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Mining In Goa

Iron Ore Mining

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 G  O A  :   S   w  e  e  t   L   a n  d   o f    M i   n  e                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Published by the Goa Foundation T  h   e   G   o   a  F   o   u n  d   a   t   i    o  n Contents 9 Part I: A thing of beauty — Goa’s natural heritage 32 Part III: Wounds Wounds on the earth — the effects of mining Goa’s biodiversity, biodiversity, its ecological endowments and The effects of the large-scale mining operations are to an equal extent, its sociable people, all are ubiquitous and pervasive. This sections shows — in being severely assaulted by ecologically destructive pictures — the true horrors of mining operations in mining. This section introduces the astonishing Goa, their impacts on Goa’s ecosystems and people. beauties of the region being mined. 72 Part IV: The blame game — Contents 9 Part I: A thing of beauty — Goa’s natural heritage 32 Part III: Wounds Wounds on the earth — the effects of mining Goa’s biodiversity, biodiversity, its ecological endowments and The effects of the large-scale mining operations are to an equal extent, its sociable people, all are ubiquitous and pervasive. This sections shows — in being severely assaulted by ecologically destructive pictures — the true horrors of mining operations in mining. This section introduces the astonishing Goa, their impacts on Goa’s ecosystems and people. beauties of the region being mined. 25 Mining in Goa — An historical perspective 72 Part IV: The blame game — pinning the responsibility Who are the individuals and departments 26 Part II: Mine, mine, mine — responsible for the state of affairs? Can you help Goa’s new mantra of greed make them listen? The mining industry has been considered Goa’s  ‘sacred cow’: Others Others call it ‘the backbone’ backbone’ of the 92 Stand up and be counted Goan economy. economy. The primitive nature of the mining Some guidance on a future course of action. Please operations will more easily break the ecological try it for Goa’s sake. backbone of the State. This section looks closely at the principal actors on the mining front. Contents 9 Part I: A thing of beauty — Goa’s natural heritage 32 Part III: Wounds Wounds on the earth — the effects of mining Goa’s biodiversity, biodiversity, its ecological endowments and The effects of the large-scale mining operations are to an equal extent, its sociable people, all are ubiquitous and pervasive. This sections shows — in being severely assaulted by ecologically destructive pictures — the true horrors of mining operations in mining. This section introduces the astonishing Goa, their impacts on Goa’s ecosystems and people. beauties of the region being mined. 25 Mining in Goa — An historical perspective 72 Part IV: The blame game — pinning the responsibility Who are the individuals and departments 26 Part II: Mine, mine, mine — responsible for the state of affairs? Can you help Goa’s new mantra of greed make them listen? The mining industry has been considered Goa’s  ‘sacred cow’: Others Others call it ‘the backbone’ backbone’ of the 92 Stand up and be counted Goan economy. economy. The primitive nature of the mining Some guidance on a future course of action. Please operations will more easily break the ecological try it for Goa’s sake. backbone of the State. This section looks closely at the principal actors on the mining front. This map composites the Portuguese mining map with satellite images of Goa’s wildlife sanctuaries / national park, and graphic map data to depict the boundaries and corridors of the protected areas. The composite map shows the location of mines approved by the Ministry of Environment and Forests within 3 km and 1 km, respectively, of these sanctuaries.. The MoEF has even cleared three mines which sanctuaries encroach inside one of the sanctuari sanctuaries. es. This old Portuguese mining map of Goa gives the location of more than 700 mining leases granted by the Portuguese Government. If all of them are to be entertained, nothing will be left of the State (and its charms). Maharashtra Mhadei Bondla GOA Bhagwan Mahaveer Netravali Sanctuary boundary 1 km buffer Karnataka Cotigao 3 km buffer List of mining leases whose brutal management practices were legitimised by the Ministry of Environment and Forests when it casually issued more than 70 ‘environment clearances’ in two years without visits to sites. Mining projects in the pipeline for environment clearances List of mining leases whose brutal management practices were legitimised by the Ministry of Environment and Forests when it casually issued more than 70 ‘environment clearances’ in two years without visits to sites. Mining projects in the pipeline for environment clearances (The table lists villages in which the operating mines are located, dates of public hearings and environment clearances granted.) As on January 3, 2008 Name ofmining lease T .C . N o N a me o f o p er a t or V il l ag e a n d Taluka S ur ve y nu mb er (s ) A re a ( in hectares) Project cost(in Rupees) Date of public hearing Env.Cl. date Name ofmining lease T .C . No N a me o f o pe r at o r V il l ag e an d Taluka S ur ve y nu mb er (s ) A re a ( in hectares) Project cost(in Rupees) Dateof public hearing Env. Cl. date Nameofmining lease T .C . N o N a me o f o p e ra t or V il l a ge an d Taluka S ur ve y nu mb er (s ) A re a ( in hectares) Project cost(in Rupees) Date of public hearing Env. Cl. date Sancordem Malpona Mine 19/52, 44/56, 27/53, 39/56 M/s V.M. Salgaocar& Bros Ltd P.O. BoxNo. 14 Vasco daGama, Goa Sancordem, Malpona Malpona Partof5, 11, 12, 15 to 17, 19, 20 to 22, 24 & 25, Surla Partof 39, 40, 42 & 43 3 18 .9 4 1 17 9. 89 lakh  Jan5, 2004 Nov 17, 2005 MortegalMordi mineof Vincente Fernandes 6 8 /5 3 M / s S oc i ed a de TimbloIrmaos Limitada U gu em P ar t s of 4 1 , 42 /1 t o 4 2/ 8, 43, 44/1, to 44/11, 42/2 to 5, 46/0 7 0.4 6 1 6la kh F eb 2, 2005 Dec 26, 2005 Suctolim Ironore mineSanguem, Goa 143/53 Sangod 1/2, 2/1, 3/1, 3/2, 8/1, 8/2 Parts of1/1, 3/1, 4/1, 4/2, 6/4, 7/1, 9/1, 92/1 99.6 55.12 lakh May12, 2005 May18, 2006 CopilaGaichem Paulmineof  SociedadeTimblo Irmaos Ltd 88/52 SociedadeFomento Inds P.O. BoxNo. 