for a bad decision or mistake
Understanding Understanding Work Teams
Definition of Work Teams A
complemen-tary skills who are committed to
performance goals, and an approach for which
accountable”. -G. Moorhead and R.W. Griffin
Benefits of Work Teams • Enhanced performance • Employee benefits • Reduced costs • Organizational enhancements
Team Versus Group: What’s the Difference Work Group
A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of
Types of Teams Problem-Solving Teams
Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. Self-Managed Work Teams Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors.
Types of Teams (cont’d) Cross-Functional Teams
Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task.
• Task forces • Committee
Types of Teams Virtual Teams
Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal.
• Providing a supportive environment: •. Relevant skills and role clarity: • Focus on superordiante goals. • Team rewards:
Shaping Individuals Into Team Players
Good interpersonal skills
Can be trained by specialists
Financial or non financial rewards
Applying Group Concepts to Teams: Towards Creating Effective Teams Size of work teams Abilities of members Allocation of work roles Strong commitment to a common purpose Specifying clear and realistic performance goals
Good leadership and effective structure Preventing social loafing and determining accountability Proper evaluation and reward systems Generating mutual trust among team members
Teams and Total Quality Management TQM means process improvement and employee involvement is the key to process improvement.
Teams and Workforce Diversity Diversified
innovative solutions, but at the same time, they are cohesive.
Teams and Workforce Diversity Advantages
Greater openness to new ideas
Multiple interpretations Increased creativity
Increased problem actions solving skills
Disadvantages Ambiguity Complexity Confusion interpretations Miscommunication Difficulty in reaching a single agreement Difficulty in agreeing on specific