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MAGALLONA VS. EXECUTIVE SECRETARY July 16, 2011 FACTS: In 1961 1961,, RA 3046 3046 was was pass passed ed,, dema demarc rcat atin ing g the the maritime baselines of the PH as an archipelagic state It remained !nchanged for " decades In #009, the $ongress amended RA 3046 b% enacting RA 9522, 9522, the stat!te s!b&ect of this case  'he change was prompted b% the passage o of ()$*+ ()$*+ III, which which prescribes prescribes the waterwaterland ratio, length, and conto!r of baselines of archipelagic tates li .e the Philipp Philippine ines s and sets sets the deadline deadline for the /lin /ling g of appl applic icat atio ion n for for the the ete etend nded ed continental shelf  $ompl%ing with these re!irements, RA 9"##2 1 shor shorte tene ned d one one base baselin line, e, # opti optimi mie ed d the the locati location on of some some base basepo poin ints ts aro!nd the Philippine archipelago and 3 clas classi si/e /ed d ad&a ad&ace cent nt terr territ itor orie ies, s, name namel% l%,, the the Kalayaa Kalayaan n Island Island Group Group (KIG (KIG and the the Scarborough Shoal, as Shoal, as regimes regimes of islands whose islands generate their own applicable maritime ones Regime of islands are islands that are nat!rall% formed formed areas areas of land, land, s!rro s!rro!nde !nded d b% water, water, which are abo5e water at high tide (nde (nderr the the regim egime e of isla island nds s doct doctri rine ne,, the islands islands will will generate generate their their own maritim maritime e ones ones Roc. Roc.s s which which cannot cannot s!stai s!stain n h!man h!man habitat habitation ion or econom economic ic life life of their their own own shall shall ha5e no ecl!si5e economic one or continental shelf7 Petit Petition ioners ers assail the 5alidit 5alidit% % of RA 9"## on the following gro!nds2 1 RA 9" ## ## red !c !ces Phi lilippin e mari ti ti me me territ territor% or%,, and logica logicall%, ll%, the reach reach of the Phili Philippi ppine ne stat states es so5e so5ere reign ign powe power, r, in 5iolation of Article 1 of th e 198 $onstit!tio $onstit!tion, n, embod%ing embod%ing the terms terms of the  'reat%  'reat% of Paris Paris11 and ancillar% treaties, and # RA 9 "# "## open s the co!ntr%:s waters landw landwar ard d of the the base baseli line nes s to mari mariti time me pass passag age e b% all all 5ess 5essel els s and and air aircraf crafts ts,, !ndermi !nderminin ning g Philipp Philippine ine so5er so5ereig eignt% nt% and national sec!rit%, contra5ening the co!ntr%:s n!clearn!clear-free free polic%, and damaging damaging marine reso! eso!rrces, es, in 5iola iolattion ion of rele5 ele5an antt constit!tional pro5isions Respo Responde ndents nts defend defended ed RA 9"## as the co!nt co!ntr%: r%:s s compliance with the terms of ()$*+ III, preser5ing Philip Philippine pine territ territor% or% o5er o5er the ;I< or carbo carboro ro!gh !gh hoal ISSUE2 =+) RA 9""3 i s !nconstit!tional )+ RULING:  'he demarcation of a bo!ndar% line amo!nts to la%ing down b% mean means s of bo!n bo!nda dar% r% pilla pillars rs,, mon!m mon!ment ents s or b!o% b!o%s, s, and and permanent permanent erections erections of other .inds, along the topographical topographical conformations of the territories to be separated b% it   >emarcation line refers to the bo!ndar% of a speci/c area 'his term is commo commonl% nl% !sed in inter internation national al law It is a pro5 pro5isiona isionall border bor der ha5 ha5ing ing the f!n f!ncti ction on of se separ parati ating ng ter territ ritori ories es !nd !nder er di?erent &!risdictions  