31, Villa Flores daSilva, EC street, Margao, Goa Sigao 30 to 34 94 500 lakh Jan 5, 2004 Sep3, 2007 Sancordem iron oremine 29/55 AtchutV.S. Veli ngkar Veling, PostMardol, Goa Sigao 6 3. 5l ak h M ay 1 2, 2005  Jul13, 2006 SantonachiUpri mineof Zarapkar & Parkar 34/55 P r av i n Ku m ar G o s al i a B e tu l , Maqueri, Morplq,Velim, Fatorpa, Quepem 31/1, 33/1, 33/2, 34/1, 35/1, 60/1, 60/2, 60/3, 61/1, 62/1, 63/1, 64/1, 65/1 5 0. 4 2 5 /6 8 Shigao (Advona ToleamatiE Galiguro)iron oremine 87/53 Sanguem Goa 8 7 /5 3 ShaktiBauxite mine 5 0/ 58 S mt Sh ak un ta al Re ge C ol el m Kalayironore mineofN.S. Narvekar 12/52 SociedadeFomento Inds Gotukwade-cho Tembironore mine Surla –Sonshi ironoremine 2 / 51 S o ci e da d e F om e nt o Inds 5/54, 20/54, 21/54 M/s V.S. Dempo & Co (addre ssasgiven Saniem iron oremineof  M.S.Talaulikar Bicholim ironore mine M/s V.S. Dempo & Co (addre ssasgiven Tudouiron oremineof  ChowguleCo Pvt 40/57, 42/57 ChowguleCo Pvt ChowguleHouse, MormugaoHarbour, Mormugao, Goa 171.86 36 lakh Jan 8, 2004 Mar22, 2006 11/41, 12/41, 13/41, 14/41, 15/41 Bimbolironore mineofEmco Goa 23/53, 7/41 ChowguleCo Pvt Sigao,Mollem (addres sasgivenearlier) Collem 4 6. 10 6 4 7l ak h J an 1 2, 2004 Feb16, 2006 Band DonCol ironoremine 2/ Fe/71 Pissurlem, Sattari MonteIrangui ironoremine ofRoyAntao & SaneAntao 5 5 /5 3 C h ow g ul e C o P vt 3 1. 34 J an 1 2 , 2004  Jan12, 2006 M/s Damodar Mangalji DamodarNiwas, M.G. Road, P.B. BoxNo. 32, Panaji, Goa CodliGroupof  mines 69/51, 70/52, 126/53 Sesa Goa Ltd Sesa Ghor, P.O. BoxNo. 125, EDC, Patto, Panaji, Goa Codli HuldolDongor (Bimbolmine) 8 /4 1 G .N . A gr aw al StationRoad, P.O. BoxNo. 107, Margao, Goa Sigao Kirlapaleironore mineof Ahiliabai Sardesai 41/54 M/s V.S. Dempo& Co, Campal, Panaji, Goa Carmonem & Bandoli 35, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, 43 of  Carmonem & 49to 54 of  Bandoli Dudhalironore mine 7 / 50 M / s V.S .D e mp o& Co (addre ssasgiven Dudhal& Maulinguem 44, 48 to 51ofDudhal & 7, 8, 9 ofMaulinguem Colomba ironore mine 35/52 M/s V.S. Dempo& Co (addre ssasgiven R iv on a 1 09 , 11 5, 1 2 7, 1 2 8, 1 31 , 132, 134 M/s SalgaocarMining D ab al Industries SalghaocarChambers, Margao, Goa 3 00 l ak h J an 5, 2004 Oct28, 2005 S an ton a 7 ,8 ,1 2t o16 ,2 4, 25 1 76. 76 4 1. cro re J an 8, 2004 May14, 2007 Sancordem, Malpona 40, 50, 52-56, 59 50.3 3.5 al kh Jan 8, 2004 Nov 25, 2005 (addres sasgivenearlier) (addres sasgivenearlier) P ot re m 4 .5 l ak h (addres sasgivenearlier) 298.58 30, 31, 32, 62, 72 97.5 75 crore Jan 12, 2004 Sep6, 2005 2.38 crore Mar 8, 2004 Oct26, 2005 8 5. 5 2 .8 6c ro re M ar 3 , 2004 Nov 17, 2005 3 2.7 2 7 2la kh M ar 3, 2004 Nov 17, 2005 9 8. 46 2 .1 5c ro re M ar 3 , 2004 Nov 17, 2005 earlier) 3 / 51 M / s V.S .D e mp o& Co (addre ssasgiven Vichundremiron oremineofHira Bombo Gauns 38/52 M/s V.S. Dempo& Co (addre ssasgiven Sem Denominacao Especialironore mine 5 /5 3 M an ue l DaC o s ta H. No. 1560, Curtorim, Goa Curpem & Sulcorna 2, 20, 52,55, 56, 57 of  Curpem & 11 ofSulcorna 82.5 80 lakh Mar 3, 2004 Nov 17, 2005 Vi ch un dr em 1 ,1 2t o1 6, 5 1, 5 2, 5 3 1 00 7 5 al kh M ar 3 , 2004 Nov 17, 2005 Tudou, Patiem 1, 12 to 16, 51, 52, 53 parts 23, 24ofTudoupart of  1/1, 2/0, 5/1, 5/2, 5/3, 5/4, 6/0, 4/0, 8/0, 9/1, 10/0, 11/0, 22/0, 26/0, 27/0 9 5.0 9 2 0la kh M ar 8, 2004 Sep30, 2005 earlier) earlier) Nomoxitembode Caurem mineof  M/sBadruddin Mavani 1 4 /5 2 OikrioDirodgal Curdimineof  NoorM.A. Karim 4 3 /5 3 Aglote, Sanguem P a rt o f 1 3 , 1 7 ,1 8 4 7 7. 2 7 5 .8 9 lakh Feb2, 2005 Dec 26, 2005 8 26 .1 5 5 5. 11 lakh Feb2, 2005  June15, 2006 Corpedegaliron oremine ofR.V.S. Velingkar 24/57 R.V.S. Veli ngkar Veling, Ponda, Goa Sanguem Dharbandora, 137 to 140, Partof131, 133 5 9. 65 to 136, 141, 143, 146, 148 5 1. 2 la kh M ay 1 2, 2005 Feb, 2007 3 3.2 5 2 4. 4l ak h F eb 2, 2005 Aug25, 2006 BorchiMordiiron oremineofG.N. Agrawal 6 / 61 S o ci e da d e Fo m en t o Inds Maina, Quepem 3, 4, 8, 9, 10 and Partof1, 2, 5, 6 9 2. 24 3 2 .0 c ro re A ug 3 1, 2005 Dec 22, 2006 Surla sonshi, Vonvoilem 2 5 3. 3 93 1 9 .8 4 crore Dec 8, 2003 Nov 17, 2005 6 / 49 S o ci e da d e Fo m en t o Inds Colomba, Sanguem Parts of42 to 46, 54 to 59, 67 to 70 7 0. 18 2 .5 c ro re A ug 3 1, 2005 Mar12, 2007 Lamgao, Mayem, Bordem, Mulgao and Sirigao 479 13.54 crore Dec 8, 2003 Nov 17, 2005 Gogoro Ou GulcanDongor mineof Hiralal Khodidas Navelem Dongor Manganesemine ofAshok P. Kuchadkar  53/52 AshokP. Kudchadkar, OppRailwayStation, Curchorem, Goa Curpem, Colomba, Sulcorna in Sanguem 73 part(Colomba), 2 part (Curpem), 10 partand 11 part, Sulcorna 3 1. 43 1 5la kh S ep 14 , 2005 Aug17, 2006 1 5l ak h D ec 8, 2003 Sep30, 2005 Suktoliiron oremineof  Gasa Goa Ltd Chimatevalavorli 82/53 M/s SalgaocarMining S an go d Industries 1 , 38 , 85 , 86 , 87 , 88 , 91 to 95 9 6. 85 3 .2 0 c ro re S ep 2 1, 2005  Jun7, 2007 Madiencho Sodo ironoremineof  M/s NaliniV. Naik  31/56 3 0 ,3 1 ,3 2 ,3 5 t o 3 9 ,8 7 ,8 8 9 8 .2 3 . 40 cr o re S e p 2 1, 2005  Jul23, 2007 1 21 to 1 32 , 1 35 , 1 36 6 5. 23 7 .6 0 c ro re J ul 2 1, 2005 May10, 2007 2 4, 2 9, 3 0 , 35 , 36 , 3 0/ 30 4 0. 76 8 .7 5 c ro re M ay 1 2, 2005  Jul5, 2007 p ar tof 57 t o63 9 6. 48 3 9. 0c ro re M ay 12, 2005 May10, 2007 P ar t of 27 t o29 earlier) earlier) Deulem Pissurlemiron oremine 70/51 M/s R.S. Shetye Trionara Pissurlem, Sattari Sirigao ironore mine 5/49, 13/49 ChowguleCo Pvt Sirigao, Vaguriemiron oremine 9 3 /5 3 C h ow g ul e C o P vt Dignem ironore mine 9 2 /5 2 M / s S oc i ed a de TimbloIrmaos Limitada (addressas Cazreachem Culna Ironore Mine(Cudnem) ofShri Raghuvir SinaiGhars eat Bicholim 51/52 Guelliem-eGavaliron ore mine(Pissurlem) SattariNorth 55/51 1 1t o1 3, 18 ,9 ,4 1t o4 4 3 9 to 43 ,1 1, 18 ,1 9 1 8. 47 9 9. 47 3 .5 5c ro re D ec 8, 2003 Sep30, 2005 7 5. 25 1 .1 5c ro re D ec 8, 2003 Dec 27, 2005 (addres sasgivenearlier) Mayem M / s S oc i ed a de TimbloIrmaos Limitada P.O. BoxNo. 