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How To Write Clearly: Rules And Exercises On - Forgotten Books




How WRITE TO RULES EXER""$]"S AND ENGLISH CLEARLY. COMPOSITION. BY REV. HEAD THE EDWIN MASTER THE A. OF AUTHOR'S ABBOTT, CIT^'OF THE LONDON COPYRIGHT BOSTON: ROBERTS BROTHERS. 1876. M.A., SCHOOL. EDITION. MOSES BERNARD Cambridge : Press of John Wilson and Son. PREFACE. ALMOST so English every far least at of words. boy clearness as Force, difficult to teach, writing can be writing clearly depends and elegance, and far the the of variety rules. to main of clearly, arrangement style learn to are more but ; teach the these Rules To object write to upon difficult more reduced is taught be can clear of art and Exercises. Ambiguity but also from other from and words, arise, may removable by not neglected, are obscurity dozen of art clearly. writing almost acquisition forcible But mere manipulation of implies more. much forcibly valuable as " a Parliament, all, above lutions reso- of instances abundant of neglect monotonous tinually con- some rules. simple The the from arising this suggest to in Speeches furnish though few and articles, and, and are in some ambiguity, case. public meetings, at out single causes considered point to of each in narratives newspaper is of therefore, prominently causes remedies These and rules, rather recurring definite definite arrangement, misuse the from " bad from thought. not object My causes confused not book. only not 781074 is ; it is of a not, of art and higher writing clear like mechanism much valuable a course, the as expression question words is, of of power, pression, ex- the and 6 Preface. Writing clearly man think may himself,but will) be able clearly is a reason may (though and be clearlyexpressed writing is the other (to must Jews " by Titus. implies knowledge, and it have must well implies to eyes words as writing, and of forcible who often a vivid a the vivid sentence help knowledge writing ; in the The Latin and forcible far less to the Greek them a of stand in long a ThucydMes idiom our rules. write to periods that as exercises, clear devoted links writer hence, though and the into It of knowledge, Hence space The ? everything, sees. easily rendered of great deal of terminated ex- imply writing also, is enable to clearly. not are the of this side he tasteful is clear "almost as imagination. what studying of English Cicero most are need some very writing is exemplified especial and does see than writing occupies Boys what and captured," but But also course " as subdued" describe to of rules matter and write forcibly, describe illustration) salt,"not " being as the it. is to man a with sown not if of it reveals when beneath can medium transparent well-known " is concerned illogicalthought or the meaning a Writing that. repeated according beneficial hand, use Jerusalem as the indeed, of the illogicalnature he and obscure least not he that adverbs, conjunctions, prepositions, Even ; probable all for Dogberry as of words auxiliaryverbs, placed definite rules.1 On clearly of to clear it is not arrangement as matter mere obscurely as write to A imply thinking clearly. not and far so " " he does connect without English an sentence. There is logical,than as 1 Punctuation referred slovenly fault better scarcely any is to of in the task fullydiscussed this book trustingtoo only much of training,rhetorical to far English Grammars, as is necessary punctuation, and to too and point little to well into construing Thucydides in most so as is therefore out the ment. arrange- Preface. genuine English English and in for the and examinations our language. should pupils our By Greek construing good and Latin pupils systematically unlearn pick to I must Bain's treatise to his been able to agree taste ; but I find the be " of use better known.1 between for instance, latelyin are a pedants and Rhetoric," Bain and matters of admiration for to as express my " Bain's ; it is the rule 8) deserves (see Rule of his of suggestiveness which forms always not ambiguity produced by Radical many the fusion con- is not Relative a Take, practicallyserious. is "and they, i.e. all "there that admitting Therefore, have a whether say members his useful to to stress point House who Christian." a the in the members meaning House," of the Bain, apparently rule,amends to me seems laying due the being Professor that endeavoured for Radical many "c."? manner while is to the Radical exceptions no in Minister who good a cannot in sentences hence, are members Prime years rule, I Shakespeare. following sentence, which appeared ablest of our There weekly periodicals: forgive the House from the Twenty or " and two been " one good cannot " have our may particular,Professor In The these fiction of mere that English, I have Professor it difficult to Composition. on bad they English Grammar. with college for and Composition systematic thoroughness book to and native their large obligations to Professor very "English on also on what Milton acknowledge and the from up into current pass over school at rated tole- increasing the of possess marks getting to instead Greek- is often that is allowed diminishes English, that allowed long-winded flat,vague, Latin-English imposture genuine power ; but 7 on out many intolerablyharsh. the utilityof the and explain the exceptions. 1 Before between meeting the with Professor Relatives "Shakespearian Grammar," is Bain's generally paragraph 259. rule, I had observed shown that the by Shakespeare. ence differSee Preface. 8 rules The intended stated are not the while is of given given, are exercises The viva with the made. unclassified his ; but for the own common is the fault in each what Besides each references sentence, to difficulty any that be how tioned ques- they require not any non-arrangement mixed together anything show industry, to exercises first been for alterations it is rules, notes the used relyingupon him be amended. to attached are ought painstaking boy a has he provided the to so and revised, may purposely and case, be will rather or been sense also several prevent the pupil from to and them, teachers have rules. the out are being shut, the pupils, before arrangement They may by that examples written they rules illustrate to books The reasons of the exercises. be to exercises the few but prove, Experienced explanation of The ference re- exercises. the prove are for as the at to attempt intended written to as but to usually are their have not instruction. voce working examples. are exercises as is no themselves by use pupil Consequently, there accumulations for much so possible,and brieflyas as not of twelve to present thirteen, or fairlytrained to in English grammar. The " Continuous and those for whom modernize, to of the and and Clarendon, and intended are authors, but to show intended. speak, to improve how upon their modern by teacher is 1 from Sir Archibald this author pupil,there Alison are stands intended on to a exhibit the older than My ambitious, different dangers object has, style of might The loss is these be recognized footing. pressed ex- of the charm in my of attempt style of Burnet, the nothing, very culty, diffi- appear English. if the more The meaning style is necessarilylost,but and the explanation. some to somewhat Butler,1 may Bishop clearlyin more boys are clarify,so been not for rather present Exercises perhaps requires course, " Extracts both opinion, to The extracts verbosity and geration. exag- Preface. counterbalance Bain speaks exercise, the of method better it expression. imperfectly respects laws the to writers and the be might exclusively, drawn not be other or prescribe passages some older Our proprieties of style. though in English an way to according amended be to some than but containing good matter, worded, For : pupil disciplinedin giving the no in " l effect same should matter supplied, and I know the to fessor Pro- exercises. utilityof such obvious the 9 tensively, ex- for upon this purpose." To of the some I indebted am desire I to and of Fellow St. the of London ; also to School, particular the in already English People," these revising pages. the to of several R. for School, Rev. J. I must Fellow Vardy, and copious colleagues my whom among A. Rev. been John's College, Cambridge, of St. Paul's Master suggestions in for especial obligations valuable City help has help Lessons further express Second whose English for Lupton, late H. " in acknowledged friends at mention of Trinity College,Cambridge. Before I wish book of electrotypingthe to has Rules say one been for word used reference construing, from 36, 37, about Metaphor and correcting faults I have middle may of be classes * " their Thucydides 5, 30, 34, of of and in our to of great have their the a collection Latin in have been and rules Greek well schools. Rhetoric," found useful this way, as In The use. also highest English Composition and this construing lessons. hopes that, used service Edition^ in which manner especially, I 400, Climax taste the Revised highest class,as my in Rules book to as by and Fourth p. viL positions. com- this as in to little the CONTENTS. PAGE INDEX OF RULES 11"13 RULES 14 40 " SHORT 63 EXERCISES 41 " CONTINUOUS EXERCISES 64 CLARENDON 70 " " BURNET " 70"73 " BUTLER 74"75 " SIR " " ARCHIBALD ALISON 76"78 INDEX RULES. OF I. CLEARNESS AND FORCE. WORDS. USE 1. words in their 2. exaggerations. 3. Avoid useless 4. Be careful circumlocution in the . . . careful in the careful the 5. Be 6. Report a speech ambiguity. avoid Use a. speaker 6 b. 7. you cases Do 9. or First where Person, where " the he "that," " words exact use of the " " it," and or if use allows. euphony " " for "while," what " " or is which," or he" "for Person. " who " Pronoun, which and to necessary in Relative and " use not "it," be to that the using meaning is other "he," the in words, e.g. " certain." "'they," "these," "c. given. a speech in the Third use a Participle implying "when," show "that," clearly by the context When if the In . ambiguous Person " of Omission When of use intended not are of use Third the "though," implied. 8. in writing." "not or," "that." "not Be a. 6 of use "fine and . "only," 4 sense. proper Avoid for it." Exceptions. which." : (a] Participle or Adjective ; Equivalents for the Relative "c. ; (d) "Ifaman-" "whereto," (b] Infinitive ; (":)"Whereby," "And "c. of he," "and this," (e) (g) omission ; (/) "what;" 10. Relative. 10 non-repetition Use 11. 1 1 the Repeat a. causes particular Avoid a. Verbal 12. Use particular 13. Use metaphor 14. Do confuse not 14 a. Do 14 b. Do any for mix not not use persons instead Avoid Verbs where instead of of literal a the 38. See ambiguity. general terms. Nouns Relative, where the before Antecedent Nouns. abstract be can used. class. statement. metaphor. metaphor with literal to poetic metaphor statement. illustrate a prosaic subject. ORDER Emphatic 15. the most 15 end. a- part, OF words at the Unemphatic Exceptions. WORDS must IN stand beginning words or must, SENTENCE. A in the as emphatic positions ; i.e.,for end a of rule, the be sentence. kept from the Index r.2 15 " 1 An 6. of Rules. gives emphasis. interrogationsometimes if ferred Subject, unusually emphatic, should often be transthe beginning of the sentence. for Object is sometimes placed before the Verb The from 17. The emphasis. 1 the 8. Where several words emphatic, make are emphatic. Emphasis can word. epithet,or an intensifying most an Words 19. which should be as sometimes possible as near grammatically connected. Adverbs should be placed next 20. intended to qualify. 21. Only" ; the strict rule is that they to is given by adding the with words are " before it clear which be the word to " the words " should only they be are placed it affects. also," see that each is only" precedes "but of same speech. by part and other adverbial adjuncts,someAt times least," always," 23. produce ambiguity. the Nouns that they define. should be placed near 24. Nouns the Nouns should follow to which they refer, 25. Pronouns When 22. followed "not the " " without the intervention 26. as Clauses close 27. be must 28. distinct from Where 29. the on that there are word same antecedent or be are those infinitives, that distinct from be must see 55. "if-clauses" should preceded by independent. several kept kept clauses. the consequent "that" clauses those the sentences, distinct from Dependent Noun. are conditional kept other should grammatically connected parentheses. But possible. Avoid that together as In of any be are kept dent depen- those that not. are principleof Suspense. duce It is a violation of the principle of suspense to intro30 a. short and unexpectedly at the end of a long sentence, some unemphatic clause beginning with (a) not," (b) which." be excessive. not 31. Suspense must In with sentence a "if," when," though," "c., put the 32. 30. The " " " " "if-clause,"antecedent, or protasis,first. or 33. Suspense is gained by placing a Participle that the qualifies 34. the one Subject, before Suspensive Conjunctions, hand," "c., add the e.g. clearness. Adjective, vSubject. "either," "not only," "on its omission would cause Repeat the Subject, where obscurityor ambiguity. 36. Repeat a Preposition after an intervening Conjunction, if especially a Verb and an Object also intervene. Pronominal 37. Repeat Conjunctions, Auxiliary Verbs, and Adjectives. after the Conjunctions "than," "as," "c. 37 a. Repeat Verbs 35. Index the 38. Repeat Subject, or of what summary is difficult Clearness 39. the prepares the whole other some increased, when is for forming 13 emphatic word, or so long that been the way Rules. is said, if the sentence of meaning unbroken. thread has keep to of the middle, kind a the of the sentence beginning of and the middle This ascent. a it for the end, is called ascent "climax." the When 40. feebleness,and of A a. Epigram. 43. each Avoid The as descends, The descent introduced pectedly. unex- clearness. only and one, principalsubject sentences. different be must sentences of Conjunctions, by means beginning of the sentence. between two long sentences short intervening sentence kept other some the at requires thought. a or paragraphs showing the of transition BREVITY. II. 46. Metaphor General 47. be or connection sometimes one, between used connecting words 45. but the result. not often heterogeneous connection The and have sentence Adverbs by up force adds Let thought. should construction new 42. 44. ascend, to confusion, is sometimes Antithesis 41. expected "bathos." is called 40 is thought is briefer terms literal statement. than less briefer,though are forcible,than ticular par- terms. A be expressed by a word. phrase may sometimes often be used brief (though sometimes 48. Participles as may ambiguous) equivalents of phrases containing Conjunctions and 47 a. Verbs. Participles, Adjectives,ParticipialAdjectives,and Nouns be used as equivalentsfor phrases containing the Relative. may be brieflyimplied instead of sometimes 50. A statement may being expressed at length. be omitted. Adverbs, e.g. "very," 51. Conjunctions may "so." Exaggerated epithets, "incalculable, ''"unprecedented." t?.^. 49. 51 a. may if "c." " be used for may be used, so as to imperative Apposition 52. into The convert two sentences one. 53. common several Condensation Subject of Verbs or Prepositions. Repeating 54. Tautology. 55. Parenthesis 56. Brevity often firstconsideration. be effected by not repeating (i) the may several Verbs Object of ; (2) the common maybe used clashes what with with be implied. advantage to brevity. See may clearness. Let clearness be 26. the CLEARNESS FORCE. AND Numbers brackets in refer Rules* the to WORDS. 1. Use words Write, not "His him," but "occur," " "his and This rule power "power" is used for also forbids rule This this, Avoid "The " Here often are Avoid " Her See "c. of in use of different senses. since Here I the have second "nice," "awfully," (2). Majesty of" "Partook here heart that of the with the circumlocution implies " The follows. pendous "stu- and "fine is writing," ' Write and sharing, for way. and of lunch. partook sufficed "very," loose same almost what "incalculable," in furnished empire have would is inconsistent used useless the corn, " inexhaustible " 3. slovenly the "unprecedented," words it," together. and request, do and verse," "con- "authority." plains supplies population." the twice in and exaggerations. boundless inexhaustible owning dis- " and confused word your in transpire "reverse" same lawfully may " often are the refuse "glorious," "delicious," 2. I "event," of use to power my do to the "supernatural," and friends "Conscious" guilt." "elicit," and forbids in is " his guilt justified evident circumstance "eliminate" sense. proper apparent "unnatural" "aware," "It their in ' " lunched. incorrect as well as lengthy. So, do not "individual 4. . . 1 while Be . the for careful and," For, use " at "apex" for "man," "assist" how "any," the reader . beginning: is finding use you "only," of out a sentence, whether "species" "top," for the "help," following . sometimes it is used "kind," "c. words : "not or," "that."1 "not . for . causes as a temporary conjunction doubt, or position. pre- Words. And. below, "Or." See Any. "I " send." 15 this Does bound not am mean receive to or every, that you messenger single? Use "every" or a any single." -a Not. enemy (i) "I do "c." ought to reason for not intend not " (2), mean you, because you I intend not to help you, help to " are helping you is,because you used intend "I to mean (3), wrongly it is often are my and my But enemy." help you, my to not because (but because you are poor, blind, "c. you are my enemy the latter case, not ought to be separated from intend. the influence of not distinctly marking the limits to which )." In the Only is often to me ambiguity to sentences But 21. see Or. used like " be "You butter butter don't ; I, on this " honey or is there The " : me so much a. Be 4 different much so Write The uses . . used " same that careful form in alone." of use " not . . honey you " butter . want want honey or I and that " of I that" use of " not for "I I don't neither want of slightestdanger I see see " I do neither them produce not see reply past "so" of I " see ambiguity, that what read Thomas both much this statement desirous am scarcelyknow in the " that rare, . for I do surprised by statement jay in the "you and." not resigning,that I scarcelyknow has impossibleto tell,till one the first "that" depends upon whether and is the it is Here but nor. " of butter meaning is so regularlyused " am for strict contrary, do not " e.g. "I used The both want the honey." But where ambiguity, it is desirable to use The same ambiguity attends Thomas and John is commonly but it nor John ; might mean, only one of them." " helping;" : nor That. This both." them butter is often of help rest wait." to me instead The " however, Practically, want advise "nor." like nor you honey or I want " " alone. is follows as say for preceded by a negative,as "I do not honey," "or" ought not, strictly speaking, to be and," would or "or" or " only" "you When " butter want ambiguously myself; you only "you only advise, mean, similar removed. used revenge ought be may By tends, ex- " I to sirous de- am make." resigning," "statement" or resigningsurprises "c." ambiguous words, e.g. "certain." L sound, but different in meaning. Even where there is 6 1 Clearness obscurity,the juxtapositionof no inelegant, " (Bain), e.g. He and Force. the same word to the left and turned twice used lejt the in two is senses room." I have known the followingslovenly sentence misunderstood : "Our object is that, with the aid of practice, we sometime arrive the where at point may " think eloquence in its most we To lie " has been praiseworthy form to lie" " deceive." to supposed to mean careful 5. Be the * * He hour of use his told he thought ambiguity is different to that if he did also caused by "God, certain The ambiguity arising is well known. persons feel better in half an not better return." this sort, "c. foreseeingthe disorders in this way, us friend 8.) see applying he had Much as he "it," "they," "he," use you (For "which" "these," "C. from how (6) for remedy. See excessive of such use phrases of passions and affections disorders. objects are, these compassion." Repeat the noun Of human which has nature, arise this sort these "Among : of from, given whose or fear, resentment, are affections passionsand are fear"c." Two distinct of it may be noted. when //, referringto be something precedes, may "retrospective;" but when that to follows, something "prospective." In "Avoid indiscriminate it is retrospective.1 In charity: it is a crime," "// is a crime to give indiscriminately," "it" is prospective. The prospective it,"if productive of ambiguity, can often be omitted criminately by using the infinitive as a subject: "To give indisuses that called " " " is speech in the First,not the Third Person, to avoid ambiguity. Speeches in the necessary Report 6. where third crime." a a afford person particular,though a the generalambiguity his friend to his 6 friend, * If/ Sometimes, a. words, and if he that where or mentioned did the uninteresting-, Essex is asking Sir not don't (QIC you] where the exact in feel the (5). Cecil feel better writer that Person " is some It had place which deserved 1 require condensation, and the Bacon Thus, may is in Lord becomes then be where appointed Macanlay's tedious it drops exact lengthy or preferable. it said " know always told "He unimportant, Francis He of and interesting un- into the Third : Sir Robert the to to as case, " write "c.' cannot Attorney-General, the dialogue is (as it almost writings) in the First Person, except where so "c.," better words are Third Person Robert very common Instead of such should Noun a nothing to he hoped mark refer superior of say but that he thought his own that his father's obtain, and gratitude from the Queen." to abilities equal long services (i)either to the Noun immediately preceding, or (2)to in emphasis. all intervening Nouns to See (25). Words. 