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Industrial Training Report (construction Sector)

This is only for get an Idea abut how Civil Engineering Students in University Of Peradeniya make there report with guidelines given.This contain Building Construction how feel for trainees.




INDUSTRIAL TRAINING REPORT II TRAINING ORGANIZATION ORGANIZATION : SANKEN CONSTRUCTION (PVT) LTD PERIOD OF TRAINING : FROM : 26/10/2015 TO : 03/01/2016 FIELD OF SPECIALIZATION SPECIALIZATION : CIVIL ENGINEERING H.M.HASAN E/11/146 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to convey my gratitude to the Industrial Training and Career Guidance Unit (ITCGU), Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeni ya, National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA) and the Sanken Construction (Pvt) Ltd for providing me the opportunity to have industrial training experience in my field of study. I am pleased to be trained in Sanken Construction (Pvt) Ltd one of the largest functioning body construction sector in Sri Lanka. My thanks go to the Project Manager Engineer Mr Nalin Senadeera for  being the greatest support and guidance during the period of my industrial training. I must also thank Technical officer, Mr Kalpana and Engineer Mr Sampath and Assistant Engineering Mr Piyarathna for their effort in the fields to guide me towards the proper technical experience. Finally I would like to add all the technical officers and staff who helped me immensely to make my training a success. i CONTENTS Acknowledgements Contents i ii List of Figures iii List of Tables iv List of Abbreviations v Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 A Brief Account About the Training 1 A Description About The Establishment 1 Account On The Project 3 Chapter 2: RESOURCES OF THE CONTRACTOR  4 2.1 Concrete Mixing plant (Batch plant) 4 2.2 Workshop 5 2.3 Laboratory 5 2.4 Machinery 6 2.5 Human Resources 9 Chapter 3: CONSTRUCTION 3.1 Introduction 10 10 3.2 Construction of columns 11 3.3 Construction of beams and slab 12 3.4 Brick work 14 3.5 Plastering 15 3.6 Puttying 15 3.7 Painting 16 3.8 Tile Installation 16 Chapter 4: WASTEWATER TREATMENT 17 4.1 Soakage pit 17 4.2 Seepage Bed 18 Chapter 5: PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED 19 Chapter 6: CONCLUSION 20 ii LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1.1 Organizational structure 2 Figure 2.1 Concrete Mixing plant (Batch plant) 4 Figure 2.2 Concrete Cube Testing Machine and Test cubes 5 Figure 2.3 Truck Mixer 6 Figure 2.4 Backhoe loader 6 Figure 2.5 Excavator 7 Figure 2.6 Jumping Jack compactor and Walk-behind roller 7 Figure 2.7 Electric drill 7 Figure 2.8 Circular power saw 8 Figure 2.9 Bar cutter 8 Figure 2.10 Sander 8 Figure 2.11 Water bowser 9 Figure 3.1 Lap length & Crank length of a column 11 Figure 3.2 Formwork of beams and slab 12 Figure 3.3 Reinforcement for beams and slab 12 Figure 3.4 Concreting beams and slab 13 Figure 3.5 Setting out for brick work 14 Figure 3.6 Construction of brick walls 14 Figure 3.7 Plastering 14 Figure 3.8 Puttying 15 Figure 3.9 Tile Installation 16 Figure 4.1 Soakage pit construction 17 Figure 4.2 Seepage Bed Dimensions 18 Figure 4.3 Perforated Distributer Pipes and its Layout dimensions 18 Figure 5.1 Heavy Rainy day in the site 19 iii LIST OF TABLES Table 3.1 Sticking time of formwork 13 iv LIST OF ABRIVIATION Abbreviation Description ITCGU Industrial Training and Career Guidance Unit  NAITA National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority SKPA Relocation of Thangalle prison to Eraminiyaya Angunakolapalassa (SKPA) Project v Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1.1 A Brief Account about the Training This report holds detailed aspects of the industrial training I obtained in the Sanken Construction (Pvt) Ltd for a period of 10 weeks commencing from 26 th of October 2015 to 3 rd of January 2016 through the  National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA) (NAITA) and the Industrial Training and Career Guidance Unit (ITCGU), Faculty of Engineering, University of Peradeniya as a six credit and non-GPA course followed in the Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peradeniya. 1.2 A Description about the Establishment Sanken Construction is an ICTAD C1 Graded (Highest Rank) company, with ISO 9001:2008 QMS Certification.2013 : Sanken Construction certified with OHSAS 18001:2007 Certification.2014 : Sanken Construction is in process to obtain ISO 14001:2004- EMS Certification The functions performed by the Sanken Construction (Pvt) Ltd consist mainly on Construction Contracts, Property development, Ready-mix concrete, Hiring of Scaffoldings, Design & Build, Consultancy, Hiring & leasing of machinery, Trading of Products & Materials, Piling, Skill training & Management. 