34 , KadarManzil, Margao, Goa Colomba & Sulcorna M / s S oc i ed a de TimbloIrmaos Limitada C ur di Partof 82, 83, 87, 88,89, 7 1.4 1 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 100, 103, 09, 10 4 4, 48 , P ar t o f 43 , 4 5, 46 , 47, 52, 3 4.2 2 6 c ror e 1 c ror e M ar 8, 2004 M ar 8, 2004 Sep30, 2005 6 3 /5 1 M / s S oc i ed a de TimbloIrmaos Limitada Curpem, Sanguem Odamola ironore mineof SOVA 45/54 M/s SalgaocarMining S an go d Industries Sep30, 2005 M/s Timblo Pvt. Ltd, Gaotone, Dusrifal, Codli 1 4 /5 8 C u dn e m 9 7 ,9 8 ,1 0 2, 1 06 , 10 7 an d 101, 108 7 9.5 3 7 3. 96 lakh Apr20, 2005 Mar23, 2006 M/s RalphDe Souza,Vagler, Shismamordi, Sangod,Village, Sanguem 7 / 58 M/s V.M. Salgaocar& Bros Ltd P. O. BoxNo.14 Vasco da Gama, Goa 86 to 91, 104 to 111, 114, 117 65.24 32 to 36, 38, 41 87.55 4.0 crore Apr 20, 2005  Jan17, 2007 M/s GajananS Padiar HouseNo. 121, Paroda, Goa Molcornem, Quepem Pissurlem, Bicholim M/s GajananS PadiarVagxepo Molcornem Fe-Mn DandoAmabeya Temb 1/Fe. Mn/78 SociedadeFomento Inds (addre ssasgiven Pissurlem, 41/1 62 12.5 crore A pr 25, 2005 Sep4, 2006 Nirankal(EM GUDI MOLA) IronoreMineof  SmtSudhaM. Goundalkar 9 5 /5 3 M / sV el i ng k ar Brothers   CommlComplex, NearHari Mandir, Margao, Goa Nirankal/ Ponda 114, 115, 151 to 156 and Partof 116, 147, 150, 157 and 158 8 5. 55 3 5. 82 lakh Pale24, 27 to 31, Velguem 37and 77 Poncem 7, 11, 12& Parts of 4 to 6, 8, 10, 13, 14 1 52 .6 3 6 1. 94 lakh Apr20, 2005 Nov 24, 2006 9 5 /5 2 6 to 22 and 43 to 45 98.37 70 lakh 2 8 6. 6 93 2 0 4. 4 8 lakh Apr20, 2005 Mar28, 2006 M / sD a mo d ar Mangalji DamodarNiwas, M.G. Road, P.B. BoxNo. 32, Panaji, Goa Pissurlem/ Sattari Part32 to 38& 61 of  Velguem, Part160, 161, 162, 166, 167, 171, 174, 180, 181, 182, 199, 200, 201, 210, 213, 216, 217, 224, 228, 229, 232, 233 & full163, 164, 165, 183 to 190 & 202 to 209, 211, 212, 218 to 223, 225 to 227, 428 ofSurla Part6, 10, 11, 13, 29, 31, 32, 35, 37 full33, 34, 36 ofSanguem Marsodo Iron oreMineof  M/s Damodar Mangalji& Co Ltd Gavanem ironore 31/55 mine(DhangarwadoXelpencho Sodo) M/s Chowgule& Co Pvt XelpoCurado, Ambelim& Partof 93, 96, 97, 98 of  Netorlim andPartof 5, 35, 36 ofVichundrem 98 93/52 M/s Chowgule& Co Pvt Rivona/ Sanguem 88, 92, 95, 109 to 113 and 136 Xelpo, Curado 9, 12 to 25 100 34.44 lakh Apr20, 2005 Aug17, 2006 MonteUdo iron & manganese oremineofM/s Chowgule& Co Ltd KhuntieMolliron and manganese oremine 57/53 Sulcorna/ Quepemand Cudnem & 103 ofCudnem, 123-143 ofOnda 7 4. 61 1 .0 6 la kh A pr 2 0, 2005 Aug17, 2006 63, 64 94.6 5.28 crore A pr 25, 2005 May10, 2007 Paleironore mineMati (Cudnem)Mine Bicholim 31/53, 41/56 ChowguleCo Pvt Velguem/Surla ironoremine Mati(Cudnem) MineBicholim 83/52, 29/54, 19/58, M/s V. M. Salgaocar & Bros Ltd (addres sasgivenearlier) Bicholim Pale, Velguem (addres sasgivenearlier) and Poncem, Bicholim Velguem, Surla, Sonus, (addres sasgivenearlier) Vonvoilem 26/57 ChowguleCo Pvt 7 ( 1, 2 ,3 ), 9 ( 1, 2 , 3) 5 c ro re J an 5 , 2004 Oct28, 2005, granted perm EC onOct 23, 2007 Onda ironore mine 9 8 /5 2 C h ow g ul e C o P vt Purmar-eParvodetof  Sallitho ores PvtLtd Mati (Cudnem)Mine Bicholim 86/53 Sonshiiron ore mineSattari North 1 6/ 55 V. G. Qu en n i S on us , Vonvoilem 5 6. 79 1 .1 5c ro re A pr 2 0 , 2005 May18, 2006 SanquelimGroup ofmines 9/49, 10/49, 3/54 Sesa Goa Ltd Mauli nguem 17, 18, parts of2, 4 to 13, 19, 20, 23 to 28 and 30 2 03 .5 4 (addres sasgivenearlier) 1 .7 9 c ro re Apr25, 2005  Jul6, 2007 Sigao ironore mineSanguem, Goa 47/54, 50/53, 13/55, S ig ao 2 1, 23 ,3 0, 31 an d 3 4f ul l 24 to 29 1 74 4. 1 7 7. 49 lakh May5, 2005 Mar28, 2006 VangiBindi Advona (Fe/ Mn)ironore mineat Sulcorna Sanguem, Goa 10/51 M/s HaidarKasim Khan GovtHospitalRoad Kakoda Curchorem, Goa Vichundrem Sulcorna 17, 51 ofVichundrem 16, 11 ofSulcorna 8 3. 06 2 .0 cr or e M ay 5 , 2005 Feb15, 2006 Costiiron ore mineSanguem, Goa ofChowgule & Co Ltd 22/50, 38/51, 12/57 ChowguleCo Pvt C os ti 2 , 4, 8, 9 ,1 1t o1 4, 2, 4 ,2 4, 49, 51, 1, 13, 14, 15 1 27 9. 2 5 8. 67 lakh  Jun15, 2005 Dec 1, 2006 Costiiron ore mine(Santona, Dudhal) Sanguem, Goa of  V.D.Chowgule 40/50, 16/51 ChowguleHouse, MormugaoHarbour, Mormugao, Goa Santona/ Dudhal 39, 41, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 49, 50 and 51 ofSantona 54 to63of Dudhal 1 67 7. 8 4 6. 43 lakh  Jun15, 2005 Nov 27, 2006 Tudou, Patiem 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,19 1, 23,25, 26 and Partof 2, 22, 20, 18, 20, 24 ofTudouand 3, 4, 49 and Partof 1, 8 of  Patiem 2 61 .7 92 2 0 c ro re F eb 2 , 2005 Sep30, 2005 Chiraband-evallmineofR.R. Painguinkar 8 / 50 M / sS o ci e da d e TimbloIrmaos Limitada Patiem, Uguem Parts of5/1, 7, 8, 11, 12/1, 12/2, 13/3, 1/1-6, 15/1, 18/1, 18/2, 19 ofPatiem and parts of48/1, 48/5, 49/2, 49/3, 52 ofUguem 81.9 1 crore Feb 2, 2005 Sep30, 2005 BondraAdvona Curpem ironore mine 61/53 PandurangTimblo SubhashTimblo Bhavan, P.O. BoxNo. 242, Margao, Goa Codli, 1/1, 140, 148,149, 24, 27, 28, 30, 31 9 6. 28 1 .0 1c ro re F eb 2 , 2005 Oct20, 2005 Collem ironore mine 3 0 /5 0 D r P r af u l a R . H e de DrMalbarai House, 2nd Floor, RueIsmael Gracias, P.B. No.181, Panaji, Goa CollemSanguem 36/1 and 37/1 82.52 23.77 lakh Feb2, 2005 Oct28, 2005 CareaCodilupri adam Tembo E Sauripar (Maulinguem)of  R.T.Duelkar 20/51 ResourceIntern ational Mauli nguem Partof1 to5, 7,8, 19, full 23, 27, 29, 30 87.21 Feb 2, 2005 Sep17, 2007 (addres sasgivenearlier) S e sa G oa L td  Jan5, 2006 SesaGoa Ltd (addres sasgivenearlier) (addres sasgivenearlier) Onda, Sattari M/s SalgaocarMining Pale Industries (addres sasgivenearlier) M/s V.M. Salgaocar & Bros Ltd (addressas  givenearlier) (addres sasgivenearlier) Received on Status P r oj e ct N o : J- 1 10 1 5/ 4 79 / 20 0 6- I A. I I (M ) ProjectName: MadachemBatiron oremine District:NorthGoa Village:PaleBicholim Company:M/s Madachem BatPvtLimited Aug30, 2007 Proposalis reconsideredinthe meetingheld onNovember 12-14, 2007 2 0 06 P r oj e ct N o : No . J- 1 10 1 5/ 3 05 / 20 0 6- I A. I I( M ) ProjectName: Callanichomato deOilomeoi IronOre MiningProject District:NorthGoa Village: Company:M/s Tithoferro Bicholim Bardez Oct25, 2006 Addit ionalinformati onsoughtbytheMinistryis awaite d. Proposalis likelyto beconsideredinthe forthcomingmeeting ofthe ExpertCommittee(Mining) scheduled forDecember 14-15, 2006. Thecommittees recommend theproject. 