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Intro To Research Methodology-2.

Credits to My CIDDT and Fairview Teachers Education Programme mentor. Prof. Gopi.




Educational Research Overview of Qualitative Research Gay, Mills, and Airasian State the definition and purpose of qualitative research.    1.1 Define qualitative research . 1.2 Describe the purpose of qualitative research. 1.3 Identify four unique characteristics of qualitative research. Describe the six steps in the qualitative research process.   2.1 Describe the six steps of the qualitative research process. 2.2 Compare the six steps used to conduct qualitative research with the six steps used to conduct quantitative research. Identify different qualitative research approaches.   3.1 Describe the primary difference among qualitative research approaches. 3.2 Identify nine qualitative research approaches and discuss the unique characteristics of each. Describe the characteristics of qualitative research.  4.1 Describe eight unique characteristics of qualitative research. State the definition of validity in qualitative research.  5.1 Define the term validity and identify two of its components. Describe strategies to address the trustworthiness (validity) of qualitative research    6.1 Describe four issues Guba suggests the researcher address in order to establish trustworthiness. 6.2 Describe five issues Maxwell suggests the researcher address to establish understanding. understanding. 6.3 Describe thirteen strategies Wolcott believes will enhance validity. Describe strategies to address the replicability (reliability) of qualitative research.   7.1 Define the term reliability . 7.2 Discuss how reliability should be viewed in qualitative research. Describe the relationship between validity and reliability in qualitative research. 8.1 Discuss why generalizability is NOT an issue in qualitative research. Describe the role of ethics in qualitative research.     9.1 Describe the role of ethics in qualitative research. 9.2 Discuss why it is important to think about possible ethical dilemmas in a qualitative research study before they become a problem. 9.3 Identify two reasons why confidentiality is important in qualitative research and the way in which it is usually assured. 9.4 Identify six ethical guidelines that should be followed when conducting qualitative research. Topics Discussed in this Session       Definition and purpose of qualitative research General steps involved in qualitative research Qualitative research approaches Characteristics of qualitative research  Validity, reliability, and generalizability Ethics The Nature of Qualitative Research  Qualitative research is the collection, analysis, and interpretation of  comprehensive narrative data in order to gain insights into a particular phenomenon of interest  Useful for describing and answering questions about participants and contexts Objective 1.1 The Nature of Qualitative Research  Purpose of qualitative research   Promote a deep, holistic understanding of  a particular phenomenon Importance of exploring qualitative topics   Provide insight into the complexity of  common occurrences Provide specific concrete details to guide understanding in a particular setting Objectives 1.2 and 1.3 The Nature of Qualitative Research  The importance of exploring qualitative topics (continued)   Provide insight into the “local” meanings that activities and practices have for participants Develop a comparative understanding of  phenomena as experienced by different participants in different settings Objective 1.3 The Nature of Qualitative Research  Six General Steps        Identify the research topic Review the literature Select the participants Collect data  Analyze the data data Report the results These are the same steps as those used in quantitative research Objectives 2.1 and 2.2 Range of Qualitative Approaches  Nine approaches  Case study   Ethnography    An effort to seek an understanding of a single person or entity  An effort to describe and analyze all or part of the the culture of a community by identifying and describing participants’ practices and beliefs Ethology   An effort to compare several cultures with one another another Objective 3.2 Range of Qualitative Approaches  Nine approaches (continued)  Ethnomethodology   Grounded theory    An effort to examine people’s understanding of their daily activities  An effort to derive theory grounded in the perspectives of the participants Phenomenology   An effort to understand the meaning of an individual’s individual’s experiences Objective 3.2 Range of Qualitative Approaches  Nine approaches (continued)  Symbolic interaction    Action research research    An effort to seek common understandings that emerge to give meaning to participants’ interactions  An effort to seek a solution or improvement to a practical practical problem in the setting in which it is occurring Historical research   An effort to seek to understand the past by studying documents, relics, and interviews Objective 3.2 Features of Qualitative Approaches  Differences between approaches   Different social contexts are being studied in each