1.2.1 Vision To be To be Sri Lanka’s premier construction service provider  1.2.2 Mission To provide a quality professional service exceeding customer expectations by the effective utilization of all resources, with the best practice of the industry 1 1.2.3 Organizational Organizational Structure Q.S Main Bill Seinear Q.S Planing Manager  Q.S Extra Work  Asst. Q.S Q/A Manager  Drawing Incharge Draftmens M and E/Safty Manager  Engineer Rebar  Incharge T.O Engineer in Landscape,Water Proofing T.O Project Manager  Engineer Zone 1 Incharge Asst. Engineer Building Incharge T.O Engineer Zone 2 Incharge Site Manager  Engineer Zone 3 Incharge Asst. Engineer Building Incharge Trainee Building Incharge Asst. Engineer Building Incharge T.O Building Incharge Engineer Detailing Incharge T.Os Engineer Finishing Incharge Asst. Engineer Concrete Supervisor  Store keepers Administrative Officer  Timekeeper  Safty Officer  M & E Engineer  Figure 1.1 Organizational structure 2 1.3 Account on the Project   Name : Relocation of Thangalle prison to Eraminiyaya Angunakolapalassa (SKPA) Project  Location : Eraminiyaya Angunakolapalassa  Area of the project : 58 acres  Amount of the project : Rs.4996 million  Client :Democratic Socialist Republic Of Sri Lanka Ministry of Rehabilitation and Prison Reforms  Contractor : Sanken Construction (Pvt) Ltd  Consultant : Central Engineering Consultancy Bureau.  Date of commencement : 26th of November 2013  Duration : 22 months After completion of this project all inmates in Thangalle remand prison and about 1000 inmates presently detain in Welikada prison will be shifted to the new prison where approximately 2000 detainees can be conveniently detain. This new prison consists with prison hospital, vocational training center, separate  building for industries, 140 quarters for officers, and quarters for single officers. Moreover Moreover it consists of a playground with 400m track, swimming pool with the length of 25m, indoor stadium and t rade complex to sell prison productions. 3 Chapter 2: RESOURCES OF THE CONTRACTOR In order to foster and promote development of the construction works in the project t he contractor shall have a collection of adequate resources. As a multinational company, Sanken Construction (Pvt) Ltd also has a set of modern utensils such as:  Concrete Mixing plant  Workshop  Laboratory  Machinery  Human resources 2.1 Concrete Mixing plant (Batch (Batch plant) The material such as cement, water, fine aggregate (sand) and coarse aggregate mixed for the preparation of ready-mix concrete in the concrete mixing plant and it is in the worksite for easy accessibility. accessibilit y. Ready mix concrete is used almost every concreting. Concrete is mixed at batch plant and then transported to site by truck mixers with rotating drum. Figure 2.1 Concrete Mixing plant (Batch plant) 4 Advantages of ready mix concrete,  Labour associated with mixing concrete is saved.  Reduction in the wastage of basic materials.    Noise and dust pollution created at site is reduced. Ready mix concrete has better quality. 2.2 Workshop All the maintenance work of the machines used for the construction is done in the workshop allocated to the contractor. This is situated closer to the project offices in order to serve the project efficiently. 2.3 Laboratory All the tests needed to be done to ensure a standard of work is conducted in the laboratory. This location established in the site closer to the project office. Mostly 28 & 7 days concrete cube test done for the concrete strength measurements, Slump test done before put to the formwork in the site. Figure 2.2 Concrete Cube Testing Machine and Test cubes 5 2.4 Machinery The machinery needed to serve the project will be discussed in this section. 