2 0 06 P r oj e ct N o : No . J- 1 10 1 5/ 3 02 / 20 0 6- I A. I I( M ) ProjectName: Marsodo IronOreMining Project District:NorthGoa Village: Company:M/s DamodarMangaljiand Co Oct25,2006 2 0 06 P r oj e ct N o : No . J- 1 10 1 5/ 2 74 / 20 0 6- I A. I I( M ) ProjectName: Tolem deQuela KeliIron Ore Mine District:NorthGoa Village:Thivim,PirnaBardez Company:M/s SalgaocarMiningIndustries Pvt. Ltd. Sep18, 2006 Addit ionalinformati onsoughtbytheMinistryis awaite d. Proposalis likelyto beconsideredinthe forthcomingmeeting ofthe ExpertCommittee(Mining) scheduled forNovember 16-17, 2006. 2 0 06 P r oj e ct N o : No . J- 1 10 1 5/ 2 69 / 20 0 6- I A. I I( M ) ProjectName: CareacodilUpsiAlamturbo E Sauipas (Maulingaeu)IronOre MiningProject District: SouthGoa Village: Company: Sep1, 2006 Addit ionalinformati onsoughtbytheMinistryisawaited. 2 0 06 P r oj e ct N o : No . J- 1 10 1 5/ 2 28 / 20 0 6- I A. I I( M ) ProjectName: Cavrem DongorIron & ManganeseMine District:SouthGoa Village: Company:M/sV.D.Chowgule Aug4, 2006 Addit ionalinformati onsoughtbytheMinistryreceived onAug22, 2006. Proposalconsideredinthe meetingof  theExpert Committee(Mining) held onDecember 14-15, 2006. Theproposalwas deferred forrecommendationon submissionofadditionalinformation. 2 0 06 P r oj e ct N o : No . J- 1 10 1 5/ 2 26 / 20 0 6- I A. I I( M ) ProjectName: Pola DongorManganeseMine District:SouthGoa Village: Company:M/s ShriXec AbdulGofur Aug4, 2006 Addit ionalinformati onsoughtbytheMinistryawait ed. 2 0 06 P r oj e ct N o : No . J- 1 10 1 5/ 2 07 / 20 0 6- I A. I I( M ) ProjectName: AiliVagruem Ironand ManganeseMine District:SouthGoa Village:Sacorda/Sanguem Company:M/s ElrayMinerals  July19, 2006 Additionalinformationsoughtby theMinistry awaited. 2 0 06 P r oj e ct N o : No . J- 1 10 1 5/ 3 63 / 20 0 5- I A. I I( M ) ProjectName: VagxepAnabeya Tempto Molcornem Ironand ManganeseOreMining Project District:SouthGoa Village: Company:M/s Gajanana P. Adiar  July18, 2006 Projectwas received incompleteforwant ofapprovalletter of  IBM. Additionalinformationsoughtby theMinistry received on-----. Proposalis likelyto beconsideredinthe forthcoming meetingof theExpert Committee(Mining)scheduled for November16-17, 2006. 2 0 06 P r oj e ct N o : No . J- 1 10 1 5/ 7 1/ 2 00 6 -I A .I I ( M) ProjectName: CotiDonger, Pirla Mine District:SouthGoa Village: Company:M/s Virginia Maria Simoes Apr10, 2006 Additionalinformationsoughtby Ministryawaited. 2 0 06 P r oj e ct N o : No . J- 1 10 1 5/ 7 0/ 2 00 6 -I A .I I ( M) ProjectName: Orasso DongurIron Ore MiningProject District:NorthGoa Village:Advalpal/Moietem Company:M/s Sesa Goa Mar31, 2006 Additionalinformationsoughtby Ministryreceived alongwiththe project. Theproposalis yetto beconsidered  bythe ExpertCommittee(Mining). Proposalis likelyto  beconsidered inthe forthcomingmeetingof theExpert Committee(Mining)scheduled forSeptember18-20, 2006. 2 0 06 P r oj e ct N o : No . J- 1 10 1 5/ 6 0/ 2 00 6 -I A .I I ( M) ProjectName: Gautona Dusrifallmine District:SouthGoa Village: Company:M/s Timblo PrivateLtd. Mar27, 2006 Additionalinformationsoughtby Ministryreceived onAug 3, 2006. Proposalis likelyto beconsidered inthe forthcoming meetingof theExpert Committee(Mining)scheduled for September18-20, 2006 Additionalinformationsoughtby Ministryreceived on May2, 2006. Proposalwas consideredinthe meetingof the      soughtby theExpert Committeereceived onAugust17, 2006. Submitted fororder onJanuary 9, 2007. (addres sasgivenearlier) D ec 8, 2003 Gavanem iron oremine (Xelpo Curado)Sattari North Kunda R.S. Gharse NearMunicipality P.O. No. 204, Margao, Goa M / s Sa l ga o ca r M i ni n g D ha rb an do ra Industries D ec 8, 2003 Sep30, 2005 19/54, 3/57, 33/57 M/s Marzook  4 / 55 and CadarPvt ltd atDharbandora villagein SanguemTaluka 3 cr or e M ar 8 , 2004 Tollem Groupof  Mines (addres sasgivenearlier) 4 5l ak h 5 0 la kh (addres sasgivenearlier) M/s SalgaocarMining Sangod, Industries Sanguem 4 3.1 36 GavalSonshi iron 110/53 oremineofM/s CosmeCosta & Sons(Pissurlem) SattariNorth Project details 2 0 07 (addres sasgivenearlier) 6 2. 26 P ar t o f 6, 7 ,1 2, 1 3, 14 , 1, 2 6 9. 47 8 5. 72 (addres sasgivenearlier) P ar ts of 15 0t o1 59 earlier) Yearof proposal (addres sasgivenearlier) 3 ,1 2, 16 to 20 ,2 6t o3 0 Sep30, 2005 (addres sasgivenearlier) (addres sasgivenearlier) Sanguem Cudnem, Bicholim (addres sasgivenearlier) Godbaim ou Cuttiem mineof  C.F. Naik  P a nd u ra n g Ti m bl o Va gu ri em (addres sasgivenearlier)  givenearlier) earlier) Curpem ironore mine (addres sasgivenearlier) (addres sasgivenearlier) p ar t o f 3, 4, 17 , 1 8, 19 , 1 61 , 9 8.3 258, 169 full5 to 12, 17 Tudou PandurangTimblo Codli/ (addres sasgivenearlier) Sanguem M / s Sa l ga o ca r M i ni n g Sangod/ Industries Sanguem (addres sasgivenearlier) (addres sasgivenearlier) Gavanem May 5, 2005  Jun27, 2007  Jun12, 2005  Jun27, 2007 Apr 9, 2007 13.92 lakh  Jun12, 2005 May17, 2007 7 4. 00 5 3 1. 59 lakh  Jul5, 2006  Jun7, 2007 2 0 06 P r oj e ct N o : No . J- 1 10 1 5/ 6 3/ 2 00 6 -I A .I I ( M) ProjectName: Oilem Arvalem Mine District:NorthGoa Village:Arvalem Company:M/s H.L. Nathurmal Mar24, 2006 11, 14 to 17 ofSulcorna, 2 ofCurpem and 51 ofVichundrem 9 9. 33 4 3. 46 lakh  Jul5, 2006 May17, 2007 2 0 06 P r oj e ct N o : J- 1 10 1 5/ 4 0/ 2 00 6 -I A I. I ( M) ProjectName: MonteDeSingao Mine District:NorthGoa Village: Company:M/s Rajaram Bandakar(Sirigao) Mines Pvt. Ltd. Feb15, 2006        Proposalwas considered inthe ExpertCommittee(Mining) on  June15-16, 2006. Furthernecessary actionis beingtaken. 2 0 06 P r oj e ct N o : J- 1 10 1 5/ 2 8/ 2 00 6 -I A -I I (M ) ProjectName: Sanquelim IronOreMine District:NorthGoa Village: Company:M/s Sesa Goa  Jan31, 2006        Proposalwas considered inthe ExpertCommittee(Mining) on  June15-16, 2006. Undersubmissionfor orders onSep6, 2006. 