approach The participants are selected for different reasons in each approach Objective 3.1 Features of Qualitative Approaches  Eight unique characteristics      Researchers immerse themselves in the situation si tuation The data reflects the participants’ perspectives perspectives Sources of data are real-world situations or natural contexts Data is narrative in nature Researchers focus on personal interactions with participants Objective 4.1 Features of Qualitative Approaches  Eight unique characteristics (continued)    Researchers avoid early decisions or assumptions about the study Data are analyzed inductively Methods provide clear, detailed information reflecting participants’ voices Objective 4.1 Technical Issues   Validity   The degree to which the qualitative data collected accurately gauges what is being measured Two components   Trustworthiness Understanding Objective 5.1 Technical Issues   Validity  Trustworthiness     Credibility – taking into account all the complexities in the study and addressing problems that are not easily explained Transferability – including descriptive, context-relevant statements so the reader can identify with the setting Dependability – collecting stable data Confirmability – assuring the neutrality and objectivity of  the data Objective 6.1 Technical Issues   Validity  Understanding     Descriptive validity – the factual accuracy of the account Interpretive validity – the meaning attributed to the behaviors or words of the participants Theoretical validity – the explanation of the phenomenon being studied in relation to a theory Evaluative validity – sufficient objectivity in reporting data to avoid bias, preconceived judgments, or evaluations Objective 6.2 Technical Issues  13 strategies to ensure validity        Participate at the study site for a prolonged period of time Use persistent observation Use peer debriefing Collect mechanically recorded data Use member checks Establish structural corroboration/coherence corroboration/coherence Establish referential adequacy Objective 6.3 Technical Issues  13 strategies to ensure validity (cont.)       Collect detailed descriptive data Develop detailed descriptions of the context Overlap methods (i.e., multi-methods) Establish an audit trail Practice triangulation Practice reflexivity Objective 6.3 Technical Issues  Reliability   The consistency with which data measures what is being attempted to be measured over time Qualitative perspective   The reliability of the techniques that are being used to collect data Reliability is a necessary but not sufficient characteristic – validity is the priority Objectives 7.1 and 7.2 Technical Issues  Generalizability   The applicability of findings to settings and contexts different from the one in which they were obtained Internal-external Internal-external validity issues revisited     A depth of understanding can only be achieved achieved from a few participants in a very limited number of contexts Generalizability is therefore very limited Qualitative researchers are primarily concerned with validity and reliability and to a much lesser extent generalizability Objective 8.1 Technical Issues  General strategies for ensuring the technical merit of a qualitative study         Talk little, listen a lot Record observation accurately Begin writing early Let readers see for themselves Report fully Be candid Seek feedback  Write accurately Ethical Issues   Ethics can be considered in terms of how the researcher treats the participants in the research setting. The nature of qualitative research provides the potential for conflict and harm.   Qualitative research is intimate – there is little distance between the researcher and the participants Qualitative research is open-ended – the nature of  the process requires the use of an emergent design as the situation unfolds Objectives 9.1 and 9.2 Ethical Issues  Six guidelines to help avoid ethical problems   Researchers should have an ethical perspective that is close to their personal ethical position Informed consent should take the form of a dialogue that mutually shapes the research and the results   Confidentiality is more complicated even with the use of  pseudonyms Consider the use of a video tape to illustrate a point being made Objective 9.4 Ethical Issues  Six guidelines to help avoid ethical problems (cont.)    You should be able able to identify identify broader social principles that are an integral part of who you are as a researcher and a contributing member of the community in which you live.  Avoidance of harm morally binds qualitative qualitative researchers to conduct their research in a manner that minimizes potential harm to those involved in the study. Objective 9.4 Ethical Issues  Six guidelines to help avoid ethical problems (cont.)   Even though an action can bring about good results, it is not ethical unless it also conforms to ethical standards such as honesty and justice. The qualitative researcher must remain attentive to the relationships between the researcher and the participants – a relationship that is determined determined by “roles, status, language, and cultural norms.”  Objective 9.4