2.4.1 Truck Mixer Ready-mix concrete transported by truck Mixer. Almost every time Ready-mix concrete used for the concreting works. Fig. 2.3. Truck Mixer 2.4.2 Backhoe loader Backhoe is used for site clearances, light transportation of material, provide shifted materials for construction work in upper levels and excavation perposes, etc. Fig. 2.4 Backhoe loader 6 2.4.3 Excavator Excavator used to the excavate earth up to the required l evel. Fig. 2.5 Excavator 2.4.4 Compactors The jumping jack compactors and Walk-behind rollers are used for compacting perposes in t he site. Fig. 2.6 Jumping Jack compactor and Walk-behind roller 2.4.5. Electric drill Electric drill contains of removable bit from which drill ing can be done. This is used for drill wood, concrete etc. Bits changed according to the purpose. Fig. 2.9 Electric drill 7 2.4.6 Circular power saw Power saw is an electric machine that is used for cutting wood. It consists of a rotating serrated circular  blade. This is used to cut formworks and and adjust door window slashes etc. Fig. 2.8 Circular power saw 2.4.7 Bar cutter Bar cutter is also an electric machine from which steel bars can be cut efficiently. Fig. 2.9 Bar cutter 2.4.8 Sander Wooden surfaces are grinded using sander. This also is an electric machine Fig. 2.10 Sander 8 2.4.9 Water Bowser Water is supplied for the site for construction and day today use by bowsers and separately drinking water also supplied Fig. 2.11 Water bowser 2.4.10Poker vibrator Poker vibrator is a machine powered by petrol, and consists of a cable with vibrating edge. Vibrating cable is put in to green concrete to be compacted it well. 2.4.11 Dump Trucks Vehicles used for transportation of loose material needed for construction 2.5 Human Resources Road construction work is most commonly done by unskilled laborers. Workers can specialize specializ e in certain types of work. Diligent and responsible workers are usually promoted to supervisory positions; to train and supervise other workers. The types of workers are distinguished using skill levels. General workers –  workers  – These These kinds of workers are necessary to perform general excavation with picks and shovels and clean the sides of roads for better working environment. Masonry workers –  workers – For For the building of structures such as culverts, retaining walls, etc. Machine operators  – For For a better efficient way of finishing up the project work, skillful machine operators are needed with specific talents in operating the machineries used in the t he construction Drivers –  Drivers – For For transportation purposes, drivers are necessary for a constructi on project. Construction supervisors –  supervisors – Supervision Supervision of the construction work is done by supervisors. Staff –  Staff – Staff Staff working in the project office for the functioning of the project. 9 Chapter 3: CONSTRUCTION 3.1 Introduction Initial survey is conducted and according to the design of the buildings and get approved by the consultant. After the Site clearance setting out is done. Then following process is followed for the construct a building and in every finished work approved by consultant for next level. But the works carried out by deferent  buildings in parallel. Construction Process  Excavation  Foundation  Concrete Structure (Load bearing )  Columns  Beams  Stairs  Slab  Brick work (Non load bearing)  Roofing  Rough Plumbing  Wiring  Plastering  Flooring  Tiling  Painting  Finish Plumbing  Finish Electrical and Lighting  Modifications 10 3.2 Construction of columns 3.2.1 Setting out for columns Setting out for columns was done accurately using theodolite and steel tape to avoid buckle or fail due to eccentric loads applied on them. Marking lines was done using marking chord. Columns. 3.2.2 Laying kickers Kickers were laid in to 75 mm thickness. Plywood sheet boxes were used for its formwork. Curing kickers was done at least for 7 days. da ys. 3.2.3 Reinforcement for columns Overlapping and cranking main bars and tying stirrups into correct spacing were done according to the design. Checked whether correct bar type is used, correct spacing were left between stirrups, lap length and crank length is corrected and good quality reinforcement is used. Column formwork required 30 mm covering blocks are attached. Lap length (LL) = D2 x 50 Crank length (CL) = (D1 + D2+ 5) x 10 Figure 3.1 Lap length & Crank length of a column column 3.2.4 Formwork for columns Column formwork was fixed to kickers. Formwork done by plywood sheets and their internal surfaces are covered with form oil. Sponge sheets were placed in joints of formwork to avoid leakage of grout. After fixing jacks and props and placing cover blocks were done. Then verticalit y of column formwork was checked. Checking verticality was done at two edges of each face, to avoid twisting of column. 3.2.5 Concerting columns Existing surface of concrete chipped and wet with grout in order to have strong bond. Concreting was done using grade 25 machine-mixed concrete and free fall height of concrete is less than 1200 mm. Poker vibrator was used for compact concrete well. 3.2.6 Striking column formwork & curing Column formwork was removed after a day (24 hr) from concreting. Then curing was done for 7 days applying moist gunny bags. 11 3.3 Construction of beams and slab 3.3.1 Setting out for beams & slab 1000 mm height level of columns was marked on column surfaces. Level instrument was used there. Level of beam bottom was marked using that level. 