17 in a speech reported in the Third of "that" 6b. Omission third person, that need when Even Person. a speech is reported in the Thus, instead of "He not always be inserted before the dependent verb. write, not said that he took it ill that his promises were believed," we may This gives a little more life,and sometimes He took it ill,' he said, that "c.'" " " " " ' ' 7. When is what walking," implying that,"make it clear by " implied. the first Republics,in " as Participle, a "while," "though," context " use you "when," the also. clearness more instance, are desired never for their they will finallybe desired at all, unaccompanied'by courtlygraces and good breeding." since they the meaning is Here there is a littledoubt whether are, or, //"theyare, unaccompanied." sakes. own I do think not " That when. or walk) on is better It they instead (1) " While (2) "Because relative is meant, to walk," that "men use when "men mean participle. he ) was he r-... \ was WalkmS on on road, ) h( ice, \ \ (i) the , j (2) the " f " precedes the subject,it generallyimplies participle Otherwise it generallyhas its : "Seeing this, he retired." He retired,keeping his face meaning, e.g. participial us." at If there is any ambiguity,write "on seeing," time, or while, keeping. When a walking" men use If the of the they when or fall." " to walk." walking (that walk, "Men " ice sometimes the cause " proper towards " " " the same 8. When and "which" "for the using the where he, it,"c." Relative nevertheless stood he ((3) will Pronoun, meaning In other /(i)he retreat." use "who" he, it,"c.," "that," if euphony is "and use cases soon allows. " the I heard guard " Fetch that travelled (all)the me pamphlets, which An adherence Thus "There : door a was the train. that this rule to a " great nuisance a with books lie ;" this (i.e. the public-housethat much door, would ambiguity. which fact of its the (i.e. B the floor." on remove that whereas table, and also the the will find public-housenext and it from " on would heard (and he) who inspector, (and these) you was nuisance," means was the this from was being have meant public-house) a was great door) next " Next a great 1 and Clearness 8 nuisance." about whereas antecedent, " introduce " be, maintained cannot It is not, and in Elizabethan (Probably a general impression authors. has assisted "who" to refer to persons of relative.) But the convenience used as a that English, is observed observed this by in the the modern is be cannot supplanting rule with in best "that" that with rule, though our that" *' great that so adhere advantage composition may who of where the The cases followingare some mostly used, contrary to the rule, instead of that. beginners thing some- travelled is to fact new or incomplete defined. unabove, "inspector" is a new fact about him; incomplete, and requires "that complete the meaning. "guard" a introduces is Thus, in the first example introduces complete in itself,and "who" train " that antecedent the which without "c. "which," "Who," the Force. the rule. to which and are Exceptions :" antecedent the When (a) English who uses " to His say is defined, e.g. by a It is rare, of that. English friends that had those English friends, or (3) That ill when sounds possessive not him" seen English friends, that had of his separated from its verb from and modern case, it would though instead not be ful,1 use- for "the him." seen its antecedents, and are that, though emphasized by isolation : "There many persons and good-tempered, that, if not strongly commonly unscrupulous, are Incited by self-interest,are ready for the most part to think of the interest ivho after that when of their neighbours." Shakespeare frequently uses the relative is repeated. See " Shakespearian Grammar," par. 260. be that. is qualifiedby that, the relative must not (c) If the antecedent is the Addison other Besides disagreeable. considerations, repetition " that I made That remark ridicules such language as yesterday is not I had made." I said that I regretted that that that hence the throws be preceded by a preposition, and cannot (d) That is to" This is the I adhere "This rule that prepositionto the end. avoided. sometimes unnecessarily But, though English, perfectlygood is harsh and objectionable,e.g. with some prepositions,the construction Such the prejudices that I jumped This is the mark were beyond" of these is that some The above." that he reason rose disyllabic prepositionsare used as adverbs, and, when separated from their nouns, give one the impression that they are used as adverbs. modern Engl'sh (e) After pronominal adjectivesused for personal pronouns, " " " who. prefers There are others, several, those, -who many, can testify"c." (f ) a used that After as relative. 9. Do not as a conjunction there is sometimes redundant use "and" book I gave him a very interesting five shillings." me " cost In short a dislike to use that (c). See it is less evident, and a very "which."2 present, and absurdityis evident, but the sentences before for in which long sentences common. presented for rescindingthat portion of the petition to support bye-laws which permits applicationof public money "A 1 here 3 was So useful and Of in several course consideration, I am disposed of the following exceptionalcases. that, on "and mature which " may be used where " which M to adopt precedes. "that " Clearness 20 after which I confess had "I " Write, expected." important rule. the nor truth), that he would not the Here would," refusal,or, (38). or not is sometimes of "I have a a danger in this The use. be, not, hear confess I had I This neither procuring them," of bread, nor crust me, may would favour, that a hear even meaning he "that of means There " but he expected." Instead I have CAUTION. that Force. particularfor general terms." of " said a See 11. Use He had I expected me." life " negative : a and is a most necessaries the (if you can with to buy one." penny write a is meaning imperfect. vividly expressed of bread may exaggeration ; on the other hand, if the speaker is destitute not only of bread, but also of shelter and clothing,then crust of 'bread is an be be may exaggerated philosophy and inclusive be to be Crust an imperfect expression of In or the meaning. science, where and the language ought very particularterms brief,general and not often must used. 11 Avoid a. Nouns where Verbs be can used The instead. that, unless sometimes are Verbal is this, Nouns disadvantage of the use of Verbal they are immediately preceded by prepositions,they liable to be confounded with participles. The following is an instance of an excessive use of Verbal Nouns : The confession of the collusion pretended only secretary was of the king's favouring popery, to lay the jealousies still which hung upon him, notwithstanding his writing on the Revelation, and all occasions to enter into controversy, asserting on affecting in particular that the Pope was Antichrist." Write that he and affected "c." wrote "notwithstanding " 12. Use " the particular Person a What is the beauty of the beauty Under this head may An This of a " daisy ? the come forcible of Noun use for of itself." fortress is weakness this use is and " shadow of 13. Use African mimosas, Metaphor "The the class. lengthy pedanticallybombastic, following paraphrase for "in every British colony:" Indian palm-groves, amid Australian gum-trees, in the excess e.g., the "under a " a with Adjective : of compared with splendour of the greatest monarch What is the splendour of Solomon flower?" compared " instead ship ploughs sea," and shorter cleaves the land." the than and instead sea" "the beneath pines." Canadian of literal statement. is clearer ship than cleaves the "the sea ship cleaves a plough as Words. Of be not there course used. 14. Do " In See was them, deluging their upon invaders." with country the thunderbolt moment a should Metaphor Metaphor. confuse not and (14 a] which subjects for (14 b}. some are 21 The Mr. Speaker, : followingis attributed to Sir Boyle Roche I smell a rat, I see him brewing in the air ; but, mark me, I shall him in the bud. yet nip " " Some words, once good writers many metaphorical, have " under say these ceased to be circumstances" so Hence regarded. instead of "in these circumstances." excessive of pedantry : disregard regard for disused metaphor savours unparalleled complications," but inelegant. Write, not, unprecedented An is " ^ and complications;" " he threw light obscurities," instead on " of he ravelled un- obscurities." 14 Do a. after literal statement introduce not immediately Metaphor. "He father the was and of Chemistry, brother to the Earl of Cork." " He was And was not Do 14 b. a of war, very thunderbolt lieutenant of Mar." to the Earl poetic metaphor use Thus, prosaic Subject. we poet soars" "a say may to illustrate or even, but you could not to greatness," soars though rarely, a " Even soared to 944-" Consols commonplace subjectsmay nation " illustrated by metaphor to commonplace commonplace. say OF Emphatic of the end rule, should a left the room metaphor, Q\ illustrated IN part, A say be and objectionable, quite unBut jumped 944." by metaphor that is to SENTENCE. stand must This sentence. rules common most a mounted, WORDS words i.e. for the it is be subjects must ORDER 15. for : Consols " a at the in emphatic beginning or tions; posiat the rule occasionallysupersedes the about position. Thus, the place for an adverb, as be between the subjectand verb : He quickly " " ; but if quickly is to end, as in "I be emphatic, it must come told ,him to leave the room beginning or left he but quickly." slowly, "if" and Adjectives,in clauses beginning with "though," for often come the at beginning emphasis : "Insolent though he at was. the he was silenced at last. " Clearness 22 15 words Unemphatic a, from the end of the break this rule by placing the end at " To the "is short A abrupt useful," " want useful, "c." kind words no emphasis and must Latin " A " of" witness Bear with is ; e.g. I loved to phatic em- He does him" writing, become to or. in bad " letter- spear, common attached how It is the "ground," the writhing to chippy" ending pronouns from the end moved avoided. be fell styles, especially in be so frequent as not all final a obtrusive monotonous. 15 b. An " " ending, be not I hear In .N.B. is to soldier, transfixed The Prepositions and need that few a his inferiors he is." to though emphatic, " longer a " but invariably been." has in the agonies of death." construing from Virgil. harm nothing It is writhed Exceptions. to unemphatic predicate how he "chippy" ending, even unrhythmical, e.g. We fault common a at the end, auxiliaryverb comes the position,e.g. justifies emphatic adverb and -writhed" is and if it be even " proves an very rule, be kept a adjective or an of addition above, " evidence where Often, it short a as sentence. Latin, some must, sentence, useful." Write, the " long a know roots, is So of Force. and No one doubt can guilty,would emphatic as have "Who one removed ever than worth Went names harsh the been remorse," signs it possibleto doubt, who Wentworth," those he of majesty so ?" "c. ing think- without him names ever features, ennobled dark really is not of some "But thinking of expressioninto more prisoner,had the doubt, Is can without be that shown "No Contrast of "c." with 16. The gives emphasis. interrogation sometimes by their antique Jupiter? an subject, if unusually emphatic, should from the beginning of the sentence. " often The is an emphatic position,though mostly beginning of the sentence the not end. Therefore so the principal subject of as emphatic a sentence, early in the being emphatic, and being wanted sentence at we to us what the the near want to from Thomas" or Thus, mere is due emphasize to the " It the was emphasis place for unusually, we usual " Thomas beginning: Thomas on "This conqueror ought benefactors not a rule, house the subject,if must was remove built by that built this house." "conqueror" the great as comes built this house." " " is about, sentence Thomas beginning : since the beginning is the Hence, or "Thomas" "A tell to obtain of is not from mankind," us quite so strong the as in reverence "We in that ought Order not to the bestow mankind, upon a emphasis and greater " thus Sentence. a is due 23 the great benefactors to conqueror" mere Considerable, (19) \villbeobtained smoothness We : in that reverence of the sentence Words of ought not bestow to but less by writing a upon mere queror con- "c." Where the subject same rises in and first in several stands consecutive it sentences, emphasis, beginning, even though unusual emphasis be required : "The soul of the expedition. He the life and first pointed captain was the possibility of advancing ; he warned them out of the approaching scarcity of provisions; he showed how stock "c." they might replenishtheir exhausted need be removed not from the placed before the verb object is sometimes is in antithesis. This for emphasis. most common "Jesus 17. The I and know, Paul I know ; who but he put to death." there is no antithesis '* ye?" are Some he imprisoned, others where Even the inversion is not common un- : " Military courage, the boast of the sottish German, of the and prating Frenchman, of the romantic and arrogant Spaniard, he neither possesses nor values." frivolous This inversion sometimes father slew," and Sometimes the and Take as who gentlemen the on king son the appropriate by some, interpretationsof the morning the nobles and different to in the assembled in the dreadful here they began to talk of what a ; and could scarcelyunderstand before. But Macbeth castle The be considered "Early example, an attended " e.g. in prose. used positionof a word may inappropriate by others, according sentence. in poetry, ambiguity creates sparingly be must storm hall of the great it had been the what they said, for he has been amended last sentence by Professor could Bain into " What they said, Macbeth scarcely understand." But between antithesis the guiltless nobles who there appears to be an can think about who the weather, and the guiltyMacbeth cannot. Hence, " what night was thinking of something they said " ought "Macbeth not, and worse." " The " Macbeth ought, to be emphasized : and fore there- " ought to be retained at the beginning of the sentence. The author alters, The praise of judgment Virgil has justly contested same with him, but his invention remains Virgil has yet unrivalled," into justly contested with him the praise of judgment, but no one has yet rivalled " " his invention" the antithesis " an alteration between what which had does been ' not to seem contested,' on emphasize sufficiently one hand, and what the remained the other. as on yet 'unrivalled' More Bain alters," He judiciously Professor how task he undertakes a must great ; for he maintain more to one," into " for, to maintain more," putting the emphatic words in their several words 18. Where are Which is the most emphatic. made, their under the contention pretence to each whether pleasantlydoubtful be to emphatic. parties of of that tells be forced one, he a lie is not invent sensible invent twenty to must emphatic place,at the end. emphatic, make Thus, serving in "The it, in realitythe it clear state was prize of opposite parties,"it the writer means (i) state these twenty is or un" (2) and Clearness 24 If for (i), "As the Force. parties,under the pretence servingit,converted it into a prizefor their contention.'1 If (2),write,"Though served in profession, the state was in reality converted into a prize for their contention by these two parties" In (l) partiesis subordinated, in (2) state. Sometimes the addition of some to serves intensifyingword instead of To all effect this they used emphasize. Thus, write "To effect this they used able conceivdevices," we can every device" want to So, if we emphasize fidelityin "The business will task your skill and write "Not we can fidelity," times only your skill but also your fidelity." This, however, somestate, Jhese two of " leads Sometimes this,but the antithesis emphasis "will make antithesis You do not know be cannot expressed by turning sentence, it," or by some addition, as "You should which they to 20 intended be used, I " as For should to as near exceptionssee be placed affect. When between the between the parts of the compound has quickly left the "He subject and possibleto as shall the words grammatically connected. are 29. 20. Adverbs are " it." 19. Words Paragraphs it." Where in as the know you hereafterknow with be must (2). gives emphasis, shall know you See exaggerations. to the See 30. next to the words unemphatic, adverbs they come is if the tense compound, tense : quickly left the ;" room room ;" but, when emphatic, after the verb: "He quickly"* left,or has left,the room When such a sentence the latter is followed as by a present there arises ambiguity. told him "I to go slowly, participle, but he left the room the the floor." on quickly, dropping purse Does quickly here modify leftor dropping ? The remedy2 is, to give the adverb its unemphatic place,"He quickly left the room, "He the else avoid to dropping "c.," or participle,thus: He and left the room," or quickly dropped the purse dropped verb, or, "He " the purse 21. and affected "only" Sometimes Of course should be use. placed strict3 rule the word before The by it. transposition of 2 the room." requires careful "Only" is, that 1 quickly left the an emphatic Adverh Auxiliary Verb, punctuation oneself clearly,as express 3 Professor Bam. will far as comes " Gladly at do the beginning, and causes the I consent." it is better the ambiguity ; but remove possible,independently of punctuation. to Words of Order followingis ambiguous The "The heavens The and the faithful to open * ' placing using only avoid to Sentence. a 25 : rule is to avoid best words, not are in only " " " only at intervals." two emphatic between where alone " " used be can instead. In strictness the perhaps followingsentences three only beat three, He beat only three, (2) (3) He beat three only, ought to be explained, severally,thus : than beat, did (1) He did no more (2) He beat He (3) no beat the ought he of the to mean .till he but was die not all he did. (Here only modifies depreciatesthe action.) was and " He word. only lived " " but He sacrifice ;" only great any " lived He 8. means only till v. 40) or (Macbeth, also, Who^w/j' man a " Compare Only at the beginning of a statement you'llforgive me." only I know you, favour asked letters. Very often, only at came," bring a friends few Before This the beginning of a Caesar approved." "Only ambiguity of only is illustrated ten of yours to hath but. = listen to me." "Only : on an use immortality." I don't like to importune the imperative it diminishes to of only is mostly confined " is used sentence by such shoot the the transpose make " was man." a that sometimes did he kill,three. not three. sentence authors best " lived than more three, and whole But : He (1) for alone " : Only The is less ambiguous. " hesitate Don't to sentence as, five time. at Only estate any A lone a my "I don't mind afeiv; only might mean, yesterday," which Don't hesitate to else bring a few or as fifteen ; many than five came yesterday." In conversation, ambiguity is no more more; fortunate unprevented by emphasis ; but in a letter,only thus used might cause "no Write mean mistakes. Yesterday only five came," if you (fifteen)came don't bring " " so " than more five." 22. When "not is followed each "He Write only not "He ether " hand, gave He that only" precedes "but also," see part of speech. by the same gave me, not me not but advice only advice, only gave Take an also but help" is help." also wrong. On the but also lent me grammar, " He instance. spoke not only me a dictionary,"is right. (adverbs),and this too, not only before forciblybut also tastefully small a audience, but also in (prepositions)a large public not only successful,but also meeting, and his speeches were (adjective) worthy of success." a 23. I think " as not least," "always," and other sometimes produce ambiguity. "At cousin's. my perhaps good, yet, Latin "My "I you think at all at " my all will find my this Does Latin mean adverbial exercise, at all events, as good (I ) " my Latin exercise, though exercises;" or (2), Though Write events, as good as my cousin's"? other juncts, ad- " not for very (i), exercise, at all events, you will find "c." and for (2), cousin's, find my Latin exercise as good as my you will events." is to avoid The remedy emphatic words. As " and Clearness 26 example of an From City that the funds and the of is often adverb practice,an used the sentence: emphatic guide the to that mean "breaking out the word, where remote is very position declared the in Exchange, the on This word. adjunct,take ought qualifya to emphatic than any nearer Adjunct is placed in an this very "On spot our two reports, but out not (as is intended) that place in the City. "hearing," the panic,"took latter is more the Adverbial broken panic fast falling." This a between adverbial an favourable most had were and In misplacing of the that heard all events" placing "at received he abroad he Force. beginning of the at that when common had Oaverhouse fallen." 