2 0 05 P r oj e ct N o : No . J- 1 10 1 5/ 3 51 / 20 0 5- I A. I I( M ) ProjectName: JaquelarOn Jacclevicho Mallo IronOre Mine, MLArea: 99.45 haProd. Cap.: 0.8 MTPA District:NorthGoa Village:PaleBicholim Company:M/s TandekarBros. (P) Ltd. Sep29, 2005 Additionalinformationreceived onOctober 31, 2005. The projectconsidered bythe ExpertCommittee(Mining) meeting held onJanuary10-12, 2006. Inf. SoughtbyEC(M) received on Feb10, 2006. Onthe observationoft hecompetentauthority reporton environmentalissues raisedduringthe public hearingsoughtf rom theState PollutionControlBoard on  July25, 2006. InformationGoa State PollutionControlBoard received onAugust21, 2006. Villages inSattari Taluka (addres sasgivenearlier) M/s Chowgule& Co Pvt (addres sasgivenearlier) Curpem and ProposalwasconsideredinthemeetingoftheExpert Committee(Mining)held onNovember16-17, 2006. Informationsought bythe expertcommitteereceived onJan 12, 2007. Vichundrem inSanguem Cavrem ironand manganeseore mine 1 4 /5 1 M / s C ho w gu l e & C o Pvt Colomba/ Sanguem 72, 73, 77 to 89, 92 to 96, 101, 102 and 121 9 9. 82 1 9. 28 lakh  Jul5, 2006  Jul27, 2007 Vansvola Tembo ouximevoril dongor Vichundremiron oremine 67/52 AtchutV.S. Veli ngkar Veling, PostMardol, Goa Netorlim/ Sanguem Partof 93, 96, 97, 98 of  Netorlim and Partof 5, 35, 36 ofVichundrem 4 2. 97 1 3. 92 lakh  Jul5, 2006  Jun27, 2007 Carpadegga (Codli)iron ore mine 2 5/ 56 X ec M u st af a C ad ar C od li / Sanguem 30 to 34 40.29 31 lakh Dec 12, 2006 Oct24, 2007 Tembeachem Dongorironore mine 5 1/ 51 J ai ra m B .N eu gu i M ai na , Canvorem, Rivona in Quepemand Sanguem 7, 66 and 77ofMaina, 34, 35, 36 ofCavorem and 168/1 and 168/3 of  Rivona 9 9. 37 2 0la kh D ec 12 , 2006 Sep18, 2007 Polo Dongor ironoremine atCurpem Sanguem South Goa 65/51 Ms G.F. Figueire do LHofLateAmalia R.G.Figueiredo, H. No. 2730, Murida, Fatorda, Margao, Goa Curpem/ Sanguem P ar tof 1, 2, 5 an d8 5 8. 27 3 0la kh J an 31 , 2007  Jul18, 2007 Borga ironore mineconsisting of Borga Dongrachem Fall mine and Oiteiro Borga do Bairo Queri 29/52, 34/50 PandurangTimblo Industries Rivona/ Sanguem 73, 74, 75, 150, 151, 152 and Partof30, 31, 72, 76, 77, 149, 153, 154, 174, 189, 196 1 68 .6 98 6 0 l ak h J an 3 1 , 2007  Jul26, 2007 (addres sasgivenearlier) "When we destroy something man-made and replaceable, we are called vandals. When we destroy something irreplaceable and made by God, we are called developers." — Joseph Wood Krutch GOA Sweet Land of Mine India’s Environment Ministry       and legitimises decades of deadly environment destruction Goa: Sweet Land of Mine Content: Claude Alvares with Reboni Saha Inputs: Nitin Naik, Nirmal Kulkarni, Kalpesh M. Patel, Rahul Alvares, Sandeep Azrencar, Rajendra P. Kerkar, Savio Fernandes, Suneel Korajkar, Aaron Lobo, Carl D’Silva, Amrut Singh, Jamshed Madon, Luis Velho, Judith Almeida, Lambert Almeida, Heraclio Fernandes, Carlos Gracias, Ramesh Bandekar, Abhijit Prabhudesai (all members of the Goa Wildlife Group of the Goa Foundation), Ramesh Gauns, Sushant Naik, Gerard D’ Sa, Roy Fernandes Book design and layout: Aniruddha Sen Gupta Publication date: January 2008 ISBN No: 81-85569-77-0 Website: www.goacom.org/goafoundation Proceeds from the sale of this volume go to a special fund within the          practices of the mining industry in the state. Printed by the Goa Foundation at New Vision Printing Service Pvt. Ltd., 36, Design House, Pilerne Indl. Estate, P.O. Saligao, Bardez, Goa 403 511 ! "# %"&' ()"(*) +,-.+/0')1 2/'3 4"+5 '3) (/,'.#) "6 '3) #)7/"0 '3+' /%%)1/+')*8 ,"%)& '" '3)/# %/01 /& "6 /'& 7#+01 9)+,3)&: ;3/&  9""< '+<)& 8". +2+8 6#"% '3) 9)+,3)&5 '" '3) /0')#/"# 9)*' "6 4"+           "(/0/"0 = *",+*5 0+'/"0+*5 /0')#0+'/"0+* = '3) >)&')#0 43+'& +#) "0) "6 '3) [email protected] ),"*"7/,+* 3"' &("'& "6 '3) (*+0)' /0 ')#%& "6 '3)/# )0"#%".&  9/"1/A)#&/'8 "6 (*+0' +01 +0/%+* */6): B"2)A)#5 '3/& +#)+ 3+& &))0 '3) &')+18 /0,#)+&) "6 &'#/( %/0/07 23/,3 3+& 0"2 '+<)0 "0 '3) (#"("#'/"0& "6 +0 )(/1)%/, /01.,)1 98 '3) /01.&'#/+* 1)A)*"(%)0' = "6 +** ,".0'#/)& = C3/0+D E01/+ /& +((#"A/07 '3) 7#+1.+* 1/&%+0'*/07 "6 4"+F& >)&')#0 43+'& 6"# '3) 1)A)*"(%)0' "6 C3/0+F& &'))* /01.&'#8 &/0,) '3) %"0)8 /& &/%(*8 '"" 7""1D ;3/& 9""< #)*+')& '3) &'"#8 "6 3"2 '3) G/0/&'#8 "6 H0A/#"0%)0' +01 !"#)&'& = %+01+')1  98 I+#*/+%)0' 2/'3 '3) '+&< "6 (#"'),'/07 '3) )0A/#"0%)0'5 6"#)&'& +01 2/*1*/6) = +01 /'&                          #)&("0&/9*) %/0/07: G"#) '3+0 JK 8)+#& "6 /##)&("0&/9*) +01 )0A/#"0%)0'+**8 1)&'#.,'/A) %/0/07 L(/,'.#)& "6 23/,3 ,"%(#/&) '3/& )0'/#) 9"") 2)*,"%) /'& #)+1)#& '" %+<) '3)/# ,"0,)#0&            Contents 9 Part I: A thing of beauty — Goa’s natural heritage Goa’s biodiversity, its ecological endowments and 26 the effects of mining The effects of the large-scale mining operations are to an equal extent, its sociable people, all are ubiquitous and pervasive. This sections shows — in being severely assaulted by ecologically destructive pictures — the true horrors of mining operations in mining. This section introduces the astonishing Goa, their impacts on Goa’s ecosystems and people. beauties of the region being mined. 25 32 Part III: Wounds on the earth — Mining in Goa — An historical perspective 72 Part IV: The blame game — pinning the responsibility Who are the individuals and departments Part II: Mine, mine, mine — responsible for the state of affairs? Can you help Goa’s new mantra of greed make them listen? The mining industry has been considered Goa’s  ‘sacred cow’: Others call it ‘the backbone’ of the 92 Stand up and be counted Goan economy. The primitive nature of the mining Some guidance on a future course of action. Please operations will more easily break the ecological try it for Goa’s sake. backbone of the State. This section looks closely at the principal actors on the mining front. O pen-cast or strip mining is one of the most destructive forms of industrial activity in the world. In many areas of the planet, companies have replaced the method with better practices like ‘room and pillar’ extraction, which does not envisage destruction of forests or destruction of nature on the surface. Mining practice in Goa has remained a primitive operation of robber barons for several years. Worse, the environment clearances granted have legitimised bad mining, allowing the mines to continue with a business as usual attitude. Today, more than 40 mining leases operate in forested areas of the State. They require the destruction of forests on private properties