3.3.2 Formwork of beams and slab Beam and column formwork was fixed using plywood sheets, 2” x 2” wooden bars, galvanized iron  pipes, separates, separate s, p-cones and form ties. Props were wer e placed at 600 mm x 600 mm distances to support  beam and slab formwork. A “U “ U-head “or ‘‘T‘‘T-head’’ was head’’ was placed on each prop and then galvanized iron  pipes or 2” x 2” wooden bars were laid were  laid horizontally and tied them. Power saw was used for cutting  plywood sheets and then fixed side boards for beams and formwork for slab. s lab. Verticality of side si de boards and dimensions were checked. Form oil was applied. Form ties, P-cones and separates were placed at 600 mm distance, after laying reinforcement. Figure 3.2 Formwork of beams and slab 3.3.3 Reinforcement for beams and slab Steel bars for beam reinforcement were bended and tied above the beam formwork. They were placed on 2” x 2” wooden bars laid at beam formwork and they were jointed at columns. They were lowered in to beam formwork after tying cover blocks. Slab reinforcement was laid on slab formwork. Figure 3.3 Reinforcement for beams and slab 12 3.3.4 Concreting beams and slab After the Levels checking Concreting slab and beams was done using ready mix concrete. Slump test and preparing concrete cubes to test compressive strength are done for concrete transferred by each truck tr uck mixer. Figure 3.4 Concreting beams and slab 3.3.5 Striking beam and slab formwork & curing The striking time of formwork depends on type of cement, grade of concrete, dimension of the section and the temperature of the concrete. Minimum striking time for side formwork of beams, under side formwork of slabs according to its span is mentioned in table 2.1. Curing was done for slab and beams for 7 days using moist gunny bags and water ponding. Table 3.1 Sticking time of formwork Type of formwork Striking time Side formworks of beams, columns or walls 24 hrs Slab formwork up to 4.5 m span 7 days Slab formwork above 4.5 m span & under side of beams up to 6 m span 14 days Under sides of beams and arches over 6 m and up to 9 m span 21 days Cantilever slab and beams 21 days 13 3.4 Brick work Walls were constructed by burnt clay bricks using 1:5 cement sand mortar. External walls were constructed into 225 mm thickness and internal walls into i nto 112.5 mm thickness. 3.4.1 Setting out for brickwork Above figure elaborates how setting out lines should be marked for brickwork. Two offset lines should  be marked on either sides of brick wall. When the wall plaster is done, correct c orrect measurements can be taken from those offset lines. 25 mm allowance should be left on both sides of a door or an opening. Figure 3.5 Setting out for brick work 3.4.2 Construction Construction of brick walls  None load bearing type masonry brick wall is used to build the walls. English bond is used for wall s as considered to be strongest bond. 1:5, Cement sand is used for bonding mixture. One skilled labour and a mason can build more than 800 brick wall in a day (8h) work but due to inconsistency of brick dimensions and cement mixtures, water amount they build around 600 to 700 brick wall in a day (8h) and also height of a brick wall constructed is limited to maximum of 1.5m Mortar layers should be 10 mm in thickness but practically it was higher than that. That causes to over consumption of cement and sand for brick work than the designed. Bricks should be wetted with water before use in brick work. The blocks should not be wetted before use. Verticality of walls is checked with the plumb bob and straight edge. Figure 3.6 Construction of brick walls 14 3.5 Plastering Cement to sand 1:5 mixture is used for plastering work. Water appropriately used for proper mixture and usability. Plumb bob and spirit level and feather edges are used and got a good finishing. After few more days the wall preparation (cleaning) was done Figure 3.7 Plastering 3.6 Puttying After the plastering work, 1st coat puttying done and kept for drying and then second coat of puttying done and kept to dry. To puttying stainless steel Trowels and Skimming Spatulas and for get a good level of finishing Feather Edges are used. Then sanding was done by using 180 grit sandpapers for further finishing. Figure 3.8 Puttying 15 3.7 Painting After the puttying Filler coat applied and patch