24. Nouns they define. In of announced the should Mr. " obliged begin to "c." works to regret of the an refer without referred however, to by the : son author an the of, we be whose by writing " We of Mr. death "At Smith, money of two one the more pronoun, this even : he moment is nouns be may the they noun. this gave me Avoid also Avoid, book," " John off." well very decidedly superior presumed came to inferior of noun colonel the who of who. (John) was preceding emphatic though to which nouns of another is the antecedent with emphasis, Thus was removed follow the of Thomas Smith supplied Thomas in a informed are should the Thomas When, we the intervention "John Smith, other difficulty "c.," works feeling that, if announced," we shall He be is death author, "c." 25. Pronouns unless sentence, or, is " can announce, John Smith, Smith John new a But Mr. "The whose author from that nouns sentence John Smith, an probably made death The the near common very transpositionis write the the placed be up, and be to the emphasis the noun venes. inter- the place of naturally refer took he would general. He gave orders to halt." Here that a intervenes. A conjunction will often show to colonel, though general the subject of the preceding sentence, and another to refers to not pronoun "The sentinel at once took aim at the approaching soldier, intervening noun. and fired. He then retreated to give the alarm." be called It is better to adhere, in most Rule to cases, 25, which may instance Rule of Emphasis, of which an (Bain) the Rule of Proximity. The sometimes A distinction in the last is was paragraph, misleading. given might be drawn by punctuating thus : " slew Goliath." "David the father of Solomon, who David, the father of wounded Solomon each is of mercy 26. be who case built the Temple." questionable, and But the it is better propriety of omitting a to write so as not to in comma be at the commas. Clauses kept as that close are grammatically connected together as possible. (But see should 55.) The produced parentheses violatingthis rule often The result of these serious ambiguity. Thus, in the following: to be in oppositionto the view now observations appears generally introduction of " and Clearness 28 repliedthat "He (3) Force. wished he . (2), though theoreticallyfree from ambiguous, owing unnecessarily. to loose a It would be better , ambiguity, habit of intended," "c., or there Where any there When dependent are said "He the that capitaland meaning is the on those from to of danger (2). is preferenceto (i) or 29. replied,"c. "He Thus several the same that he indeed (3) (4) or in that those infinitives, tinct word be kept dismust his friend to take medicine." study and intended, "c." He not. are wished he subject : help them, ambiguity, use are the conjunctionalword a a practically is repeating insert to full stop between the two statements. " He to repliedthat he wished (4) or that he intended." and . . with him whether it is doubtful Here visit to " " said that he He wished take to his friend (1) and also to visit the (2) "that his friend might visit study medicine," or visit to the capital, and a (3) "on with him, study medicine," capitaland the capitaland or might that he also wished also study to medicine." the three From ambiguity be must it will be versions different (a] by using met perceived that "that" for " this "to," which in (2)],and auxiliaryverb \e.g."might (b] by insertingconjunctions. As to insertions of conjunctions, allows repeat an (37). see "In that " to us to," and "for (wherever there is expresses a purpose of," can the order be ambiguity) between any and used an to tinguish dis- infinitive infinitive that does an not, e.g. his order call to to friend, to) give (in upon till he about the trains,and not to leave him purpose, told his servant He him information started." 30. The "such may principleOf a that, until way feel the sentence he has to Write Suspense. be the to come incomplete. your sentence in full stop, the reader other words, keep In (i) by placing the "if-clause" firsthand not sentence ; (2) by words before the they qualify; (3) by using placing participles suspensive conjunctions, e.g. not only, either ; partly', on the one hand, in the firstplace, "c. reader your The sense " in in suspense. followingis draggles,and Mr. Pym was an example of it is difficult to looked upon he had parliaments,| where of business, | being a, man Suspense last,in a an is caused conditional unsuspended sentence. an keep up one's The attention. of greatest experience served very long, | and was always officer in the Exchequer, | and of a as the man Order Sentence. a reputation generally,j though known good the in Words of Puritan Eng. party leading men who yet ; of not those furiously resolved) against the so had were, of nothing | and wholly devoted that spirit." be to furious 29 inclined resolutions Church to the Earl of (Mod. the as to other Bedford, " of the might have ended at any one foregoing sentence marked above. When : eightpoints suspended it becomes "Mr. in the Pym, owing to his long service in Parliament above all others for his Parliamentary Exchequer, was esteemed for his and He had also a knowledge of business. experience good reputation generally; for, though openly favouring the Puritan closelydevoted to the Earl of Bedford, and, party, he was like the Earl, had none of the fanatical spirit manifested against the Church by the other leading men." The " 30 a. It is violation of the a principleof Suspense introduce unexpectedly, at the end short and unemphatic clause some not" "... (a) " reform This of classes Write "not, "After was as persuaded, am industry, self- wastefulness, but say, journey, the tedious and little dangerous owing safelyat York, which a arrived I all wastefulness" say, some long a will, to frugality." and dependence, (b) some as (a) industry,self-dependence,and frugality, us among encourage and not, and countrymen, our beginning with highly beneficial been already has long sentence, a which." "... (b) or of to last part of which the roads, we of to the is fine old town." a state When the short final clause is intended to be Exception. with it in comes thing someappropriately, unexpectedly unemphatic, of the sting of an epigram.. See (42). Thus : have been old miser said that he should The delighted to the fellow b ut most a shilling, give unfortunatelyhe had poor " " left his parse has are we been home pointed is " a habit of waiting, i.e. out the on that above objectionable, his." increased naturally throws Suspense for which at a emphasis end of the especially letter words the sentence. of monotony in on final writing It phasis em- and conversation. Excess 31. Suspense must not be excessive. mon of suspense is a com" from fault in boys translating Latin. Themistocles, having secured fleet being now he had the safety of Greece, the Persian destroyed, when the bridge down to break unsuccessfully attempted to persuade the Greeks in full flight,and the Hellespont, hearing that Xerxes was thinking across that it might be profitableto secure the friendship of the king, wrote as and Clearness 30 follows him." to The Greece the idiom English more safety of unsuccessful secured Force. is: Themistocles "When destruction by the of Persian the had fleet, he the the Greeks break down to made to persuade an attempt Soon the Hellespont. afterwards, hearing "c." bridge across introbe intolerable is tolerable in the duction in prose A that would long suspense Paradise Lost of the interval the See at to beginning a long poem. pare Comfirst disobedience" and "Of man's between Sing, heavenly Muse." " also the beginning " High on with the where opening wealth the Showers on Satan throne a Outshone Or of Paradise II. : of royal state, tvhich far and of Ormuz of Indy hand East with richest the gorgeous her kings barbaric pearl and gold " " exalted of Book Lost* sat. Keats' Hyperion : shady sadness of a vale, the healthy breath from oj mom, and Far eve's one star" from the fiery noon Sat grey-haired Saturn, quiet as a stone." "Deep Far In in the sunken sentence long conditional clause,"antecedent, or protasis,first. 32. Every with that If thou didst O, God Revenge Ghost. forces " ever thy father's most him," as compared Revenge love of expression an I should " thy dear father from agony love ! his foul and most almost complicated,and clause." didst ever effect is sometimes long and flatness of "if- the " Hamlet. The the if thou suspense in Ghost. " see murder, the Hamlet will one unnatural put a ludicrous when it murder." unnatural when the consequent precedes the antecedent or is "if- be delighted to introduce you to my friends, the objects of interest in our show and to city, and the you beautiful the if here." in were neighbourhood, scenery you Where if-clause the comes last,it ought to be very emphatic : " " "if you were only here." of The introduction of middle a clause with "if" though in the ambiguity, especiallywhen often cause may of the sentence a great part depends on " that answered that, for the sake of preservingthe would sentence keep cowardice would they See a was quiet the put for motive off the the present, though of the trial delay, and to a " " or more " : " His enemies public peace, he that declared for convenient this they that reason season." (27). Suspense l is gained by placing a Participleor before the Subject. the Subject, Adjective that qualifies 33. 1 See (30). Order Deserted " those if and had that deserted Of He forced was But stated be this cannot if write, "He, unduly emphasized ; to his enemies, recourse have we effect is very flat. "He deserted was where done to recourse he is friends,"the by write might sometimes we "c." to 31 have to Here, "c.," his deserted been course forced " forced was forced Sentence. a enemies." his been write, in friends, he his friends, was by we having his by Words of the and "desertion" is but implied. participlequalifyingthe subject is introduced late in the sentence, it causes With this positiveambiguity : small force the general determined the foe,flushed with to attack recent victoryand rendered negligentby success." be to not when Often, a " An excessive of the suspensive participle is French and objectionable: use with business of think to by nature, and too much engaged fabulous a spoiled by a long-established liberty and morrow, perity, prosof war, allow generations forgotten the scourge we having for many " e.g. the Careless ourselves remedy " a to is to Because verb "c., drift we the therefore the only," " nature the "oil following sentence: in which course, "You " the else ruinous, or Here, the as uncertain, convert We take must is success to are this and The conjunction a : the participleinto by nature careless, is liable extremely perilous failure liberty of meaning on e.g. "either," "not Take the clearness." hand," add one the times." signs of depending Suspensive Conjunctions, 34. well of verb or careless, "c. ; with the principalverb, e.g. " allow we ourselves, "c." by are co-ordinate and taking heed participleinto a without on convert your be to disgraceful,as country is dangered." en- misunderstood, "Either has gone half through the sentence. Write from the and the reader is, first, "c., prepared for an tillthe reader you must," alternative. Other for our part though ; on 35. Cause in one hand. Repeat the Subject when ambiguity or Obscurity " likelyto " ; the suspensiveconjunctionsor phrases are partly, the firstplace; it is true ; doubtless ; of course ; obscurityafter cause a the The Relative omission omission is " professesto be helping the nation, which sufferingfrom his flattery,and (he ? or it ?) will not The give Relative several Verbs. gentle and shades should " All obedience of life,and be liberal, which which, by a bland are to be dissolved repeated when pleasing illusions the the sentiments politics " realityis permit anyone in it advice." into reason. particularly standing as Subject : He else to would by that this new it is the which harmonized Subject made the of power different assimilation,incorporated beautifyand soften privatesociety, conquering empire of lightand and Clearness 32 Force. Repeat a Preposition after Conjunction, especiallyif a Verb and 36. intervening Object also an an intervene. " he forgetsthe gratitudethat He he when all his companions poor (to) John Smith in particular." Here, omit be "that helped all his companions, may "companions," and from to, and and and which on meaning the John in Smith " object,"helped ambiguity. several Verbs are Conjunction a this causes there When 37. of the verb intervention particular."The helped uninfluential,and and was that those to owes at distance some they depend, repeat the Conjunction.1 " When made have look we in the the havoc upon national of our back ranks that two hundred authors- refer their to the did not years all, -and, above quick succession rapid disappearance cannot help being dismayed at the competitors we of the present day." that writers lies before the prospect substitute a parenthetical omit Here "when," and we at once clause. for what is reallya subordinate statement be In reportinga speech or opinion, that" must continually of what the avoid the writer says to confusing danger repeated, (when) of we new " " with others what "We might Christians ; rightly or say. evidence only 37 in secret frankincense throw but on of the Repeat Verbs a. the Caesars (that) they only punished men wrongly, with burning Rome, foulest abominations to that say assemblies the altar of crime." who committing and (that) the ; and Jupiterwas But after persecute the were charged, the the not the refusal crime, (6 b). see conjunctions "than," "as," "c. " I think like me," " the he or better me likes you." Richelieu hated "he Cardinal Spaniard Olivares." 38. If the keep the subject,or what The conducive some and populous nation. thread " " you ; i.e. either "did," is so and as you long that " than you sincerelyas did cause ambiguity. it is difficult to of unbroken, meaning other emphatic word, or a repeat the of summary said. cotton, cities than Buckingham Omit sentence been has "Gold 1 likes these banks are not and railways, crowded the elements ports, and that constitute a great Adjectives is also " repetitionof Auxiliary to clearness. Verbs and Pronominal Order Words of in Sentence. a 33 This repetition(though useful and, when used in moderation, with not common speakers than with unpleasant) is more writers,and with slovenlyspeakers than with good speakers. "The country fair some is in such and I say, if we that condition, that if much adopt if more, unwise so more whatsoever is in such policy,the country a the satisfy all reform refuse we delay longer we of reform, sufficient at least to measure moderate, a " " a dition con- a revolution." precipitate is either implied (in a participle)or often be repeated also. In the must repeated,the antecedent have the not sentence we following only in Subject icpeated we Where may relative the the final summary, " if there But church regarded to its also but the as antecedent : " were, part of the world, a national any heretical as mitted by four-fifths of the nation com- care in church ; a established and producing twice as many riots which, though possessing great wealth though long backed by persecuting laws, had, sword; church a as church found generations, been many and barely able maintain unable to by the conversions; a maintained and in the of course its doctrines, odious that propagate its and power, church ground ; against its clear rightsof property, fair church whose were generally regarded as play ; a ministers were preaching to desolate walls, and with difficulty obtaining their lawful subsistence by the help of bayonets, fraud to violence, when and a so used " such Churchyon a could principles, our not, must we own, be defended." 39. It is a help clearness,when to for the prepares the way for the end, in a kind of ascent, the sentence middle " called following there terms "To first middle part of and the This ascent is climax." the In three the : are of which climaxes, each two has " gossip(a) is fault (b) ; to a crime libel(ti\a (b'); to slander (a"),a sin(b")." the In they following, contribute "Man, declare there climaxes, and several are to the clearness of a long sentence : note how " contrived '(a) the Atlantic Cable, but I far more think that it astonishes $"} me to ft"\.forhismere working, amusement created^} has (c), that to Othello' and * entertain ' a Lear,' and mere I am idle hour(d), more than he has astonished, I make of his nature inexplicable elasticity of from turning away ("} calamity him, instead of to ("'}them, or merely defying actually (e), grief draw his and from amusement to them the material of (ft), the "wildest am which and awe- struck enables ($\ at that instead agoniesof a '(e') spirit pleasure which the human C is and Clearness 34 only not crue^f), but ennobling({'}." is in not The flow neglect of climax produces an Thus, if Pope, thought. of Force. the highest degree pure abruptness in his that interferes ironical address with the mankind, to and even had written" " where science mount Go, wondrous creature, guides the tides ; Go, measure earth, weigh air, and state Wisdom how rule" to Go, teach Eternal ; " the ascent "nd from would have been investigating " the Instruct Correct Go, the the 40. When with first The thought the to is from earth to heaven, by the intervening climax " orbs to run the ; Sun th' empyreal perfect,and : sphere, first fair." expected to sometimes and ascend and confusion yet is the is called "bathos." the describe can pen agonies, the transition regulate first good, descent "What and Plato descends, feebleness result. The is prepared planets in what Time, old soar To rapid. too governing, to animated the tears, lamentations, the of remonstrances unfortunate prisoners?" She of accomplishments and virtues, winning in her address, a kind friend, movements, affectionate faithful and mother, and she a loving wife, a most played beautifullyon the pianoforte " was a woman many gracefulin her " INTENTIONAL sometimes For humorous incongruity and abruptness that climax ending with the line" is after the Wisdom Eternal how to rule," adds" "Then 40 a example, teach "Go, Pope has BATHOS forcible. a. Without A drop into thyself,and construction new should a. fool." not be introduced apparentlyunnecessary change of construction awkwardness and roughness at least,and somecauses times breaks the flow of the sentence so seriouslyas to cause plexity. pervirtuous and accomplished," or "of Thus, write many virtues and accomplishments," not "of many virtues and accomplished ;" "riding or walking" or "on foot or horseback," not foot or riding." In the same "on do not put adjectives way, and active and forms of participles, verbs, in too close passive the following: such sentences as juxtaposition. Avoid cause. " A sudden be and " " " He had good reason (accidental) but to beliez"e that the not an delay was (to premeditated, for supposing else, for believing,above) that the fort,though strong or suppose, both be forced by art and naturally (nature), would by the and the indolent treachery of the governor (indolence of the) accident general to capitulatewithin and a week." 36 Clearness The " of of name An educated epigram sometimes may should man and know Force. he something antithesis ; e.g. given to a mere of everything, and everything something." 43. Let each have sentence one, and only one, principal subject of thought. "This eldest, heir the George, principal estates property the to the on of many memory three were Cumberland, shortly afterwards September, actions, of them, one ; his father's virtues, as well of most situate, and was of noble sons where in I7th elected to (2) "George," (3) man," considered father's for member should county," disputingwhich if not three principalsubject. Two, the have sentence level. The be must kept Of each up some of their Pitt His in was biographer the of the one it will be meaning : . . had . so the seen for army had a in to ever this sort scarcely ever praise as of not was with every the main of scene action. The which is a publiclife of lived Pitt. complete Pitt (,on this lence. excela person He was and wellof or criticised in and esse Hampden be viewed be to if have (Buf) merely a great poet in example of moral (Btif]his man. would lived. finished is,that] there little claim of peace. confessing, that, service, he that not a on our the commanders ( The truth in time months few remained ablest as public life of proportioned greatness. The resembles drama which Somers a regular can and sentences necting conjunctionsand other conthat the following sentences insists (accordingly!] (undoubtedly] a great whole, one " Pitt (,//seems,)was general in posse, but great subjects on different used out all. is not who between Leave " the cornet young been long a Conjunctions, or by at the beginning other connecting words words, and " different many Adverbs by Sentence. lose much is to be sentences Carefully avoid one. family good heterogeneous. connection of means of made, instead this, treatingof It is called 44. "the been like his to as his had for several generations returned this county, which in Parliament." Here serve we have^(i) the "great and the a died man him family,of whom numerous a good behind 1683, leaving and and great as a connection the other hand,) is," "c. following The adverbs, or are of some connecting phrases similarity,repetition, or the : most (i) expressing resumption of therefore,then, naturally, so that, thus, more, to resume, to continue, to sum connecting common up, a in in consequence, subject accordingly, " this way, fact, upon once again, this ; (2) expressing however, opposition nevertheless,in spiteof this,yet, still, the contrary, on the other hand ; (3) expressingsuspension " but) on " Order but ; indeed undoubtedly the other ; partly . . . . a conjunctionat all no "Blake made and with war 45. The hand one . . on . others. . . which Bishop Burnet, "and" with happened ; and gether stringsto- "so," or ; and did." who at those be to with or " two he ashore, went only paid Write before Malaga, seamen not between requires at of his some about connection sometimes the ; on 37 : carried it,but laughed to yet . . sentences Spain upon the Host met . Sentence. a some y of that fleet the . partly . . a style like of number Avoid in Words of no respect "c." When Blake long sentences intervening sentence, thought. short a of showing the transition ness the fierceopposition,it (chivalry)subdued of pride and to the ; it obliged sovereignsto submit power x of social esteem, soft collar compelled stern authorityto submit dued to elegance,and gave a dominating vanquisher of laws to be subBut now (allis to be changed:} all the pleasing by manners. made illusions which monized gentleand obedience liberal,which harpower "Without force or the different shades of empire reason." light and transition would which, by a bland lation, assimi- that beautifyand incorporatedinto politicsthe sentiments dissolved be this to new privatesociety,are by conquering soften the of life,and would be If the words abrupt too : italicized the omitted, were conjunction but alone insufficient. be BREVITY. briefer is 46. Metaphor (13). than literal statement. See "The crown," where effect of 47. than matter poems a of a sovereign often responsibilities and cares sleep,"is not so brief the heavy General "Uneasy as effect of crown care pressingon terms Thus: or kind," is histories,no matter what 1 This metaphor the mind head shorter is not what, disturb that his wears is assimilated to a the the head. briefer, though are particular terms. of on lies the "He. than, he recommended less devours " Novels devours forcible, literature, no or them for imitation. sermons, all." Brevity. 38 47 A a. phrase expressed by be may word. a be forgotten,i.e. are indelible" never impressions can be is of such a nature The that it cannot style of this book i.e. unintelligible." understood, "These " The "of words inserted. See such the that" nature a Sir Archibald from extract often are unnecessarily Alison. brief (though often be used as Participlescan sometimes taining ambiguous) equivalents of phrases conConjunctions and Verbs. 