or government-owned forests. Most mining operations are within the ecologically sensitive area of the Western Ghats. Talukas like Sanguem in which many mining leases have been approved are thickly forested. None of the clearances was granted after a site visit to verify the truth of the application, or to at least check out what was being approved. Majority of the government forests allowed for          forests” to bring them within the protection of the Indian Forest Act, 1927. That protection, however, has not been a bar to their destruction at the hands of the mining industry and government. These clearances were issued ostensibly on the recommendations of ‘expert’ committees headed by chairpersons from the mining industry or mining sector of government. As a result, mines that should have been halted were allowed to continue; the assault on ground water was further legitimised; dust and noise pollution increased many-fold; and, the fact that one could get environment clearances at the drop of a hat provoked many others to queue up. The Ministry of Environment and Forests simply squandered a golden opportunity to bring mining in Goa under the stringent provisions of the Environment Protection Act, 1986. 7  For this, the Goans roundly curse the Ministry of Environment and its expert committees for abdicating all responsibility and abandoning the people and their environment to an abysmal fate. Unable to  bring to a halt the destructive mining that has now  been legalised by the MoEF, the Goans are forced to take to the streets, wondering at the display of rank incompetence, carelessness and lack of concern from the expert committees. In many areas, it is perhaps already too late to reverse the situation, as gross, irreparable damage has already  been done to the ecosystems. But there are other pristine areas where the nightmare is yet to start or is just beginning. Many applications still await environment clearance or lease renewals. Hence this book, written undoubtedly in anger and rage, also contains one last desperate plea to those in authority. 8 P '3/07 "6 9)+.'8 Goa’s natural heritage 9 Now increasingly bloodied by the scourge of indiscriminate mining 10 Goa is a land of rich, natural assets. Besides the beaches which most people link it with, it also embraces rivers           All packed by nature into one of India’s smallest states Right: Raising food without harming      created out of the beds of rivers year after year. Below: The amazing green carpet of the Mollem Wildlife Sanctuary.  Above: One of Goa’s splendid churches serving peaceable communities that have built their economies on sustainable use of natural resources. 11 ;3)&) +0,/)0' +01 (),.*/+# %".0'+/0 6"#%&5 6".01 2/'3/0 '3) G3+1)/ >/*1Q */6) R+0,'.+#85 +#) .0/-.) '" '3/& (+#' "6 '3) >)&')#0 43+'&: 12 Left: the Surla waterfalls — water is an intrinsic part of Goa’s natural glory. The annual monsoon brings a thousand waterfalls (dobdobos) into play. 13 The Western Ghats — the most important topographic feature and principal watershed of peninsular India — are acknowledged as one of  just 12 biodiversity ‘hot spots’ found on the planet. The Ghats run down Goa’s eastern margins – the full stretch – north to south. 14 The awesome protection afforded by the natural vegetation of the Ghats enables water to percolate underground and then appear in the form of natural springs and streams. Over the past several centuries, Goan communities have harvested these           and plantations, hardly conscious of ores lying below. 15 Bird diversity is so enchanting that Goa is one of the major bird-watching tourism sites in the world. Every year, hundreds of tourists arrive here with binoculars and bird data books to enjoy a veritable feast of bird sightings. 16                ecology, to be guarded with better protection than given to vaults of gold. At the beaches, Olive Ridley turtles excavate the pits they need to lay their eggs. The region meets all the 12 criteria decided by the Ministry of Environment and Forests for identifying it as ecologically sensitive. The proposal to declare 8,000 sq km of this region as the Sahyadri Ecologically Sensitive Area (SESA) is pending with the Environment Ministry for over two years. 17  Discoveries keep adding to our knowledge of the actual number of species in this area. Given alongside is a recent example...     A new species of legless amphibian, commonly known as ‘immandehavu’, has been discovered in the vicinity of the Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary. The research was undertaken by a team consisting of Dr Gopalakrishna Bhat, retired Professor of Zoology, Dinesh K.P., Zoological Survey of India, Kozhikodu, Prashanth P. Agumbe, Rainforest Research Station, and Nirmal Kulkarni from Goa. Dr Bhat and his team encountered three specimens of this species in July 2006 on the bank of one of the tributaries of the river Mhadei.  A research paper about the discovery has been published in the November           The new species has been named Gegeneophis mhadeiensis after the river Mhadei. The Mhadei river (also spelt as Mahadayi = great mother) originates in the lush forested hills at Jamboti Ghat in the Khanapur taluka of Karnataka.                 before joining the Arabian Sea.  