work done. For patch worked areas sanding and application of filler coat was done. 3.8 Tile Installation 1:5, Cement: sand mixture is used for the tile bedding preparation and appropriate water amount is used for workability. After placing the bedding up to given level, kept it for one day and damped the surface to reduce suction to avoid debonding the tile mortar and bed. Tiles are soaked in clean water more than 30min (to prevent drawing water from cement mortar and get debonding). Cement water mixed mortar is used as adhesive and placed it ait on the back side of the tile it is fixed by using tapping method tile was placed onto uniform positi on. Then level of tile was checked using spirit level and plastic spacers are used to get the proper spacing. Finally grout was spread by using a soft trowel and excess grout removed and tile surface was cleaned. Figure 3.9 Tile Installation 16 Chapter 4: WASTEWATER TREATMENT 4.1 Soakage pit In the beginning of soakage pit construction the ear th was excavated using backhoe loader up to required level and C25 grade concrete laid for screed and formwork and reinforcement work began for base and covering blocks are placed then C25 grade ready-mix concrete was placed then 1 st stage and 2nd stage reinforcement, covering and formworks and soakage holes (100mm PVC pipes) kept and concreted according to the stage. Finally the slab reinforcement and formwork and coverings are placed according to drawings and concreted. In every stage the pokering and curing was done. Figure 4.1 Soakage pit construction 17 4.2 Seepage Bed Firstly the located place excavated 8000mm below the ground level. Dimensions and geotextile laying are shown below and 70mm drop was maintained between longitudinal ends. 6m   m   m    0    0    8 Figure 4.2 Seepage Bed Dimensions 300mm was filed with metal type 20mm-40mm layer was laid. Then six 160mm diameter perforated distributer pipes are laid with pipe axis to axix span is 1000mm and 1 st and 6th axis to embackment is 500mm. Figure 4.3 Perforated Distributer Pipes and its Layout dimensions After that 200mm same rock type placed and the geotextile cover folded to get a 5000mm lap to avoid water infiltration from above. On top of this 250mm sandy soil placed then 50mm of normal soil placed up to the Ground level. 18 Chapter 5: PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED  Heavy rain delayed most of works. Identification of weather pattern early and prepare accurate time schedules will help to perform well but  project like this its impossible to maintain works like excavation only in dry period because the parallel works of different buildings with limited resources in a remote area like Angunakolapalassa. Hence  building a proper drainage system is i s the way to overcome this effects by reducing the waiting time to drain water. Figure 5.1 Heavy Rainy day in the site  Less resources delayed the works. This mainly occurs in the finishing stages of most buildings arrived in same period. The inefficient management of resources and delays in resource arrival to the site. This can overcome very easily by  proper and direct communication and and make the schedule of buildings buildings arrival of finishing stages are little different from buildings to building. 19 Chapter 6: CONCLUSION During my training period of 12 weeks I was able to gather a good experience in building construction and it helped me to understand what is happening on the site apart from the theoretical aspects. In the site, I gained practical, technical knowledge and experience regarding situations of the working site and how to overcome the difficulties and also got supervision and communication skills within the si te. The industrial training is important and valuable experience as an apprentice in the field of Civil Engineering. The engineers in the site induced and guided me to go with the process in progress. The management of conflicts occurred between staff and labors or in between them, arrangement of facilities to support the work proposed, adjustment for the scarce resources and labors, taking decisions depends on the forth coming problems and avoidance of unnecessary work to reduce the cost. Not only that, by exposing to the field I was being got to know the people from various organizations, and this environment helped me to express my interest, intensions and suggestion Finally confident to state that the training I got is more than I really expected to get and I hope that the future undergraduates coming for the internship will find their training even more beneficial to their future career. 20