48. instances. more this Sometimes "though 49. used he retired." the doors, our " contain done] was So that "phrases See (7) for heard) this, he advanced." "phrases containing conjunctions" means This, done, (for, when conjunctions." he (when "Hearing participle"being" is omitted. no sees danger nigh," for "France he "France being" Participles and participialadjectives may like Adjectives, as equivalents for phrases "The 50. A instead could write not statement of taining con- clamouring ocean," "the licence of inventingparticipial "the instances. drenching rain," are adjectivesby adding -ing to poetry. be Relative. nQver-ceasingwind," You or is." France the at " The a the noun, is almost crannying sometimes may being expressed at be length. restricted " wind to in prose. brieflyimplied Thus, of instead was spiritof Christianity humanizing, and therefore "c.," or "Christianity, since it was (or being) of a humanizing spirit, write more briefly and can discouraged "c.," we effectively, "Gladiatorial shows first discouraged, and finally put were down, by the humanizing spiritof Christianity" So instead of "The of youth is thoughtless and sanguine,and therefore nature "c.," we can write, "The depreciated danger of the voyage was the of the island exaggerated by and the beauty natttre thoughtless of youth" " The Sometimes was in vain a preferredby they were by mere that the hardy mountaineers all honest name or he offered men, epithet implies a the Swiss terms mountaineers" and but hardy. the i.e. " Government ' * The : " statement. war by "It deliberately was the Swiss, because deed affected was to applauded treat it as Brevity. 39 head set a the of (him whom they called) the assassin" The conqueror of Ansterlitz might be expected to hold different language from the prisoner of St. Helena" i.e. Napoleon elated by the victoryof Austerhtz,"and "Napoleon when when depressed by his imprisonment at St. Helena." and murder, price upon " " CAUTION. Different " must names be not for the used same unless person from its context. derives an Thus, if we appropriateness Charles be in very bad are taste writing about II., it would to avoid third repeating " he" by using such periphrasesas the following : "The each of them of the Stewarts fourth year forcible certain the business," age," "c. Conjunctions may 51. a hated of his Monarch Merry be omitted. abruptness,e.g. "You died The this say in the omission : I (on fifty gives the other hand) deny it." When be may short, as Macaulay's writings,conjunctions advantageouslyomitted. sentences are is intended, the Where a contrast for the second of the two contrasted talks truthfully and 51 The a, conjunction but usually " the way prepares is good but dull." of bid, the incongruity savours of epigram : " He " false." He is always amusing and prosily." instead is used and in terms He : Imperative Mood for "if." be used may Where always strip]Virtue of the awful authority she of mankind, and you rob her general reverence majesty." "Strip (for,if you derives from of half her the Apposition may 52. into sentences called "We of " than, of (1) the a person and, what This "He subject of resided of esteem to, and came He came Such no here this unemphatic words, "This often a is such Tautology. is good friend as to briefer and clear as, by several verbs for many city,-and condensation several times a letters not repeating verbs, (2) the prepositions. or years, the obscurity,there 54. had we and, after he had won So, (2) "He citizens,(he) died," "c. induced to reside in, this city,"is shorter than all was to is more, is effected be may object of several (i) two musician, "c." common common the was to convert as to whom a of music," Condensation 53. is the house students He so one. introduction,a musician, all young " at used be " a as The was causes certain induced reside and, obscurity, harshness to, in, "c., fault to of as in in it." even where pausing on there light, in the first example. repeating the same unnecessarilyis called tautology ', e.g. : circumstance it is circumstance a painful ; word that I Brevity. 40 much the But fault the mean is thing, that such that is a " the of instances are is judgment unnecessary the Alison, thirst for conquests ardent an universal of is " of end teristic charac- a "c." Other men;" all deceived never the at that passion opinion it is words See, for word. same Archibald Sir that infallible so the arrange no a greatly slightlydifferent in repetitionof It is "The " will is to be may meaning burning this nation. there event; also to it is stance painful circumstance, a circumwill cause him, deep regret." from "A he words a same the extract Thus book. the the than fault is and me, painful a remedy true that different by using is regret, and The This repetitionof examples, as, "This manner : causes worse avoided circumstance" regret the much be much I a repetition,thus The will occurrence" the in words to not same circumstance lament also he regret, and "His "c. \ Parenthesis 55. with used be may to advantage brevity. "We have we a Extreme the of a long at the forcible more would been ment treat- the than appended ?" be offended not that taken be let clearness parenthesismay a sentence. be the first consideration. at beginners, not to aim so much Horace forcible, as at being perfectly clear. fall into I take pains to be brief, obscurity,"and fere of the rules for brevity interthat several seen for all events It is best, at being brief, however, meaning and indeed, Who, : offended be?) parenthesishad if the " Caution: 56. not is shorter been must, care obscure not have sentence separate would (and who received," would sentence in all are or While I says, be it may easily with the rules " for clearness. of style springs from (i) vividness and (2) exactness and ness (2) exactthought, and from a corresponding (i) vividness Forcible in the When (1) and describe who was cut of use words. as run you the If you before you, it. see are writing man writing about the capture of a city,was surrendered, starved out, or demolished surprised, Was routed,crushed, repelled,defeated, an army you are in the (2) Exactness of their cannot meanings be discussed 1 See and differences. here. English of words use is a about a it man executed, If hanged? the city stormed, ? beforesurrender or annihilated exact 1 Lessons see ? knowledge and study by itself, requiresan This to he and ask, was through the body, butchered, shot, or killed,see d"nvn, endeavour describing anything, are you it for English People, pp. 1-53. EXERCISES For cises intended are A of the explanation an number used, be to (43), (40 d}, refers e.g. Letters explanations (iotf) N.B. " (10 a') " Rule (36) (37 estranged " had (a) 2. This (a) soon the (a) purpose, friend," of the naturally which (a) (40 (wrongly) the give to " Begin to attempt he (a) " " with that (/")(10 by by (8) which he or Carelessness Nature to particularly (2) "a in failure the that needs the to be once good no being leisure" restless" could be not . naturally, are the at the failure of the Government certainly to either and not bold at be regretted." (i) "an attempt the that "c." Admiralty weaken had ." "which," for " Also " nature of is which a') friend," beautiful to use why elated supporters (b) Write, unjustifiably." "c.," 4. two his that could Government the had nature" reason Restless justification, return election, recent of opponents without a) than becama in "purpose." at stops than even retirement restless (15) " (2) or solitude of leisure being (30) sentence The him companions two . " for friend." his tired pleasures employed. 3. (10) of Rule attractions the than grew (36) seems his for attractions and for, pined than more He (36) scenery, " (i) " sentence. (10). more and th" to a} gradually" (15 Write (a) had friend, letter ", a ($}, refer e.g. section first Rule excitement his #) the to by followed each to following and Pleasure 1. (a) the to appended refers Exer^ Preface. brackets, in hints or these Rules. the to themselves by the see by itself, or brackets in which in manner departments moral thought power of efficient has a in co-operated Government (a) (5) this j Exercises. 42 respect,(b) (29) desire (c}(47 a) (a) Write general distrust of its please everybodyin Foreign Affairs." to a "the Navy." (b} Instead distinguish the different to as " counterbalance to (a) He cessive ex- of "to" write "in order to," so infinitives, (c) "obsequiousness." sometimes supported by Austria, who, oddly have been to enough, appears more friendly to Italy than (37 a) France, (30) in this line of action." 5. was under with (a] Begin "In "There (a) (4) one had Beust line of action." so of discoveries nez"erbeen yet (47 a) attained not *' (b) Write than was in (a) (5) this assertion, startling to be were previous investigators though they Jiad as Why? was." France something was (b) (47 a) treated who than or the that this " France" 6. Count the made, (4) that manhood of age and had for centuries superseded grey-headed philosophers(8) who\\z" patiently sought after the truth, (4) that (a) (5) it naturally the derision." provoked " it," cause (a) "This," "that," and that the startling assertion youth," "a mere (c) "a mere " 7. of the recommendations One depended) province should each of oversight council a Write either " 8. that (i) its in " (on which " "The ignored." (a) (26) (47, a) very that was council a in councils, each to have the (b) (37) report to a central (c}(5) it." smaller of Education in " Derive recommendations." cardinal." should, report,"or (2) "and and (b) stripling." district, and "cardinal ." . . Commission establish small the state on (a) to (b) Write, report." (c)Write "district." province," or (a) (i) period an (b] (il) event (f)(i)transpired The last hopes of peace. king fell from his destroyed " At this the horse and died by from his return (a) What is a " thus: king fall the (d) (30), which mole-hill,while he was "period " (c) What While fell and done that his honour the "c." ? (") Express is the king The (c}on with (c) "to the meaning on was cause particularkind transpired " of should of event " his return . . ? on (" dent acci- (d) Transpose his horse . precede sellingall . . . ; the the effect his estates, and, as soon (40 a), to (c} qtiitthe country, (a) (33) believing demanded this sacrifice and his creditors. satisfying (a) Begin was " determined 9. "He this was hope after stumbling on a reviewing hi 's soldiers. "). of hours two his horse's occasioned as the of much little perplexity. Write a discoveries. Believing that "c." (b) sell" or "on quitting." " (40) (40 a) in (b) the " " hoping thereby to satisfy"c." Exercises. 44 1 " 6. bribes (a) poor elections Write " than (i) "Than think they 17. think! themselves The at We the rich the rich with themselves disgraced," or (2) think " Than disgraced." Mahmoud, by his perpetual had filled his dominions (a) tyranny, (a) (41) (b](l) misfortuneand (c)(n) calamity,and greatly (d) (n) the diminished had Sultan he that he had language his population was a humorist learned of or from that birds, so that of the its mouth, Persian This great Empire. We are not (/) (55) (15) informed enthusiast,(g)but he pretended (h) Vizier. (e)(50) a whether bird by offeringthem." told that the Sultan are (41) and wars, (a)(37 disgracedby taking more no a) the rich an how to understand one (i)(1 1 ) some what he (j) (5) knew said by was One he with was (k) (44) evening the any the opened Sultan, returning from a hunting. They saw couple of owls which (10 g) were an sittingupon a tree (/)(8) which grew near old wall out of a heap of rubbish. Sultan The said (6)he should like to know owls were what the two saying to one another, and asked the Vizier to of it. account the to Sultan but (m) and him give Vizier, (n) (31) pretending to be very an tive atten- He to the owls, approached the tree. (0) returned heard their said that (6) he had of conversation, part what it was. wish to tell him (/) (5)He, not (q] (31) and did The listen to their discourse not being satisfied with this answer, forced him repeat everythingthe to (20) exactly, (r} (44) (5) (6) He told (5) him that the owls were arranginga treaty of marriage between their children, and that one of them, after agreeingto settle five hundred villages female the God would had that (6) owl, prayed upon grant a life Sultan he to because as long Mahmoud, reigned over long as owls them had said they would (s)thai (/) (5) Aewas he (a) (39) from that that people,and had been (a) he ruined want never touched time with forward rebuilt the villages. the story says fable, (30) and (s) that the (15) good of his villages(v] which consulted and towns The destroyed." "abroad at ... home." (e) "The is emphatic, we therefore of (d] "half (c) "desolation." "c." (/) " We are peopled." un- informed not " he was, be inverted, "whether when (g) " but he "will be omitted " "the Vizier" tended" Preis made the subject of (k} "pretended." meant once "claimed," "professed." Write "professed." (z) a certain dervish." (/ ) Introduce a new subject that youmay bird could substitute "Vizier its "for "he, "thus that nota so : open mouth, but the Vizier knew "c." (/")"As he was, one evening, "c." This (/) Note that the tree is represented as growing out of niins. "c., and (b) "ruin." Vizier should informed." not are " " is in accordance (m) Omit with this. Mahmoud the story of the mischief of "is out place (") "Suspense had in done. simple owls." ("?) a ends with " like this ; the sentence therefore Sultan" "The return." be not "Upon (g] "would (/) know satisfied." must (s] Omit. then, "c." (/) "so (r) "You here uses that." touched (u) end with "people." (v) Addison narrative, his . . . Exercises. "which," because probably between the of sound 45 "Which" implies that the destroyed, whereas choose been the villages in the country had been had only (see above) "half country to all 1 8. " this great king never the duties of state, which with and himself kept or amusement in the the to chase, of considered to be importance, that he allowed yet he and no terfere in- superior (a)(37) pursuit one took (54)great pleasure (b} (2) excessively (54)fona \ and for created several large parks of considerable excess, any he of which purposes control to run which he of paramount far under so unpeopled." permitted any pastime to Though (54) all other claims to " preceding clearness. and was he (54) magnitude." (a) Either "though," repeat begin a sentence new between leave their country, with and their (a) (n) the "excess." "excessively" inundate ""To 19. strikeout else or after first (3) Point what though the out " and diction contra- precedes. land, to all its miracles " their man of art and ships,to industry,its cities,its villas,and its (b} (ll) pastures buried under the waves their (d ) (1 1 ) faith and (c} (1 1 ) ; to bear to a distant climate their old (e)(n) liberties;to establish,with auspices that (10 a) the be constitution new might perhaps (/) (n) happier, of their commonwealth, in a (g) (n) foreignand strange (//)(n) land, in the Spice Islands of the Eastern the plans which Seas, (38) were they had the (a) Introduce " (/;) Introduce dykes." something "canals," "tulip gardens." (c) e.g. Dutch, Ocean." old to (d) The Dutch Batavia," so times " what the Calvinists. were " denote (f) " form. spiritto " that Dutch (e)The " Batavian inherited had Stadthaus," the German peculiar "of would from for "town-hall." the to country be a fit their the German was in epithet forefathers. (g) "other stars." (h) "strange vegetation." "During 20. (a) which the wealth its branches higher on become (a) Omit. been had the no for better great author, deliver decisions shot funds attained ever (14 a) up and extended had (14 a] soared to a before,(b) (15) speculation a sentence new (a) (16) a mere name) had been and : "This, or Prosperity,had increased speculation." that time "At deserves unexampled prosperity,during general." (") Begin the taste a side, and every had than point had 21. years of of the nation twenty as which productions of literary the could the narrow-minded set day. " by the alone (b} critic, supreme never up pedant (forhe world literary as be (b}reversed qualified to (15 a) tht upon Exercises. 46 " with (a) End . a " . . " reversed intending also him, to he himself clear to ascertain to could " else or ; how were.'* suit had "The 23. numerous forward the as of the earth plenty,when (a) Mention " 24. sudden He (11} the " I the out saw Point 26. out old at Street and "He and the remove that they had "and (a) 27. neither " The did were in the were sometimes, Commons they of his own should war be of Palestine. asked it to his it remove the for his reason refusal annul to the great displeasureto by (8)or (10 a'}. again by first accident mere when Exhibition, (19) walking in at the while House (52) was a " shops. at a .his he would yet condemn debate used not to say, was indeed taken him, he used good as a comedy. (17) sudden turn in as more own speech practice with mind, and sometimes seen his common his sated this memorable as of shade (n) was of the never that which the ambiguity. Majesty certainly comedy of intrigue,either than phets, probe as products (a) (1 1 ) abundant an (54) create (10 a')gave looking ; which debates amused (a] (6 b} say he and the time remained the " trees schoolfellow into consideration because should " owed he ambiguity, my Regent as their " classes. in London was down " "products," or the when to instruments treaty, (a) (8) which poorer its descendants beneath rest of peace. uses testimony latter "c.," teaching of the when should unpopularity,that 25. time increased when . . very "c." replied (32),when (a) Point I a so man some commercial the be each to the converted to . the prosecutor, "The sentence, new heavenly (1 1 ) bodies ', and should trees, and (a] (n) (b) Begin a been begun Jewish nation, relyingon looked be supreme this (40 a) far corroborated, and (a) (40 a] the motives of (b} (43) who had begun the suit last Christmas." "The the name never personification: "a a was (a) "what better no his promise, and (40 a) fulfilling from the suspicion that attached intention of determined deserves (b) "Which be the With he for " into condensed may criticism." of contemporary Minos " was pedant." expressed in one word be can reversed" 22. who one . narrow-minded mere to His any play-house or the Duke's, produced." as approve good the "c." war (20)expressly; (a) (18)the it (20)expressly ; and Exercises. king might with of Declaration Write " *' Indulgence was a supply for continuinghostilitie? of (I)} redressinggrievancesconnected which the of affairsat home, among a important (d} (15 a) very one." the even (3) Use ready to grant the king "c." all this into one ing subject. (T)Condense adjective,mean"that which takes place at home," (d} End with a noun, importance," or "foremost place." verb 28. obtained them, on (f) administration the (a) have even condition (19) from 47 they with "Next were a thinking clearly,(a] (5) it is useful to speak hereafter be it positionin life may your be such be cannot not to as (54) improved by this, (b] so that while it is worth making almost any effort to acquire (c} it, if /'/ is not natural a gift:(d) it being an undoubted (d] fact that the effort to acquire it must be successful, to some extent at if it be least, (d) moderately persevered in." to clearly,and " (a) whatever in Next utility speaking clearly comes .... be of assistance to (b) clearlyby nature, you "c." (c) "for undoubtedly, with moderate " a " "c." you " power that " If,therefore, you cannot this power." (d} Omit must speak " fact ; " "c." perseverance // (a) (38)appears to me (15) a greater victorythan Aginand grander triumph of wisdom faith and courage than the English constitution even or (b}liturgy,to have beaten back, and stemmed in ever or even small a degree, fought against so those basenesses that (c) (10 a] beset human nature, which are 29. court, held now as a invincible so the fundamental (a) Begin with "To for that axioms have beaten clearness basenesses " 30. The and of "c." "c.," and emphasis, us forciblyof the effrontery(c}(which (26) he of the of them science. end "the Member for are assumed " " with liturgy." (b) English." (c) "The (a) (2) unprecedented impudence reminds remarkable the influences of economic of our unblushing almost peat Resetting be- presentative youthful re- and succeeds (54) (40) in ling) equal- St. Alban's, whom our (b] (i) neophyte (b] (i) alluded to, in the last speech with which he favoured those whom (47 a) he represents, (19) as his pattern and example." (a) Show ' ' " is inconsistent with what follows, unprecedented (b) What is the meaning of "neophyte," "alluded to"? (c) Begin a "Our new adventurer sentence, Sic.,"and end with "and young he almost in equalling his master." succeeds 31. "The is the more because that of (a)(i ) veracity reason for in his remarks this story is questionable,and there doubting the (a) (i) truth of the narrator, the (i) observation of the Sabbath on he Exercises. 48 (a) (i)alludes distinctly to that custom a shown be can to never existed." have " between (a) Distinguish Show "observance." veracity" and "truth," "observation" "allude" the inconsistency between and and "distinctly." Mr. (a) (5) is "It 32. dwelt has Tucker pleasuresin which active. assent upon are we justdistribution,(loa) which the late so (b] largelyin his works, between passive,and pleasuresin which we are observer every attentive that however to (c]this position, I believe And in which occasionallybe may most a we of human life will (d] grateful the sensations passive,it is are not these, but satisfaction, pleasures,(8)which constitutes of moderate laneous and miscelregularstream (e) (38)which supply happiness,as distinguished enjoyments in (ior) which from voluptuousness,consists." latter class of the our that " (a) often Not "The 33. in this used now those mean "c." justice in is great There (5) Omit "so." (e) Repeat sense, (c)" admit." (d" antecedent, 1 " the "c." (pleasures) seemed prince before have to him limitless a (b] prosperity,carefully(33) trained the throne, and stimulated by the (a)pattern of last breathed his (3) suddenly at the age (43) of tasks who of the two, just after the conclusion (a) Find appropriate words, more overjoyed workmen intelligent (5) was to a and told the (a) If of sixty- (d] him to old friend (a] (25) who for sent He (b) of his most one consider himself" (e)his (f}himi" he (g)wished take not sentence. new journey northward. (c} he service, (30) as he himselfcould about his a an and him, see of son on his war." (b) Begin " On his way, he visited 34. him had asked him to call upon (54) (a) father, for the prospect of unbounded city." you mean friend's him," son write that the who ;" if you " "son" had He iourney northward, his way." (b) Use, had mean been asked his "asked that by him," the an write "friend" old "An had friend to old "asked call,on his Accordingly he visited him on instead of he, some who name one meaning entertains others." (e) "the (c}Use participle, (d) "The man." have wished could stranger's." (/) "his guest." (g) Write upon son. " " to it clear make 35. "Tillotson both by King Dr. Tennison, 36. that was " died William Bishop that " he " " means in this year. He was and by Queen Mary of Lincoln, was (a)The entertainment stupendous (l")perfectly to succeed exceedinglybeloved (43), who (c)most nominated him." arranged with and " the host." a magnificence unprecedented\ and Exercises. 