Apodans/caecilians, which are fairly well represented in the forested areas, are often mistaken for snakes by the lay observer. Legless, secretive, nocturnal, burrowing, earthworm/snake-like amphibians, they are among the key bio-indicators of a healthy environment. As amphibians live both in water               Dr Bhat’s team has earlier discovered three other new species of these creatures in the region — Geg eneophis nadkarnii from Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary, Goa; Gegeneophis madhavaorum from Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary, Karnataka; and Gegeneophis goaensis from Sankli-Kheri, Goa. 18 The extent of diversity applies especially to the plant world. Many of the species are endemic to this region only, and several are used by local people in a variety of ways.      use of the myriad variety of plants is commonplace. Goans know their plants and their uses better than botany professors. That is why they are concerned that these plants which thrive in Goa’s natural landscapes must not disappear. Macaranga peltata contains an   anti-fungal, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective and anti-ulcer compound called bergenin. Snap open a twig, rub the inner pith with the outer stem and make instant glue! It is used by locals to seal cuts. 19 Far left:     spicata, known locally as ‘wagahati’ or ‘wakeri’. The plant is important for       used medicinally by local villagers. Middle and near left: The luminous     locally called ‘karavi’. The species             large quantities of nectar, and b eehives      Below:      blush unseen on a mining dump. Commonly called ‘ran bhendi’, its botanical name is Hibiscus tetraphilus. Its tenacious growth in adverse circumstances is symbolic of how nature is holding on in sp ite of man’s ravages. In the coastal stretches, mangroves cram every bit of available space, maintaining the environments that        20 From the Ghats to the edge of the sea, some of Goa’s rivers and water bodies still manage to retain their pristine quality, serving plant, animal and human life.  21 On the strong basis provided by these natural gifts has            of life: don’t worry, nature will always provide.      using traditional nets staked in the       Right:          Far right: Rock paintings of Goa’s ancestors have now been declared a protected site (but are located on an existing mining lease).  22 Clockwise from left: Toddy tappers and potters continue to eke out a living using traditional technologies, while the processing of rice is a major occupation involving hundreds of women. The future of agriculture, though, is bleak in an economy dominted by mining. Right: Clams and their harvesting are a major source of income, but the operation of the mines has led to heavy siltation of the river beds, drastically reducing clam populations and threatening this source of livelihood for locals.  23    sustainably harvested for centuries now fatally threatened by mining — an unsustainable industry, destined to last a couple of decades at best.  24 !"#"#$  An historical perspective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     L*,, 2), 6'3 &4 6"#"#$ ;,'*,* ,;*,1),/, "# 2)"* [email protected] :),*, K-&#-,**"&#*? 1,/, $/'#2,0 K"# 3,/3,2."2[email protected]= B-( 2#(/7+#2 )& 3'#9#+) C)-)# 7&9#'+0#+)( %'&0 2#()'&1/+7 )"#/' %&'#()(5 !&2-1 )"# ;#+)'-4 7&9#'+0#+) /)(#4%= )"'&87" )"# 6&D:= 4/E#'-441 (/7+( )"# 2#-)" B-''-+)( %&' )"#(# 3'/.#4#(( -'#-(5 36  Indications are that it takes more than 30 years for a region denuded by mining activities to rejuvenate itself. Mine owners are required by law to rehabilitate areas that have been affected by mining. To date, hardly any mine owners take this requirement seriously. Why should they bother?  Vegetation coming up on abandoned mine sites is nature’s way of healing itself. Nature always works with species closely adapted to the area. Current mining rehabilitation proposals rely solely on Australian acacia species! 37  The bulk of mining is taking place in the interior areas, well hidden from the eyes of the international tourists who rave about Goa, its beaches and its beauty. 38 !"#$%&"'( '* *'%$&+ ,%$,& *'% -"("(. ,/+"#"+0 The estimated area of forests affected due to mining in Goa is about 2,000 ha. Since mining is a non-forest activity, approval of the Central government is required under the Forest Conservation Act. So far 31 cases covering 1,116 ha area have been approved, which includes about 300 ha broken up area of the forest land. The details of mining Sadly, these are also the regions that are the most pristine, the places where nature is at her best. leases in the forest areas are as given below: Number of active mines ......74 ......74  Any person holding a mining lease believes that his right to invade the land and excavate the ore is superior to the rights of all other species to survive. Number of leases ............ 355 Total area ...............66.9 ............... 66.9 km2 Number of leases in forest area .....................91 .....................91 Number of active leases in forest area ....................... ..26 26 (19.66 km2) 39 The Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary exhibits even now the wounds resulting from the serious assaults it suffered from mining. 40               !"#$"$ &' (')&*)+" &' ," '-".#&"/ 0*&1*) &1" $#)(&+#.23 4)!2 # ('5-!#*)& &' &1" 6")&.#! 75-'08                                                    8 5")& 1#9" /"5#)/"/ ."(!#5#&*') #)/ ."1#,*!*&#&*') ': &1"$" #."#$ &' /#&"3 One of the highest ridges of the Western Ghats within the Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary has been stripped of all its cover and is now left to strong eroding winds. There are several other hills mutilated like this. While all authorities turn a completely blind and apathetic eye, the area continues to erode, with       41 Mining in wildlife sanctuaries: a tale of collusion, devastation and arrogance The two wildlife sanctuaries of Mhadei and Netravali were                                                                           42                                                                         -                                    ties in wildlife sanctuaries and         -                                             of Wild Life (as it was known                          ernment to entertain claims under the Wildlife Protection                           eas which include some of the                           Zero buffer zones In 2002, the Ministry of In Goa, the government set up Environment and Forests, acting an Inter-Departmental Committee on a direction by the former to demarcate the buffer zone Indian Board of Wild Life, around the six wildlife sanctuaries directed all State governments to and one national park. demarcate a 10-km buffer zone from the boundaries of all wildlife      sanctuaries which could be on the basis of advice from the      considered ecologically sensitive. 