49 quite kept up his Lordship's unrivalled reputation for and, thanks to the unequalledenergy of unparalleledhospitality, is rapidly becoming one Mr. effective of the most Smith, who with the toasts in the kingdom, a spirit were toast-masters given indeed of this and occasions nature were we on ; quiteunexampled which forciblyreminded three of Point out the contradictions epithets,or soften them down. " remarkable it stands, in the sentence a as (b] Write magnificence that quite "c.," thus dispensing with the following is superfluous. "and." that "most" (c] Show Omit (a) the human (15) knowledge of the in Shakespeare with the other dramatic compare his wonderful superiorityto Elizabethan era, we of authors them of the most "If 37. entertainment of the inimitable respect (2)." ago years this in is nature what (15 a) strikes us" principally The prince found himself at 38. provide himself with the commonest " to accustomed they by quoting the example himself and the to (d)(44) (a) country William " English poetry, " of you I as delighted to excuse at of a and because (b) (13) they selves them- who one of the prejudices of "c." had he at native once." the Shakespeare was and itself to the succeeding they were nothing worthy (37) done to 40. saries neces- (c] (34) had controlled the Conservatives, (37) commended large by his unfailing good-humour, the timidityand behind." (c)" while " 41. were humoured and Liberals even coast, being (33) timid (a)(50),both because prejudiced,and the or desolate policyrecommended make-shift ministers were this on perplexityhow sore comforts luxury." to 39. "This of he landed life,when of in once of of statesman." name " (Z") (d) had " yet done." the lesser sun among Stratford -on- shelter themselves A von lights (14 a)." (15 b] I think, gentlemen, you must confess that any one have done the same would (32),if you had been tempted wasteful ragged among to acts of dishonesty luxury and comfort, deliberatelyinstigated had been from I infancyto love, (a) taught by those whom when I failed to mocked I when or stole, punished praised then, placed starving and was (i$ a) do (b)so." (a) Insert another infinitive (b) Repeat 42. refused " So to far from beside the verb "love." instead "Love" being the first(54)aggressor, prosecute his old friend D when a produces dience." "obe- so." of "do he not favourable (22)only oppor- Exercises. 50 tunity presented itself for revenging also his friend's adviser, but suspected,if he events had given " " 43. and them . Having spectacle of the the the to sentence may have words be must been, altered. all at events qualify "suspected," apex of the sun-rise, I found Righi to enjoy the incommoded myself so by a emerged from the hotel I determined to quit them at the therefore, without stopping to who had that (a)(i)similar purpose, earliest practicable period ; and partake of breakfast,I wended my for the that he of illiterate individuals number If . . climbed " coming danger, and paid 5^. per day to English navvies, navvies." preferenceto 2s. 6d. to French 6s., (19) in 44. (a) at "suspected." after It is quitetrue even ." suspected place him, all (23) upon Smith the of his friend innocent however Smith know qualifies"Smith," all events" Yet, Smith. John not thus of it." information no If "at (a) did himself a back way with possible all celerity." (3) " {a} " 45. same." the that miracles admit You and is wrong, is unnatural unnatural, it follows are alliance the (a) Indian (a) is the "Who 46. Insert of defence of or other are dared the disputed our antithetical some has Now whatever cles admission, mirawrong." (i) own your miracles that inhabitant (a) (41) the since, by that man natural. not are call into to woods, to civilized delegate to the rights? epithets. of those who (a) very (n) small proportion indeed 47. "A have attempted to solve this problem (b)(19) have succeeded in a plausiblesolution." obtaining even (a) State what in one 48. " proportion succeeded, or, if you like,what hundred." all those that (b) Begin, "Of suddenly (a) (47 a) brought which (8) forces submit into failed : " not "c." contact with a wholesale imposture, naturally repels (a) being (40 a) barbarously ill-treated^ system and be To a to one to to (15 a) one." " causes a (a) Write, either (i) Collision one (2) "When brought into contact. is emphatic), (3) "One (if"ill-treatment" or "c." collision with by natural .... . 49. " We a annex to the Editor letter which the editor has . recentlyaddressed of the appeared undertaken repulsion," ot is naturally repelled," is naturally repelled by Mr. 's direction in contradiction , equally untrue, which . in to that of statements, periodical,and (a] (9) insert in the next number. Exercises. 52 54. "A life,and, the (a) (10 d} man immersed in neglected the ordinary duties who himself study,devoted grand plans to of for (b) (44) and refused to provide for the of those dependent on him, and suffered his aged relatives to wants because he would become not help them, (c)would, in my paupers benefit mankind, of opinion, (34) be bad a and man, altogether(d) (40 a) not without hypocrisy." " (a) If " 55. "or who are (d) believe have may been he." " I cannot whatever has (b) " if he refused," man." a man a shown " to in the while extent a he (c) " such refused." hypocrite." guilt of (a) said to the been " or some (b} (10 e) who, be shown, and one contrary, can testimony proceeding from those examined the facts, in spite(23)of carefully by competent said to have res'sted all attempts consult his own have many to obstacles, leave his situation,("r) (29) to of his own." a business (29) induce to interests him and to (29) to establish (a) " his "c (b) (i) " for, whatever that, in spite of "c., he resisted." guilt;" "c. . obstacles" spite. " write " We . between "have" of purpose and consult to seek must consulting his for the own . interests originof can be shown by (2) insert "in "carefully." (c) (i) Or establishing." by establishing"c." and . . it and . the "for 56. . . (2) Or freedom, (a)(37)prosperity, only (b}that x portionof our our (a) (37)glory,in that and The annals, (30) though it (c]is sterile and obscure. lish great Eng(d) then formed ; the national (e)disposition people was began which it has since (e) ever (d) then to exhibit those peculiarities and our fathers (d) then became possessed; emphaticallyislanders, and and (a) manners, (f) in their politics, (30 a) not (a) feelings, and merely in their (a) Repeat geographicalposition." the Pronominal the thus sentence : by beginning "c." (^) "It was (c)Omit. marked words implying something more more forcible than "possessed;" in the (/) Repeat "islanders." annals our 57. "(0) He knew him, and the universal was cemented the Adjective. (b) Express that" many " " emphatic only portion of It is in that then than that "c." " (e)Use " disposition,and latter case, "retained." (54)favouriteof'(54)all (8)who friendshipsat this period,(a) (33) highest circle of society,and, as he (b} (50) had (moving ture), a (4 a) certain property, being independent of the profitsof literain the and which at soon the foundations completely extinguished the outset of his x his career had threatened of slander to sap the reputation." in "c." Show that Rule That -which (a) Begin "Moving "c." of breath treats (") "rendered (14)is violated independent of by the metaphors. of the thirteenth . century. . . .by .Exercises. " 58. the The brief reached outward and period which material been of that form citywhich, during (10 a) is comprised in the highest pitch of this (a) (15) nature. was 53 present book, our and military,artistic, of The of progress literary glory, (b) (5)first has the already traced." with (a) Begin the sentence "military glory." " 59. The detachment "Such only not of their numbers and capture the small after some was, force was." " (b) By the failed to take the the weakness of the that was encamped sharp fighting,driven back first" is meant fort,(30) spite also to but garrison, outside the town, and with inconsiderable loss." Point the out "the 60. ambiguity. it Remedy by inserting either " which," or assailants." "(a) (b} Believing that these reforms can only (c] (21) be for and that (5)this will is as publicopinion them, prepared effected be more or less advanced in different localities,the Bill of the a (3) considerable period vSession of Parliament, next in regard to the points above- has Association, (a) (31) in draft, and will be introduced in the provides for placing (d} (3) the control in the (3) hands mentioned 0/~the ratepayers which power be to been for locality ; the exercised to be through representativeLicensing Boards elected periodically by them." {a) Place the parenthesisfirst,as of the Association has of each independent an been sentence " : The Bill " Parliament is noun (b) What ("r)"effected qualifiedby "believing?" Write " In the belief." in accordance with public opinion,which only so* far as they are "c." shall (d) "it,or, the Bill provides that the ratepayers . . . . receive control and . 61. "I . shall exercise . . this control." . think they are very (i) nice persons, for they kept me a long (a) (ll) time togetheryesterday by their (i) nice,stories all about what they(b}have experiencedin Japan, where had been for they (a) ever so long, and (c] (43) where they said that the natives ripped up their (d) (5) stomachs." amused for (a) Mention other 62. " To with that which (a) A 63. of some " " " or (3) experiences things,they told us "c." ("")"their for contend a dislike increases,(30) however of " time. some one compound has (c)" among own." garded advantageous monopolies, which are rewhich and a daily (10 a) suspicion (a) natural once Upon enteringthe my it may be to be possessed,(15 a) adjective can refreshment, adventures." be rustic nerves annoyed at the loss is useless." used, including "daily." place of were entertainment horrified partake by lightingon a to Exercises. 54 species singing some simultaneouslyimbibing that cup which, if individuals of boisterous number of harvest song, and also inebriates cheers, who were from their societyby when, banished of the fragrant weed, I wended to the apartthe fumes ment way my had the in which I which one adjoined hoped to rest my of the fairer sex, found I assortment an limbs, interesting weary who were holding a separate confabulation apart from the revels it of their " rougher spouses. "village inn," "next See (3). Write " 64. ; and room," "c., absurd these for cutions. circumlo- born, in 1782, Napoleon Burgoyne was boys (il)." When lington Wel- and both were Mention Brienne, Wellington at Eton. this, and, " WelArthur imply the boyhoody call Wellington studied Napoleon in order at to lesley." 65. near me I whom (38) to " gratefulhomage most forgotten : virtues,and (52) can " (a) Though of the yet "transitory," for "To neat and in the " for hour, (b) and clean " this artisan the British see " for " of ephemeral" " time, and for day. told "c." the on children the open under has his wife and their cheerful,with themselves (a) (19) disporting moment gentleman most is (52) the first of short a the of vice." cause for day" use be to and mute are recognized expression a to live prudence longer, is objectionable. Write a future 66. is day" us that used be never will but all of that us or not (a) hour when (b)(38) has told you of admiration occasion, merely to the upon entrusted (a) day, the the this abilities are ones, any subject,(36) feelings of this on of perishable eloquence on can is now, I believe, without refer occasion who mine, (38) whose ; former some upon of never respect, and, feelings of as friend honourable "An by canopy write Sabbath, their of hour" Else sides, heaven, is (l$)pleasant." (a) There is whether " or reasonable no he ground it clear makes context ; for but since mistaking the sense Shaftesbury Lord was here, as the questioned '* disporting to qualify artisan and his wife " porting disand, by their sides,their children " meant write children," "c." 67. "Even if such it is the the of all the (a) called more intention Omit " (a) it " that it were." author deserve of was seem in one (c) word, " that (c] it was perpetrating(e)it,to possible,upon " stances, extenuating circumreprobation,(b} and severe crime, in the (") " which." of the crime with it would for because author misery attended were would conduct to his victim." have been." ("?)Use the See the flict in- ($). (*/)Express noun. Exercises. 68. been "The of the heavenly bodies have must (a) (i) observance with great difficulties, before the (b)(30) telescope attended (a) (i)discovered, and was 55 of astronomers it is not to be wondered gations at if the investi- often and failed to unsatisfactory, under these produce complete (a) (i) persuasion, (30) (15, a) disadvantages." (a) What is the were difference "discover" " (") Begin between "observance" "invent," and Before "persuasion" " in reaching a help, and (a) (35) was for Sir became John Burgoyne himself, face of the difference (a)(i) conscious Sebastian of San weak very woman poor at last hauled with (30)not content he and dangerous struggle, that was crying piteously safelyto shore." more, put and remedy the ambiguity by inserting writing." who," according to the meaning. " with compared is the exact (a) What repeating the to Metz meaning or by Todleben, the fortifications between (10 e) was (c)(12) Paris." or the relative, (b) Avoid by weakness itself." (c) conjunction, of conscious ? " with name, "he" face with Sebastopol, (b} which of and observation," "conviction"? Point (a) 70. and " "c." He 69. plunged into the sea once his previous exertions. After a long succeeded and a Upon Richard's leavingthe (c)stage, the Commonwealth which Cromwell had was (a) again set up ; and the Parliament broken was brought together; but the army and they fell into new again (a) broken by the army : and upon disputes: so they were like to fall into (b) (n) great convulsions." that the nation was " 71. Eng., "broken question whether Modern (a) a is that that regarded as the " with . retired What (a) (n) and weapons, way. " See (18)and unnecessary ended with the Commonwealth a dispute "c. with "c., it (43). in the militaryprofession! He began (b) (li) inefficient formality, and (c}(b) (n) greatly improved fire-arms " pipe-clay." (6) "Six-pounders and flint-locks" are loaders." compared with "twenty-four-pounders and breechantithetical to (a),perhaps (c) Something is wanted drill" " or open order." fear death in the same fear to go in the dark. Men is increased fear of children by tales. So is the fear Children The when but, fallinginto inefficient "loose 73. " .... revolution (a) "pig-tailand now and .... . a the Parliament Commonwealth, are on a stage." But this is extremely the principal subject : " When the puppets Parliament .... was ." . many Make Parliament was 72. Richard, so doubtful. Richard " Richard asserted up." (b) "violently convulsed." (c) It is The metaphor is in good taste. ing meanfrom It might be retired public life." this 56 of Exercises. death. and contemplation of death, passage a tribute tions due death on the as world, is holy and another to it, as - The religious.The In nature, is weak. mixture is sometimes unto there of 'wages sin,' fear of religious meditavanity and of of superstition." Insert connecting adverbs "I have often or heard him (44). See conjunctions. reiterate (54) repeatedlythat he never to him, path was again, if a safe(54) and secure open prefer the perilous (54) road of danger, however alluring (54)and 74. would attractive " 75- might be." the latter I whether thought I did not in my observe dream remarked bold atom take that if any from friend my in the me of the of the birds one of heap asked in the conduct curious anything pigeons, I (a) (4 a) to that when was so midst ot grain them, (31) (which (b) a detachment guarded, and which, being increased and continually never useless),all the eaten, seemed rest turned againsthim and pecked him to death for the (c)(50) as an a action." (a) Point the out and (") This ambiguity. " parenthesis. of them, guarded by not as . useless " come noticed Being . . yet." (c) : earlier in the sentence, a heap of grain in the midst to all appearcontinually ance, , should I a . . . theft." " 76. If this low view of the royal office becomes generally adopted, then sovereigns who (8) have manded always hitherto comthe will of fall into Englishmen by degrees respect disrespect.'' Point out the ambiguity. Show it how might be removed (a) by punctuation, (") by altering "who." " 77. I struck magistrate. to the such would rightto do 78. (44). "He perseverance believe not Insert a explainedthis Witnesses me. prison. exercised is.ararely me right that were to to the called He in I remonstrated." adverbs. conjunctions or connecting attained and It is I committed He this. circumstances. See in self-defence. man statements. support my had the He a common distinguishedpositionby very sense, which mere (15) (52) (10 a] qualitiesare perhaps mostly underrated, (30) though and not remarkable for general ability. he was deficient in tact " " 79. may crime be which VindictivenesS) defined but as anger (a) (50) is a fault, (b) and (10 a) which is caused not by sin by personal injury,ought to be which nor by carefullydistinguished Exercises. from which resentment, (49) which is natural unjust,because "The (a) it is fault is anger and which (a) (50) is a virtue,(!"} (c) right caused by an act (d) which is it is inconvenient." unjust,(300) not because and ;" yindictiveness of " (c) *' Right Omit, (ft)"an can. 57 virtue of resentment." " adjective,but an as (b) righteous'' injustice." of act "the be used cannot " 80. (a)He told his friend that (a)his brother was surprisedthat (a] ^hadlgiven so small a contribution,for (a] he was (b) (12) a rich in of his and losses bad state the recent (a) spite man, very of trade, (19) (30) compared with himself." 81. " citizen him What See (b) citadel it be must . universal had been daylightby a been This address the citizens been captured in the and enemy, admitted by " the As into two citadel . . . had of end : . The citadel "The "The . ." been provided un- postern gate, a ;" or, Else, if one captured "c." . broad those sentence. a sentences therefore Naturally captured . been the at come that the was tence sen- had opinion. be sentence surpassed all those who were living(a) at the in which he could him in the forcible(b} manner appeal to the popular sympathy, and in the ease towards could draw (a) himself the hearts of his author with (c]an which with . . for it had used, write must converted be captured ... of number " "betrayed case time (54)opinion of all small may same . scaling ladders, and wearied by a long march." much any " ?" . (15) betrayed,(30) having very with and 83. proverbial for wealth? was (40). "The In king to (a) crucifyz. Roman (a) (15 b] It must be indeed wrong if to (b} (32) slay one is almost parricide,to (") scourge and him is an outrage. bind monstrous to a crime, (b} " (a] (15 a) Asian " is 82. (6). (b) What Use (a) he readers." (a) Express 84. a the the great statesman quicksands safe harbour of world. It would (a) be well Trade to literal statement " The ; and lawless even (15) literalize must ministers (43) (51) because were He of Protection Free of commerce, and pillar guided or impelled the people and false political to economy indeed was (c) Omit. with." "force a (a)(14 a] saved the country millions." several 85. (b) word, one in the financial star from This " in be preceding metaphors. changed were most the boldest and the into unwillingto of them desperate]had Else the metaphor. a meet (though too much the Houses, (a) their counsels value for his Exercises. 58 unlawful the resorting to had that of extortion modes of think (b) (li) personal safety to familiar been to (r) (12) the ceding pre- age." (a) Begin Lawless and desperate though their of these (c) Insert some (b) "neck." modes, "benevolences, ship-money, and the other "c." had counsels unlawful 86. " We may his poetry. " of the command. (a) writer and That " We will " 87. guess" and emphatic, (b) "Marah." pretend be to captain asked (15 a) scorn, completely at intended are fiftymen, a his dry." never was despair" allowed be to " in eloquence of (a) (15) despair (15 a] fountain (b} (12) of bitterness to The Byron, grandchildren our exhibited as the whole had ever what so not author Lord of character No misanthropy, "c." been (a) (15)pretend'toguess will not think " with sentence new a by the supply of hundred and food, and (44) The one fifty breech-loaders. have general repliedcoldly that he could not let his subordinate forced The he that wanted. (a) (4) anything (44) captain was to out set (34) with an insufficient force, spite of the superabundance of soldiers doing nothing in the camp (34),and with by a general who from the first put in his way every obstacle had resolved not to give him even ordinary assistance, (b} (10 a') which the (a) captain had Point and out which and " I have . attractions no difference " " or (b)Write, according ". . . . a resolution to the that." a is not (a) What . that practicalman, and disbelieve in everything (8) amuse philosophers practical; theories (a) which am pedants ambiguity, the assistance . anticipated." time some remove ". meaning, 88. for " that in for the the for me, would meaning " second (30)for which" be this reason" caused by the use of ? discovery drew no other seventy but the and the (n a) passing a sentence (li a) turning (a) him out of office, (b) condemning him to die for it (31) (which was presently and he restored to his after short confinement pardoned, was a all men believed that the king knew of the letter,(c)(43) liberty), and that (6 b} the pretended confession of the secretary was only collusion to lay the jealousiesof the king's (d] (n a] favouring him, (30) notwithstanding (e)(43) which still hung upon popery, his (e} writing on the Revelation, and his (e) affecting to enter all occasions into controversy, (e)asserting in particularthat on 89.* "Yet, the Pope when Antichrist." was (a) "expulsion that from." was Begin it that was a soon new " (b) sentence said, 'was pretended a manifested " : "c.'" by 'The sentence his pardon to death and a pretence liberation." (c) " secretary's pretended confession,' '* the the suspicion that king (d) Exercises. 60 94. regret that I have "I which (a) (3) intelligence some which and (ioa)fs tell you I must at once, of a most ($}painful nature, it should of your I like to account (40 on (c) a] defer though (b] had because (c} (40 a] you have already ill-health,and many the natural dislike which and to (8) a troubles, (40 a] owing is unpleasant. friend must always feel to say that (10 f) which Many old friends in this district have turned against you : I faithful to : only (21) I remain scarcely like to write the words sure you will believe you, and I am interests." which is best for your " (a) (3) In news." if a a is period letter these and "because because of ... remain of your ." come they is (iof) that doing am (30) must .... I should words desired, they (c) Write troubles that ; are last, after ill-health but " pleasant." un- and the .... back word that the enemy had sent general at once other the side of the river,and [(35)or (37)] suddenly appeared on have shown // would then (a) retreated, (b} //was that(/;) thought 95. "The his (3) part if he had attacked the (c) (i) fortitude on tenable than which for week not were a more (d} fortifications, the (54) universal Such at all events. was opinion, at (23) least, of (54) all the soldiers." more Point (a) the have shown (b )"It was thought he would ambiguity, and fortitude (c) Distinguish between (d) "bravery." be if " that " for would the substituted were meaning out "c." " What "which"? " " 96. since A It will Who so morose are " has this attained" powerful that, unless who less are liable Ministry Write ? it is " of "which," these go "and on, that this notion has (a) it become ." . . . habituallysilent (a) (3) by dispositionand to the fault are habitually (a) (3) fond (3) a pleasant disposition" Each is to dispersed who (a) for has what "Those 97. substitute to sprung up that the Premier, though he can has and attained influence which an govern, notion or better perhaps they. " legislate,cannot it imperative, if renders should be dispersed." (a) be " periphrases must of exaggerating than those of talking, and (40 a] of (a) be condensed into a jective. single ad- author, (a)(31) though he is not (b}altogether(^guiltless of which to be of are (c)faults exaggeration, in those found in his latest works he (d) which as as plentifully his when he was career as an author, yet, published beginning all who those these were surpassed (e)defects, notwithstanding living 98. This (b} occasional 61 Exercises. at the he (/) could, it were, as in the and see power which he drew with "who the could not that power a (g) manner clear into the feelingsof indeed toward (/) perused his works" (f) (a) " in the him with time same the himself (54). See in which people be (f) large, at resisted sympathy " " of those (") One of these parenthesisinto a separate sentence. dense One of these is unnecessary, (if)Con(":) words these as (e) Omit unnecessary. word, (g) clearness with." {f) Express all this in one the Convert is unnecessary. earliest." "his : words " " the North Among 99. heard of the rushed from perpetrationof similar the room his tale half told, Make (a) it evident American whether Indians, his use his regiment, out inspiredevery one " Begin, Out he " 101. right of who were " that" repetitionof be replaced by some is can " 102. in the It happened House being who Point out the day before, (19) Though wounded had shown then officer his (a) that "c and . must there " have (10 b] will forgive the fill." to suit what were ." . . intelligence(b) (18) objectionable. Use other conjunction to not been officer left in only considerations that at this time (8) could had Prime " (b} "and precedes. few a be and Radicals Minister for " Christian. a he (41) other as and the the " "c are selectingan weight when we that will task in a placed position his fidelity" (a) The alive and in the recent charge time the was bravery The last the at and arm, " well as the stood, lived the North among is " horror-stricken." who painful operation wounded officers twenty headed." Moral heading he his crime" at once show this admiration. of had in twenty with speaker under "His(i) bravery (I )fortitudehe had shown action, (30) though he was to the not, and or indeed I had where wretch (30) horror-stricken 100. unable Indians atrocities ; but it seemed tolerabl inin a civilized land : and I things should occur at once, leaving the that such with (a) (23) American difference of meaning, according as we read "who" or "that." 103. of and were "// cannot would men be doubted be left poor and indisposition, taken out imaginations as (a) The one minds (a) would, (which original)is meaning in the " to vain and the minds of things,full shrunken unpleasing of men's the '(15b] that themselves, of if false opinions, (15 a) like" a vast melancholy (32) there valuations, cannot easily be castles in the air/' "pleasant fancies." more ber num- tersely expressed than 62 Exercises. " 104. His God ordinaryworks mind atheism to religion. (44) to scattered, it the chain in men's While may acknowledge the mind confederate atheism of to (44) That school which clearly demonstrates most back second causes upon when it beholds ; (44) together,it must needs them linked and minds looks man in rest Providence. a of a philosophy brings sometimes of them accused refute it. (a) A depth : miracle refute atheism, because little philosophy inclines man's wrought never the is most truth of " religion. (a) Insert " suspensive conjunction. a See (34). The spiritof Liberty and the spiritof Nationalitywere for all dead for a time once a pious duty, ; (a) (5) it might be but it could continue not always expedient or (c) (15) "(18) to (b}(13) mourn profitable (c)(15 a) for their loss. Yet this is the (b}(13)feelingof the age of Trajan." 105. (a) Omit. (b) Notice by " " by the this force (a) of with most in (a) " a it to have find for dead . . one, To or the a " sentence: new the ball ; to It occasion, was a force "c." description amused himself of inferior authors as a an the " have (d) What done" is the word with " a the for "that central some passed (a)(3) in write and by writing sentence "like some authors." instead poet which of .... happens around object?" manner self-satisfied own through course againstthe ; to tide the sole title to English ministers a peculiarart of (d} sporting of a nation's destiny heavy, the awful responsibility jaunty grace of a juggler (I l) (e)playing with his golden have joked and intrigued,and bribed and (/) deceived^ distinction with (b) generations many their of office,letting things take years never have sagacity, (b} sailed with consummate of popular (c]judgment ; to have left on record as the been tempest." in connection have twenty with of the force nature Longinus highlyrecommends because (a) (5)(c]he has not poet." (3) Omit has." " the was almost (b) Begin upon (c) Suspend 108. "to than mentions, he The . therefore, by emphatic more effected, (a) we was words, raging of the it evident are (b} (15 a) have done, (30) but (c) has gathered together those (a1)(I ) events which are apt to terrifythe imagination,and (35) reallyhappen whom he because the these little fancies genius, words (15 b) what seemed by Homer, storm a had I remember " Make sentence. these (c) shown theology." Omit 107. next ask we change that of "(38) " or "c." (a) If which the by their grave;" "attitude." profitable are emphatic, as is weeping expedient position,that mourn " sit " in yet their 106. "To that among Exercises. having done nothing (g\ (h) either for the indeed he did worse religion(for (/')which result of the with for (h} or nothing), (h} for or basis miserable on for the honour science, (h} or prosperityof which the the poor, than or cord con- nation, (38) is surely reputationof man great (15) states- a (15 a] founded" be (k) can and art the financial even or a 63 implies will and effort: use a word (") "Sail" (a) "complacently." to as a to contrast helpless ship, so peculiar paradoxically with sagacity." (c) Use a word implying less thought and is too often write deliberation. ing" "bearrepeated; (rf) With introduce the illustration as to so abruptly, (e) "tossing." word of a implying a particular kind deceit," not (/) Use the but to next (g) Insert the word "lying." "lying," thing with a preceding and intensifying adverb, "absolutely nothing." either," "or," repeat (/") Instead of nothing." (i) The parenthesis breaks the Write than rhythm. "nothing, or worse nothing." (k) to found." " " " " " (i)conscious that glance at the clock will make you in the I therefore ask it is nearly three morning, and you, of this instead to time, wasting more gentlemen, question put to yourselves, Are or are we not, here, for the purpose we, truth ? of (l) eliminatingthe " 109. A ' ' " member, so far speech of the Right Honourable from unravelling (14) the obscurities of this knotty question, is eminently calculated to mislead his supporters (a) (Sa) who have be (b)(23) almost asserted It may made not a specialstudy of it. he has made that the very of every statement (8) which (i) "The no. is the fact." converse (a) meaning The to appears be, " who : supporters is so grrat that that" his " 111. provisions of of the Parliament Point out " the Mrs. vote in the (a) Substitute 113. "The cloud of evil his "all supporters," but of writing "his convenience I should be the of Canada disposed to use await and "these of supporters "that." (6) juxtapositionof " almost." (8) require the treaty which meaning conveyed by which, its assembling." by that. (26),in opposition to the been a reaction of the press, that (a) there had suffrage,that there had reallybeen a gain of Smith demonstrated House of general dictum against woman's one not not asserted,"requires the "The consent 112. Every," " the " instead Commons." of," and erase the second " practiceof smoking hangs like the country." over that." a gigantic(14 a) EXERCISES. CONTINUOUS CLEARNESS. THE exercises following Butler, and other and lost. this, and the the is It The the that necessary in mind bear altered in that of the student sole to will style, author's the old-fashioned the view a version unity of Burnet, with modernized charm of pleasant ring highly should and ambiguity. the to original respects. from extracts The obscurity and necessarily be inferior some of modernized Clarendon, remove in consist and duality, indivi- English, should is object are recognize show to how been clearly expressed. more might have have been not altered, being in as Occasionally expressions themselves obscure or objectionable, but as indicating a habit of in the which For beware. extract beginners should example, from is often in the he because, altered, not Burnet, particular because the but Burnet' obscurity, s context, presents pronoun any habit of repeating he is faulty. in These exercises used The be two can pupil may ways. either be have his book and the for on questioned reasons open each have versions, he may alteration, or, after studying the two the original version dictated and he then to him, reproduce may the parallel version, or like it, on something paper. in each meaning case LORD The principal (43), use (5), pronouns faults in CLARENDON. this for phrases of excessive style words separation long heterogeneous are, (47 a), ambiguous of words tences sen- of use grammatically nected con- together (19). ORIGINAL It (44) tinent (50) The be not place to the constitution original metaphor the it is better is metaphor to avoid the in now, plain, this VERSION. far as as prodigious an present take place in of both and how the* to uses so And imper- discourse, this and temper PARALLEL unnatural present in Though will nor down 1 VERSION. common appearance set the crown as as scarcely of confusion. a which prop, to be order to ex- possible, how alteration so short a royal seems regarded as so could time, power a confusion. a metaphor, Clearness. Parliament, and (34) court itself, (30) that (5) of the to it may be the less wondered at, that so prodigiousan alteration should (37) the time, and itself appear were fallen neither follows the only of of the to or and of Church or were set the the on all foot to the all that We sometimes .overeign," "the a for the for the to intention no Church was to State. or from the very to necessary conceivable every sort re- device of perverting purpose honest bellion. majority into re- With They were dangers that and the some, addressed not that the this appeal was their to patriotism. warned that the "of [all threatened precious in]the liberty of the property subject, was if the laws subservient to government deed, In- country. be doubted in outset, it if feel to great affection constitutional Consequently, for court, loyal respect and alteration their say, brieflybut then temper," "c. the the peace of the kingdom make considerable any to or ous preci- of wisdom whose majorityhad break (43) Commons men many ancient the front the subject(19) in were most tions inven- was of it cannot to Lords.) House of liberty and their property, by tering overthrowing (47 a) or overmasthe law, and jecting (47 a) subit to an arbitrary (47 a) and by countenancing power, Popery to the subversion of the Protestant religion,"and then, 1 court judgment high posed position and great wealth disdifference them, in spiteof their in- the ment govern: the king, (15) beginning to work upon (5) them, and (n) corrupt (5) them, (43) (45) by suggestions "of the dangers (8) which threatened the and a dom, king- State (18) of Parliament, of of to able consider- any alteration therefore mind no in Houses also House there plentiful of peace make of both In (7) being possessed had who men the1 present composition, not and the Commons unfortunes,though they were the devoted to court, enough (19)had all imaginable duty for affection to the the king, and established (47 a) government by law or ancient custom ; (43) and without the doubt, major consisted that body (54) part of break of but descriptionof and great nity, dig- itself. of wisdom persons gravity,who able un- naturally, most account (47 a) a of House support temper port sup- to be as itself,its it comes some majesty, own many and will be where a low so its faithful servants, it of use to set down here, or faithfulto it. (Here In so would who those nor its nor short crown that it could low, so in made be fall could of Houses Popery the to was to were be made despotism, to be subversion and encouraged of the testant Pro- religion.'* perhaps idiomatically, the " then 66 Continuous Exercises. by infusing terrible apprehensions into some, and their fears, upon ing work- so (6b) "of in called ( 1 1 a] being question for somewhat had done," they stand by which (5) they would in need of (5) their protection ; and (43) (45) raisingthe hopes of others, that, by concurwith a) (5) them ring (47 (5) " they should be offices honours and of there were too misled and temptations than fierceness barbarityof their and (19) no had they court and ; government vested,nor (47 a) was had who would then done, stand in of those who help them this giving In others, timely warning." and were hopes excited, offices, were now and out preferments the as were of adhesion. reward many there that malice against the had tracted con- the Church the and leaders of not conspiracywere many. flock was missive, large and subbut the shepherds The the their barbarity they But court. the needed than temptation by tions, tempta- some fierceness and the of indeed the and of these were very few. were lead, to multitude a were disposed was other led away were many other or the absolute authority (13) (13) were had they of the innate and the though need no the against ber (43) yet the numgreat of those in not was rest they and contracted againstthe Church there and one other from natures, own malice whom something others needed the for Too corrupted many these several by temptations, (40 a) who (47 a) others "There appealed to. was "that danger," so1 it was said, they might be called to account held any of preferment." Though kind and and fears honours, obtain to sure The to follow. (44)(30) Mr. Pym of greatest experience in parliaments,where the as upon Of looked was man long, (50) very of always (50) a man officer in business,(7) being an of a the Exchequer, (43) and good reputation generally,(30) inclined to be though known and of Puritan against the leading wholly The party furious those 1 in rest he was the to was Pym superior to all the parliamentary experience. To this advantage thought served had he these, Mr. Church men devoted were, to ; to and the inclined other he of personalityof the tempters kept in the background. be set (44) Earl of his business continuous in the party, yet he the other the from He Exchequer. had also a good reputation generally ; for, though known resolutions as habits acquired service not yet added and to was the not against the so Puritan cally fanati- Church as leaders. In this spect re- resembled the Earl of organizers of the conspiracy is posely pur- 68 Continuous founa in Parliament, (30) (43) it was (44) when covered quickly dishe the that,as ling darwas of his father, so (5) he like to make was soever good whathad he for many years Exercises. Parliament. Then, indeed, it that quickly likely to fulfil even fond hopes of his father the high promise of discovered was he was the and years. many promised. The (5) was a other, Sir of man H. Vane, great natural * (45) and of very profound dissimulation,of a quick conception,and of very ready, parts and sharp, weighty Fiennes' coadjutor, Sir Vane, was natural ability.1 Quick a and H. great in understanding impenetrable dissembling,he with of man could also in speak aspect, which, though it might point, and weight. His singular appearance, though it might naturally naturally proceed proceed He father had and which an life made and very in Oxford, the great exactness, after his care not (43) he a not full reverence, that he had the form the turgy, Li- generally who where Oxford, at Magdalen In much to sentence he studied spite supervision of very by tutor, Soon after spent and a a severe leaving in of an the by Church, not, were is a which he After he ceived con- hatred not many, was also but Liturgy,which was and general reverence. or by his displeasureof at was the in France, Geneva. intense at worthy morality. Oxford littletime some more the not was characterized, in please, dis- able, highly conformexceedingly sharp This by behaviour College, of disliked against the held in great cur, seeming to ingiddiness, the his father, who that time, beside strictly forming conto the Church himself, very bitter stillappeared against those confirmed was of his life. His whole Incurring (30) (43) his father, who who thing some- extraordinary,an impression that even were other. giddiness,which displeased,or seemed and in him the only against the government then his belief beauty, with men prejudice (15 a) many for their impressed yet who parents, returning to England, and was his (43) England, against of those friends to (5) the with spent and, ; of the government (43) which great very with againstthe both Church, a lived bitterness and of into retuni (38) contracted in College (43) though Geneva in more his in France, and little time some time from where, tutor, he worthy tion. imagina- from noted not were traordinary ex- Magdalen under promptness, whole short returned in was that a of (52) his good he persons, think there in him Within he of neither men : after his beautiful somewhat studies from mother, were yet (19) made was expression. (50) unusual left his home This preliminary summary against conformists, Non- Vane the young for New England. colony had of what been follows. planted Clearness. transportedhimself into New England, (43) a colony within few years before planted of all religions,1 by a mixture which disposed the professors (5) he dislike to the the who to choose government and charter under that choosing man to hence, nor years the them of scruple amongst complying with those so : from far men tions obligain were, He (45) there, landed made was no sooner his but parts him quickly taken notice of, (26) and very probably his quality,being the eldest son of a Privy-councillor, might give him advantage some season of for came their the was their governor: (30)(45) (43) in which place he had so ill (26)(his working unquiet fancy raising and a and fusing in- scruples of conscience, which not nor 1 (5) they had with brought over them, heard of before) (19) that he " If which" their differences that but 2 I have The between were found is used " ; of here if it is used a nature difference following words the infancy and also with the arrival this was had he landed to notice : he was of changed. than all Vane No sooner his ability, his extent perhaps to some eldest of son a position, as recommended Privy-councillor, and him election and at the chosen new next vernor. Go- post, his restless and unquiet imagination found opportunity for creating and tious consciendiffusinga thousand scruplesthat had not been or ever brought over, even heard of, by the colonists. His proved government failure : governor and, mutually (45) governed Vane parted. a satisfied, disand re- according to Rule (8),the meaning is,(a) "and for gions that,"the meaning will be, (b) all reliI believe (a) is the meaning to dispose "c." ; " " of opinion on the question. to be emphatic, bringing out appear the supremacy." been had slightest scruple. Indeed, lawfuloaths scruples against "2 unknown in the infancy were of the English schism. But In his election magistrates,he thousand oaths the for many years the afterwards,without exciting next chosen fortune take allegianceand much inso- ; the (51) that, when should not but infancy (i$}of their schism, refusing to take lawful oaths. own nal only by all the origion planters, receiving their charter, before leaving England, was after least the of taken, selves they transported themfrom it their These " in many of the government happened privilege(accorded king's charter) of man every oaths the premacy suallegiance and which (30) (43) (5) ; all the first planters did, when their charter, they received there religions, J disposed them ment governject subwas governors this obligation,"that of before of men and own take by and Now, their the by governors, should sorts Church. obligation, "that the every oaths their of to dislike the king's the before years their differences (30) (43) by qualified (44) were few all of government Church; a development of schism. the difference Continuous unsatisfied with with him, himself and retransported England ; (30)(43) into (44) having sowed such there,as prosperously,and divided into several they he of dissension too them Exercises. turned to till he had England, but not accomplished his mischievous seed had task, the sown miserable grew up ably miser- seeds of those dissensions afterwards the till he not which only grew too perously, pros- till colony poor sions factions,and divi- they split the wretched colony into distinct, and hostile, mutually persecuting and persecutions of each (15 a] other (30) (43) which still continue to the great (54) prejudice of that plantation: insomuch of (5) them, as some the of their first ground upon expedition, liberty of conscience, factions. His work handi- , have withdrawn from and from the it is -remains, and owing to (15) him that some of the colonists,on the pretext of liberty of conscience, the of their emigration, originalcause selves them- their (5) obtained still from tion, jurisdic- other fresh of men government, they have enlarged their plantations,within new limits to adjacent (5) (15 a) forms of the other. borders colonial have obtained from charters These (30) (43) forms other selves them- old the and jurisdiction ters char- king, by which, in withdrawn have the king. established have government, new unduly their boundaries, and the rival settlements on enlarged set up of the originalcolony. BURNET. The principalfaults (see 43) sentences styleare in Burnet's (b] ; (a) the of heterogeneous use of suspense want (see the omission (d] (see 5) ; the of pronouns 30) ; of (c) the ambiguous use and an excessive use of and connecting adverbs and conjunctions, one topic to abruptness in passing from (see 44) ; and (e) an faults necessarily correction of these another (see 45). The lengthens the honour his maintaining the of foreign countries (l)vanity which nation of which he was carefulthat, though a head, crowned had ambassadors paid them which ambassadors ever all in is very natural so (30) (43) (15) (17 a) ; he was He the gratifiedthe (50) to Englishmen not yet his (40 a) (15)kings' had (6 b) the dignity of : the he said crown lish gratifiedthe Engby feeling of self-respect also nation So foreign countries. in all jealous he was crowned head, he paid been had not was yet secured all the respect for his ambassadors that this on he point that, though a of the the honour maintaining all the respects our VERSION. PARALLEL VERSION. ORIGINAL And version. altered of ambassadors The king, he said, received simply as our the to kings. the spect re- nation's Clearness. was the upon of the account nation, of king was (50)only the representative head; which the so, the nation being the same, he would have the same gards re- paid to (41) his Another2 pleased with of (5) this much. Blake the fleet happened^} to be Malaga before he made upon Spain : (44) and some at his seamen went met the Host carried and war of ashore, and about; (44) only paid respect it,but laughed at those who of did; (43) (30) (51) so one the priests put the people upon not this resenting indignity; and and they fell upon (5) them beat them severely. When returned to their ship (5) they they complained of (5) this and usage; upon to demand the the chief over the not The the not were viceroy he was in that swered viceroy anno authority the to of following instance jealousyfor the national honour When much. pleased him Blake his at Malaga with was with before his war fleet, Spain, of his It happened that some sailors but prieststo resent the people fell beat their a kind the instigator of the outrage. The that he viceroy answered could not touch him, as he had the priests. no authority over their of the 2 No that, complaint (5)it,(5)he would of antithesis instance has sent burn sent a is this ill- within answered meaning of Blake to the viceroy to messenger demand the priest who was To this Blake " his, and between yet been " have and mentioned. and would people towns- condition at once his of the But sailors. plied reEnglish (50) Admiral that a complaint should been then punished the he The fended arrival,he dehimself, alleging the insolence " hours, town. On sent. therefore the nation three the being in no the priestwas resist, seamen. The On shipthe a the x scoffers burn but petulant behaviour of the whereupon usage, the severely. to complained seamen who indignity, the on it, to of one the them return Host, those at Incited and ing meet- respect no laughed by even did. and processionof the only paid not the (5)Aim ashore within him, (43) and to going the if he to power condition (44) Blake (5) he had paid three word inquirewho not would if be nation's ministers. The to ; no 1 the same, respect should same (5) they,being to resist him, the priest to him, (43) sent who himself upon (44) justified town in was since send him sent the replied,that he intend did to not inquire to whom the authoritybelonged, if the sent not but, priestwere sent (i) so Blake disposeofhim. priest to hours, the (15) priests, and that upon that he would the Blake priestwho had he could that (l) instrument ill-usage. had to trumpet a nation no to sent the ministers. instance him head, and, representative forwarded he them would the nation's him, have severely, for nation's, ministers." " to There ministers." is Continuous have them punished since his (5) to men not affront the set on Spaniards for he would it ; only was so mercy. Cromwell much of name as that of ever had been. were (5) him that him a in such dread took they of give (43) (44) and the his brothers to king or Royal, (23) within after,(5) they deputation to States give them that no tavus Algernon not was speak 1 The : " of a that me the was spected rename countries of Cromwell the in such were that they to care free on not these ; and only with of Sweden favourite under Charles whom he confidential terms, most also kingdom Cromwell's Gustavus, or was of name much as ever with said, "I the dread ally; mended com- ally ing Read- in council other was under Christina. was but Both tions sovereigns had just nopublicliberty; at least, of is implied, and favourite conduct. letters Holland The who think kings, (5) to thought Cromwell's to delighted of (44) CarolusGus- well him this two should Sydney, (io#) back. give him no sort of ever umbrage. Accordingly, whenhis brothers the king or Princess the to see came Royal their sister, they were always warned in a day or two by a Cromwell had that deputation required of the States to give them no harbourage. he lived in great conjunction of counsels. Even (44) inclined him much was Blake's with offender entertained sent States alliance favourite \vasSweden.1 Cromwell took harbour. Cromwell's and ; know (5) they (50) Blake and civilly Among required of had at his mercy, of send to them let Cromwell that the used having as came or only to man." English- of Roman." Princess day a is satisfied the hope an Englishman anytime at sister the their see when my all the I shall make to care trymen counyour work ; for I world know he great satisfaction, of umbrage sort no on Then, (15 a) States set do had the great The it ill that take Englishman punished by an with the as "I an be with make Roman (44) Holland to lighted de- said he ; and should English man an place "But," should him and (5) this, (43) great satisfaction (6) hoped any will have at his him the letters in council he lished estab- ; was with the religion of added, that be affront to (5) all the should they touched. you Englishman punished by satisfied that he had read he the him sent he (43) (44) and priestcivilly, back (30), being he treated and ; but an to be Englishman an where do to have that to know world place ill,that his sailors allowed lished estab- any touched it of none suffer of religion which at (5) he (5) (6) he took the severely, would he Exercises. should a be expressed, by free country.". the words, is Clearness. said he (5)had justnotions of public liberty; (44) (43) and added, that seemed to But at have (44) she from us Queen them a true the from All and was up the and over for (5) it. executed our than Nor offend the whose keeping up character of land,1 Holof name him durst the great (50) fleet scoured and Mediterranean; gave up Hyde, even tion. na- dreaded died. Protector then factious the at and Cromwell, (23)(43), king brought less Italy,no trembled ambassador there the kept for she ; complained of the unruly spiritof till he ; and the Turks Turks offend him livered ; but de- up Hyde, the character of an Rome at Mediterranean who was also held and (A^ a] of our princes. at the (44) All Italy trembled of seemed and name Cromwell, under a (i)panic as long as he lived ; (43) his fleet scoured the not He same her on commands durst this me of Gustavus. tainly cer- favour opinion of Queen Christina ; but, if so, she was much I waited changed when her on royalty,assured the changed with readily comply not likewise. ; for she complained of factious nation, that did Rome as of I waited that,when Algernon Sydney, a man not prejudicedin Christina much was 73 in they for who, Turkey ambassador the from the king, was brought England and executed. (44) (ii a) The brother of the ambassador putting the king of Portugal's for death to very in the strictness nations, it is own exempted of the only the (4) any (47 a) sends him, yet the to him. his foreigners is of the brother of law the to ambassador's Successful (41) (44)Cromwell good (n) under- was in than no nations alone, yet exemption has of the the whole suite. abroad, Cromwell less successful selectingable for for tion foreignjurisdic- practicethe extended practice has of carried the ambassador that verity se- the justice For, though in far. from exempts rity authoin of " Cromwell " very strictness in favour of all that the gone ambassador owned long (47 a} to beshowed towards murder sador's ambas- but his masters instance Portuguese ambassador the of law that person from another execution der, mur- (n a) carrying justice far ; (43)since,though was In to at and home worthy ally public duties, especi- nothing of law. for the courts In capable and seeking2 out for all employmore nothing did he show ments, worthy men his natural but most insight, particularly clearly great standing \\\ more men in 1 The remarks about Christina are a digression,and Burnet is now ing return- by foreign nations. "find" is not neces2 He not only sought, but sought successfully. That the word of the in the out" "seek use proved by. seems irilyimplied by out very and ii. 17 : "He Ai.uthorized Version, 2 Tim. diligently, sought me found me. to the respect in which Cromwell was held Continuous 74 of law, (43) for the courts which (lOtf) Exercises. (30^7) general a gave nothing contributed popularity, and more his to satisfaction. BISHOP The in this principalfaults sometimes (5), and would be BUTLER. (b) the Some certain that been (5)one But revelation no a a as (15 b] in man the had the ness serious- the simplicitycan possibly considers (5)so, who of state religion in the it heathen world and in tion, revela- borrowed of (12) greatest men thingsof the utmost well as natural It is have reasoned system have and which been (15 a) rance igno- 1 "To 2 It has even 4 as style,but revealed mark tention inatof the even by doubtful a vital Socrates subject a of immortality soul ; and then and lightof the in seriousness sincerity the that can he tain main- Nature is whole It is of deny genuine supersti- in that impossibleto course some second 4 totle Aris- might have reasoned out, its genuine simplicityand incredible," inconceivable." Wanting" This its of the ceived re- sufficient ? to call natural we yet ignorance so the those of also language held on that in not "to put forward," "maintain." pretend" once meant been suggested, however, that by "in its very notion " is meant able that out religion, (30) in simplicity,clear 4 the as and natural the but masses, in general. of mankind (34) impossibleto say (12) would " the vailed preworld all,let him merely let (41) once have and concerning (1 1 ) importance, inattention who 3 of some But heathen light to or spiritual prevails that ; above not as would the revelation, the no sense needless given. the still truth light from (5) it; particularly(19) the doubtfulness been in (41) been revelation no that regions (5) present state (n) places (8) which assuredly, a consider before is in Nature revelation its those have before And in such any man darkness ground Nature light of have tially essensarily neces- the lightof itself sufficient. ever useless. wanting,or and fictitious, on that 2 as incredible useless, render to avowedly persons revelation rejectall and think word a VERSION. Some render the sufficient been sense 3 not no phrase, where sufficient would had given, (32) Nature such of pronouns use vague a PARALLEL (15) upon sufficiency of pretence the light of Nature, avowedly reject all revelation as, in its (47 a) very notion, incredible, and what (47 a) mtist be fictitious. indeed And (32) it is in use VERSION. persons, of the l light of of enough (47 a). ORIGINAL have (a) style are use is used of the it adds for modern "wanted." particular for the general would clearness. be out of place in Butler's Continuous and boundless is a great and affairs. has is make to lastingimpression human on that it resources, obviously destined been Its (50) progress (5)it"1 slow, but that account the only on be durable. to likely (5) has not suddenly risen to more It greatness, like the in ancient Alexander that of or force the of individual the accidents genius, or (54) casual fortune, but has slowly advanced, and (40 a) been firmly consolidated (15) of ages, during a succession of the from and the is, Russia contains marine leagues, million two square about one or the times and hundred one Great thousand. below) (40 a) north as productive a Russian Empire empires of the and Great the raised been poleon, Na- sudden to greatness by the genius of fortune, enlarged or the accidents but has been and dividuals in- of slowly firmly dated consoli- tion by well-guided ambiand persevering energy,2 of during a long succession ages. of fertility leled territoryfurnish unparal- The her and extent facilities for the increase population of her the to one thousand geographical miles, square Ireland. and Britain or Great of surface the times ten the contains hundred two is, of west Mountains, Ural power. that Russia, European Russia and face sur- twentypart, no with territoryis covered forests, or J like of to of lies be food This by far to so almost ; mountains Apparently "it" means, Not "energy," but "a but unno arid or not arid no much territoryis vast (54, see doubt, of this immense ranges has land, contain, including Ire- which the The more Islands, British the of durability probable. not, Alexander only progress miles, geographical being her The thousand hundred ten fifty hundred four thousand square of her million " and hundred a ward west- Mountains Ural of the two Russia the to the in (47 a) enjoys.European that " nation strength of elements no "world slowness crease facilities of in- to furnish and suck territoryare Russian "which history a great influence. lasting renders of fertility and extent (54) as course and on skilfullydirected (15^) perseveringly energy The of influence combined ambition of the of empire (19)(31), to exercise viouslydestined in modern, Napoleon from times, Exercises. mountain no of it is rendered unproductive of food though almost either by of forests,or by northern the the denseness severity of the "progress," long succession ranges, and deserts; sected inter- of but the " Russian ages," needs to be empire." emphasized. Brevity. the intersect deserts almost above) extent, and see the Arctic the of capable for the yieldingsomething of use The man. south present (54) inexhaustible fields of pasturage, and give birth to those and numerous the empire,1as (15^) states, The of their (30) which Dnieper, the Volga, tributary streams, form so many (54) outlets into natural which stretch shivering plains towards Archangel shores the the of forests of at fir and ample of for many supersede searchingin of (54) warmth is from Russ.a of its 1 If bowels is and of parable incom- form the the empire. rich arable lands interior to in the produce grain enough support four times population of yet leave the surplus to be Dnieper, the vast a the present empire, and the transportedby Volga, and their into the Euxine tributaries, other or seas. the Sea, and for materials and supplies for of and fir, ing shipbuild- of fuel that generations necessity of many the supersede searching for the with covered forests of oak furnish will plains Archangel the shores towards immense These bleak Lastly,the cold stretchingtowards White generations the necessity or the coal (14 a) "nothing facture. manu- power the vast territory,and There Oriental 2 as turage pastribes for the purposes of the earth Formidable south nomad numerous The and ing furnish- (54) will bowels those chief defence Sea immense oak, fuel. stores of whose the inexhaustible an to and shipbuildingand for supplies present (54)2 inexhaustible once materials White with (48) covered are of steppes Euxine the orotherseas; (44)while the cold and man. The the in affordpresent inhabitants,but ing a vast surplus for exportation by use found. be lands of the (54)empire produce an (2) incalculable quantity of grain,capable not only of maintaining four times (5) its and for the all Oriental heart the of of defence is to arable rich the capable horsemen incomparable the chief horsemen snows, tribes, in whose nomad touches is yieldingsomething of (3)(54) steppes of the boundless all,except which part Arctic is snows, almost winter, yet that exceptingthat which whole, touches (54, vast the in the Much of extent great context Russia we as of her for the vastness territory and that dread may requires the of her words, rapidly "as of all states." they of were really"inexhaustible," the "necessity of searching but be "superseded," not for "many," would the earth" generations. in the for all Continuous and rapidly increasing Exercises. number (54) subjects, (5) it is still the military more (5) so from and docile disposition by spirit guished. which (54) * distinthey are The prevailing (54) of its passion of the nation and love of conquest, burns the in free Europe, of accumulated violence over states. The all as how grievances, for foreign aggrandizement. In the people hope to and of evils find a more a as great as how great hope (15) and in the domestic the evils, the a than in ances. griev- internal find more ritory, ter- itself soever, to which national wastes all For sians Rus- tion, compensaa conquest sation, compen- of the world. pensation, com- the (15 a) for all interior adminis" their Russians energy, the rarely disputes about sation, compen- than the national thirst of the world conquest is soever, in the retains ceasingly discipline,unimpels their united against all adjoining Domestic great of states strictest The the territory rarely wasted (54) overlooked are of tion ambi- free states. the they inhabit, are in internal disputes. it the adjoining energies people, great the forces ceaseless in the quest con- passion a Europe. This passion unseen spring2 which, while their docility democratic as standard the 3 Western in the for prevalent as Russia is is in the thirst burning in missive sub- impels forces in spring2 the (54) under chief and their fear people. is does them cause her A Western unseen retains both which of states is the of them ambition democratic for military spirit and (54) (54) (54) this (54) desire, which as (54) fiercely in ardent as is the greater there numbers, increasing tration. The 1 words can be implied, besides and they are in the expressed following sentence. a 3 ; and spring" in at " be metaphor The 2 retain The is all meaning great." is questionable "spring, a ; for ought not passion a besides, the qua " " " to "spring, burn " in one does not line, and next. appears not to be, "great THE END. as" (is),i.e. "though the tory terri- LESSONS ENGLISH FOR PEOPLE. ENGLISH BT EDWIN REV. THE OP MASTER HEAD J. R. '* I look and for It is not a fine MODERN OF PROFESSOR so upon much this speaker." " a A. THE 13 knowledge ADAPTED to know as M.A., English for as it is an CICERO. FROM BOSTON: ROBERTS BROTHERS. 1876. OF UNIVERSITY THE essential M.A., SCHOOL; LONDON SEELEY, HISTORY merit OF CITY ABBOTT, a shame Englishman, CAMBRIDGE. not and to know not it; merely CAMBRIDGE PRESS OF JOHN : WILSON AND SON. TO G. REV. MORTIMER, W. F. Paul's of St. Prebendary THE late Cathedral, DOCTOR MORTIMER, We other have which who pupils City the to for Looking under study back the We pupils of to the there those the of work City of old your did at dedicate us Lessons English " tude grati- you let to you entitled none by which to the that enjoyed we important more Shakspeare, feel both we which advantages stimulated were life, school was of works than the and we special prizes our of the Endowment. owe to you rightly, a debt teachers. their engrossing use asking have educational care, school-fellows Beaufoy we the and respect all by you for our upon many your of which of People." English among the appreciating School, London little book a you for of capable are of felt Master beside motives, be must Head School. London DEAR D.D., activity or to of gratitude Many without appreciate who having the not always have passed been right into by a life at school of, their native taught use owed DEDICATION. iv tongue, feelingthemselves foreignersamid their with turn country, may the teachers reproach Than Or unstringed viol an like Or, being open, That touch knows Doubly portcullis'dwith encouragingus native our Our pupils,lead as advantages The on me. nurse, the the thank you instrument" of contrary, "cunning to years ; many will The seems be that at number once of the educational our to as this from recognized,not great so small a when become of time the English as an course, constitute nothing for English benefit. to be subjecthas schools study was than regular part a derived we the that anticipatethat national present instruction. to which more literature and a affect did not us optional but of lips, ignorance on benefits recollection our and optional, short the of study,and the and tongue, tongue. sense language harmony; teeth a study to tip, pupil now. a pleasant duty, our more engaoled my my upon to be far in years the attend to old to fawn too am gaoler my cased have you no " his hands dull,unfeeling, barren Too It is mouth me their harp, a to tune my Is made for no Within I or cunning instrument a put into And Bolingbroke: is to tongue's use My language of point against some of banished the have a critical excited moment much already taken attention of late it up ; others are Roberts Messrs. ENGLISH LESSONS E. A. Part I. Rev. By M. Brothers' A. III. ABBOTT, IV. Part Front object of this book by use large circle of a i6mo. the London readers ; and use a of are Selection Price $1.50. is a right place," .is rare and one, be of the lessons whJfch One which one of many the Southern the no hints can Every time it is looked be exhausted. never culture, some its relations to the ; Review* phaso new mind ; into view. starts its history; its laws by at origin The its development ; ; thing every " it is full of interest. about is Here a delightfulbook, by School, of London Master of Cambridge, the selection and All this in less than be cannot treated about which is worth said in saying, very teacher almost exhaustively; Within pages. and no possibly more. But about The on each to this and that or we which all topic some are here is so so of composition; on Logic. subjects many Metre, except may hensive compre- vocabulary sort Appendix an this space head University of the treats said be to best things given more ; and to that seems of the will desire to study student pleasant openings will be thankful book The It is,unless one devoted, and stimulatingway. such Homo.*' appropriate in the History miscellaneous. as hundred are of Modern Ecce the " of topics; Metre, arguments the subject into which *' recognized authority, of men of ; Diction three eightypages " a author that it seems the English Language two the Professor and notable in its scope to rangemen Ar- for ordinary its struggles; its triumphs ; its devices ; its puzzles ; its ethics, of Part and It is intended years. in the accomplishment The of real abilityand Language on SEELEY, trulyadmirable. study of Language man advanced more Front The Diction. " R. though designed principallyfor boys, may the right word despise. II. is evidently a practicalone. it professes to teach, "to should J. Athetueum. of here given PEOPLE. Prof. Part Hints " read with advantage by many one and M.A., Appendix. The ENGLISH Vocabulary. " Metre. " FOR Publications. are thoroughly the best pared pre- for the number of strikingillustrations gathered up of the the volume his hand. The abundance and reading, without Sold by all freshness reference to booksellers. ROBERTS quotationsmakes very tive attrac- its didactic value. Mailed, postpaid, BROTHERS, by the lishers, Pub- BOSTON. PREFACE. THIS Grammar, It foreigners, but English, of Some not to difficulties most help not it with write to is merely to that lessons in the the beyond passed strictest teach sense, ; much Our perhaps may reader so lessons. to ness. exact- the possesses but interest, " have he profiting from of in to edge knowl- and taste presumed that presume itself familiar a of and address not already knowledge not who at practical utility,the which, in speak the in the and common when difficulties, even an need English an Grammar of does of as object write to ; esting inter- prove routine of school adapted for school ' Aiming of having still lessons, classes. and who, essays, some life,but be those incapable is, if possible, lessons, and do we him render readers, of place knowledge a its degree nevertheless to to the supply to presupposes in idiom English intended is not book of way correctly. insufficient of course most teaching, serious. For grammatical persons First, there is ; not the merely with only we have there are a loose to many been attempting cramping those found has accuracy English vocabulary deals book to tained, at- write restriction and inexact viii PREFACE. of apprehension a of ignorance them all; and at which expression of the very common studied these last are, thought any ordinary most but accurately, and words, as for that the deals with all similar. at are Latin, and words to his trusts too knowledge of There and is also differences for his their words very something more Lastly, where much the a between has pupil of knowledge Latin a use comprehension notions. concrete also to inability an rule, the a to appreciate the inability that words other used, and commonly are them many absolutelynecessary are than that in using difficulty consequent total words many lish Engis the roots, there of misderivingand misunderstanding a word, owing possibility ignorance of to of derivation the changes and, ; a result of all this The another. to reading very hard there of thinking it of and every " the on others are There of words. words danger to necessary " ire teacher,who difficulties attendingthe is the horse," of correctly which meaning guage lan- one non-understanding a habit of slovenly acquired is once off. shake to Then, following words, when slovenly writing,which and is words of slovenlyhalf-understanding or of changes danger always experiences in passing from almost word the in the process is the misusing pedantically ignorance of an there hand, the other on misunderstanding and derived,from of letters introduced " write instead has of had attending choice and the of use arrangement fallinginto "poetic prose," " of much steed " " or " charger anger," and experience the in " stead in- like ; looking PREFACE. examination over which papers, beginners are in the twice same and page, "tautology,"gives liable. dread rise often of to this Again, there from circumlocutions, humorous objectionableand most avoided the the by without extreme to to tion tempta- is called of up all at scraps would-be stylesperhaps be may the and known Writing. Lastly,there fault owing care, styleof Fine of name what of periphrases,and offensive,which obscurity,a of danger a " is the made patchwork poetic quotations,unmeaning of danger a using a plainword and simplicity, a is using a plain word fear from senseless a unmanly This all. with shrink to that admit will very ix which uninflected the avoided be cannot is of nature our language. All difficulties these much require as and attention,and teaching in which, present, receive at of some text-books. place is an the Grammars, the bull is To the To accomplishment of that perhaps truth and as an excessive the rightword less valuable not (carefullyrecorded often plural of use subjectsfor practical much as inflicted cherub is as a task real, and quite as are fit are schools, quite our our dangers upon cherubim, and attention in the than in points many right the knowledge English most pupils) younger the in feminine of cow. smooth object of connected is the reader's the first three with Vocabulary introduced, almost through way Parts are at of these this book. considered once, to difficulties is first. Difficulties The Synonyms. He dent stu- is PREFACE. x taught how definea word, to He synonyms. is is laid scheme or are which is to the he reader which A pursue. enlarge may easilyand naturallywith which often are often is also at the he that, because the reader time same knows throughout this without, or of nature been selected the to class case word, he itself. Exercises which be can more with their against supposing a random at The require. may many ; of practicaltest Second with who 1 Part still necessarily spersed inter- are worked with, out of exercises have them experience,and been have the have not subjected been used in teaching. The also of roots terms information words him himself abstract Some connect which as English Etymological Dictionary,1 an the to of the word meaning furnish and method given by or all. at of system a the misused, and caution to the general used not the given to help roots, and knows and is also and word a processes illustrate to vocabulary,and those of its exactly follow; can out misunderstood understood not he system his aid from The meaning. subjoined,worked examples the carefullyexplained: are down without eliminate to its to Elimination Definitionand and how essential is riot whatever shown with An deals detail the beginning to are " some Part between the with distinction write Diction Chambers's or It often " English,and of Etymological Dictionary First Part. Diction. attempts trate illus- to ignored by sometimes by those others Prose, and that of Poetry. is necessary Ogilvie'swill answer for pupils studying the purpose. It the PREFACE. endeavors dissipatethat to excessive tautology which, together rise pleasantry,gives It gives with the to in written venture we the difference Both for English, and for rules think, with to above. sentence prose. into of misplaced long a it also examines foreign languages and, teaching, dread style described writing originalEnglish composition,these used for writing slang, conversation, and translatingfrom vulgar fondness a for clearlyand impressively ; and between and vicious practicalrules some xi have been encouraging results. A We of Diction. a in more reading classical our how not understand see writing,and from in and too, vanish the the the applied. thought it. All that he does More not this by expand teachers to inability The explanation to " fusion. con- expand heads, the and of key important still, perhaps, is introduced cannot of reallyastonishing when once works of this how it is still Metaphor. a perplex young at subject teaching,that dissipatemuch to Simile;" that, if he knows pupil to ones of exactness pupil arises difficulties that is "expansion" the found the understand meaning conveyed its many old sometimes and speaking attempting to been into Metaphor see in of course youngest pupils readilylearn The to found, in the of Proportion to principle the has Metaphor concludes Metaphor English authors, applicationof a and literal the express have and of confusion great deal of Simile Chapter on will understand a method. The metaphor, he admit any that to thing is does force a a great xii PREFACE. stride of progress. a which process himself It is difficult makes it into the belief to impossible for that he the value exaggerate pupil a understands delude to he when of does not understand. Metre Part is the subjectof (asalso, in great a read To the metre teach the on the metrical easy in a task this Part been of the the into detail. that in all We little is this subject. of the of may been in that suffers the to customs commonest English poets receive " a to verting con- so English as rather length. much too explanation, an will At schools. rapidly present, perhaps known, about editioa of the works inpugned because is in the of master (for it fore there- considerable urge the metrical custom hand and varieties of metre consummate versification is to mark as of the rules stated to enter some elaborate recent ciation. appre- illustrations have generally taught, and a pupil in teaching utility practical explainedat to seem so tioned men- is not doggerel, Many and desire,however, In the the other on the different kinds have verse monotonous of Rules mean. skill of epigrammatic lines he found importance very the a a the study of English metre probability more Pope, to read supposed. been metre Chapter assume be given,and same This have hit pupils to line into might as enable is to hand, without one Chapter just the Part) how one any of this objectof and interest, intelligence, with English Poetry The Part. measure, Second the belonging to to the Third accent. no sense sanctioned by in art of of his one When a of one license) Shakspeare, PREFACE. xiv The hints are possiblydelude are elementary,and so the youngest reader than thing more any hints. few, that they so into They study the subjectthoroughly in when he has will leave whatever leisure school hoc. propter schools, forces not are to end of test his home rather to 1 be accelerated the of Our Some committed kindly assisted of the to memory and etc. in which are in this quoted 180, 181, 212, 237, 238, the higher such been this ; forms lessons used to and to also in at student serve as classes.1 of experience,that possible,has as misprintsand other the followingpages, has been due allowed to several task, and illustrate as added the soon as found thanks passages than that teachers time us experience in our enabling publication. Some the short correctingthem. have of contents, some possiblybe may of necessary. published be life, post hoc, error, paragraphs have of the of meaning pupilsmore prepared by pupik should lessons in consequence who as boy a case, any the conviction for the purpose book, knowledge inaccuracies for different desire, expressed by these the us upon the the lessons A far stimulates interestingthan more Questions on the knows against the lesson,so after here- for the work in experience of debating societies, our of be No interests and teachinggoes, and cautioned him complete treatise, a prepared be, if he may has been induce opportunity; but, in all the better that work induction,and ergo and imaginingthat they may to cannot who style are friends have intended repetition-lessons. See " us also to pp. PREFACE. aided with us labors conclusion, In use in regarded of the of one Abbott, Mr. Howard School; Assistant the of Edwin Mr. Phil- one Uppingham the who some have English exhaustive an It foreigners. a hope have ventured People. that repeat we as present entertain we Quick, and School; of Master G. T. and Masters of School. Harrow be H. R. Rev. ; Philological Mathematical Candler, Mr. ; Oxford, School Rugby the of Master Head the of Masters Assistant whose Payne, Joseph known College, New of Fellow late well are suggestions. practical Mr. mention to French Norman on potts, desire we and valuable many these Among xv is passed to it intended give it the of boyhood title for English be of found ; book our for adapted as or of possibly age wish not primarily state may the do treatise, unsatisfactory that we boys, education, not and English in unfit this Lessons to the but, we for hope for ROBERTS BROTHERS* PUBLICATIONS. THE INTELLECTUAL BY LIFE. PHILIP GILBERT HAMERTON, AUTHOR Painter's "A Camp," "Thoughts River," From " In many respects this is singularlywell a balanced a lifted above the anxieties of a is steeped in that sweetness which not eloquently preaches. Intellectual Compared on Art," "The known Un- Animals." cloth, gilt. Price $2.00. the Christian and About "Chapters Square I2mo, of OF Union. remarkable the last and book, mind. No finelycultured man best production whose lifewas bread-winning life could have written this work ; and light,the virtues of which Mr. Arnold so with Mr. Hamerton's former writings, *Th" " is incomparably his Life* best production But above all, and specially with the largeimpartiality charmed of the writer. are as critics, we Mr. Hamerton is one of those peculiarly fortunate who have the inclination men and means his youth he has lived in an ideal life. From to live an atmosphere of culture and circle of thought. light,moving with clippedwings in a charmed Possessing a peculiarlyrefined and delicate nature, a passionate love of beauty, and purity and art ; and to gratifyhis tastes, Mr. Hamerton having the means has held himself aloof from the commonplace routine of life; and by constant his fellow men, and and has so purifiedhis intellect and nature study of books tempered his judgment, that he is able to view things from a higher platform even than been whose have natures soured, cramped, or influenced by laborious Hence the of his deciexistence. sions, rare impartiality the catholicity of his views, and the sympathy with which he can discusa the most irreconcilable doctrines. To read Mr. lectual Hamerton's writings is an intelmore able men the necessities of a ble forciluxury. They are not boisterouslystrong, or exciting,or even very they are instinct with the finest feeling,the broadest sympathies, and a of the hardphilosophic calm that acts like an opiate on the unstrung nerves Intellectual wrought literaryreader. Calm, equable, and beautiful, 'The Life,' when with contrasted the sensational and half digested clap-trap that forms so of the old picture of the literature,reminds large a portion of contemporary one moving about, calm and self-possessed, through the fightingand blaspheming nuns, crowds that thronged the beleagured city." "This is written book with to perfect singleness of purpose help others towards intellectual life,"says the Boston Daily Advertiser. an and It is eminently a book of counsel instruction," says the Boston Post. " A it seems will take a permanent to book, which us place in literature, York Bays the New Daily Mail. ; but " Sold by all Booksellers. Mailed, postpaid, by the Ushers, ROBERTS BROTHERS, BOSTON. Pub Brothers* Roberts Messrs. LAOCOON. An Essay upon Publications. Limits the of Painting illustrative of various points Poetry. With remarks Art. EPHRAIM in the History of Ancient By GOTTHOLD Translated FROTHINGHAM. i6mo. LESSING. by ELLEN and Price $1.50. In reference to by quoting than this work, the words of *Laocoon* was object of this celebrated work author from of the each can from is to show from who made enforced boldt, were with of taste, and correctness that their views, in which These beauty, and also from of poetry, but in which ami the : times. aim common The The several fine is proved to be arts is the tinct entirelydis- rich and Lessing differed widely Wieland, who considered he agreed with Aristotle, by Goethe, Schiller,and great argumentative power, with ago years of philosophy ; being limited,strictly speaking, in their aesthetical theories closelyfollowed was moral truth, as the great and " many that the isolation of peculiarprovince of poetry that of morality and Klopstock, better proof of its merit no perhaps the greatest critic of modern of ideal actions. and readers English critic uttered an to the exhibition nature give our other is essential to their perfection,and productionof beauty. The both we Hum- extraordinary purity and pertinentillustrations from the art and literature of Greece." From the Boston Transcript. for real congratulationthat Messrs. Brothers have given Roberts of Lessing in a form accessible to readers ignorant of German. of translation of love. labor Miss Frothingham has evidently done her work as a achievement Her rendering is at once accurate, and in pure, flowing English ; an where the whole of two grammatical structure languages very difficult to accomplish the general usefulness differs so widely. It is also a feature of great value toward of the many from Latin that she has appended translations of the book passages authors Greek and Lessing illustrates his argument. through which The growing interest in our country in questions of art and criticism ought to It is " the us a matter Laocoon" class of readers. No for this work a wide thoughtful person ever forgets secure its first reading awakened in him. Even said Goethe the outburst of enthusiasm heavens of it that in the confused period of his own youth it cleared up the whole As an offset to such books those his path plain before him. and made as to him of Ruskin, marvellously rich and suggestive,but full of subjectivecaprice and dogmatism, it teaches invaluable lessons of method. a Lessing was legislatorin the His domain of criticism. so insightwas nearly unerring, and his knowledge so Marshall in that his verdicts stand like those of a Mansfield and accurate, or vast the courts of law. It created an epoch in art criticism book be read and re-read. must On it first appeared, and its lessons are as fresh and weighty to-day as ever. which help one to an ever deeper appreciation eysry page great principlesare developed in art and literature. of the works of the great masters . . The . when .Sold everywhere by all booksellers. Mailed, postpaid, by the Publishers* ROBERTS BROTHERS, BOSTON. Messrs. Roberts Brothers' Publications. GOETHE'S HERMANN TRANSLATED BY FROM ELLEN Frothingham's translation is something "Miss it presents perusal,and to It is original. ... not a lipsof poem of a The he and a sweet becomes volume measured and more Of the cadences for argument an subjection,indeed, from her it has but an its when age comfort beauty and the grew of the metre agreeable pictureof an in the ' Longfellow's as reader with onward a descriptivewooing in this friends." intelligent select circle of a metre same carry absorbed more aloud read to the in and Monthly. itself is bewitching. poem in poem fatallyconvincing ; so which around Atlantic " it teaches least for at serve glad of: it lends itself be to $2.00. $1.00. profitablyused be always are creature a was woman its sweet geline,' as will nevertheless, and : Price Price charming could woman beautiful girl,which securityof home." " Goethe's which the enlargement of the sphere the ideal boards. cheaper edition,i6mo, cloth. A charm, GERMAN ILLUSTRATIONS. Sv0, cloth,gilt,bevelled Thin the THE FROTHINGHAM. WITH kindly DOROTHEA. AND real Evan- ure pleasIt is song. Providence " Press. " idyl,which this famous modern times.' is worthy of the familiar with country which of Goethe's Sold can the breathe works."" the surpass well the same German. * mere which charming Boston everywJiere. Christian always English can it has always been pictures it of one domestic and tone of the ardent most Her scarcely read postpaid) by BROTHERS, the by life,the love of admired Register. Mailed, ROBERTS make of the grace reader the purity of characterization, through it,must and Frothingham's version. Miss the of faultless poems most simplicity, tenderness, delightwith Its it well, in translating done of the one preserved in praise,and highest with good service,and a justlycalled been delicacyof its strength and done been have fail to read the poem those has Nothing these original,and success has Frothingham Miss Publishers, BOSTON