1-km zone with severe restriction When the Goa Foundation on mining would be best to pressed the Supreme Court for recommend. In areas where enforcement of this direction, the there were forests, this buffer Environment Ministry withdrew could extend to 3 km. its circular and instead required State governments to examine However, as the mining lobbies the issue on a sanctuary by control the Goa Government sanctuary basis and demarcate     and its minions, the committee as ecologically sensitive. down its recommendations was forced to eventually water Some scenes of the devastation that has been wrought upon the Netravali       forest cover or cut in half, together with mountains of waste. If the mining industry has its way, this will be the fate of Goa’s other wildlife sanctuaries as well. completely. It has now suggested The Supreme Court then passed to the National Board of Wild a fresh order requiring all the Life that no buffer zone need State governments to demarcate be maintained from Mollem, their ecologically sensitive buffer       zones and to submit their report principal sanctuaries affected by before the National Board of Wild mining operations. Life. 43 Studies reveal the impact of mining on protected areas  “Mining activities, whether occurring  “The excavation of the substrate including transportation. Human  Acid drainage from mines is known materials and creation of the immigration in response to real or to cause severe damage to the mine voids also alter the soil perceived livelihood opportunities habitats of aquatic species and/     that are created by mining or may bring about changes in the nutrient status of the substrate. activities often result in increased      within or near Protected Areas, These secondary factors have pressure on the natural resources habitats of aquatic species. (ERL cause a range of environmental the potential to have deleterious of the area, disturbance to wildlife 1993, Ghose and Majee 2001, consequences that can be severe effects on local biodiversity. At the species, illegal hunting, habitat Rajvanshi 1998, Soni et al, 1992, and irreversible. Mining operations landscape level, environmental fragmentation and the spread of Treweek 1999). and the process of constructing impacts occur generally in the form alien invasive species (IIED and new mining infrastructure often of alteration of land form features WBCSD 2002). Displacement of      results in large-scale alteration of and fragmentation of biological human populations due to diversion revolve around access to mineral the environment at landscape and habitats that may cause isolation of land for mining can also trigger reserves in areas recognised as ecosystem levels.       unsustainable resource-use     species (Brown and Dunne 1988, pressures in other areas allotted for values and biodiversity richness or       Banerjee 2004). Fragmentation of human rehabilitation.      impacts of mining on biodiversity.      Extensive mining operations have size quality may not be able to pollution effects that are manifested sanctuaries and national parks, and historically destroyed large areas meet a species’ requirements and as dust generation and subsequent many other ecologically sensitive of vegetation (AXYS 2002). Loss of may also cause loss of connectivity increase in Suspended Particulate areas are threatened with mining vegetation cover occurs not only due to reduction in species mobility Matter (SPM) in the environment, activities (Vagholikar and Moghe in the mined area but also in areas between supportive habitats. particularly in case of opencast 2003). In Goa, mining for various  “The clearing of vegetation  “Mining operations also cause air  “The most serious environmental In India, at least 90 wildlife affected by associated activities        mining. Mining processes can minerals including manganese and such as dumping of overburden, drainage pattern are also landscape also have serious implications for iron ore threaten the Bhagwan deposition of tailings, development level impacts resulting from mining the aquatic environment as the Mahavir Wildlife Sanctuary (WLS), of infrastructure for transport and activities (Treweek 1999, II ED and clearing of vegetation, removal of Mollem National Park, Bondla WLS, service corridors (railway lines, WBCSD 2002, UNEP 1994). soil, extraction of large quantities Netravali WLS, Mhadei WLS and of water, disposal of waste through Cotigao WLS.”  roads, pipelines, conveyers) and  “Impacts on wilderness area     values are aggravated by noise and water systems often lead to soil vehicle parks, storage depots and visual intrusion arising from both erosion, increased sedimentation warehouses). mining and secondary activities, load and alteration of watercourses. 44 From an EIA case study, Wildlife Institute of India                                                                45 Where everything was once shades of green, today there are gaping red holes. Where once paradise had come to earth, today there are patches of hell. Can man recreate, after such mayhem, nature’s original design? 46  Where the mines border the shore (like the Redi mines here), the wounded land bleeds into the  Arabian Sea. 47  Problems are also caused by the mine rejects and wastes which are dumped indiscriminately, polluting water bodies, silting drains and canals, and ruining fertile land. 48 Though mining dumps must be maintained utilising certain procedures, like benching, plantation, etc, in practice dumps have become loose mountains of earth or of mud. Due to annual heavy precipitation over four months, the loose material invades surrounding areas and gets       49 That is why we keep repeating the question: Is this Goa? Who created this devastation? Who are the authorities responsible for mitigating the effects of such activities, if they are allowed for any reason? Why did the MoEF abdicate its responsibility (and worse) and legitimise such destruction by providing environment clearances to these mines? 50 !"#$%&'() +,$,$- ,$./0.#( 61/7-1 +,$,$- &/+"'$,#( )1# (/,0 32/+ )1# 47+"( )/ )1# ()2,"",$- /3 )1# )/" (/,0 '2# 2#D7,2#4 :? 0'9 )/ "7) )1# ",)( 9,00 "2#(7+':0? :# /$ )1# 0#'(# ,$ /24#2 )/ -#) ')  :'&C )/" (/,08 /.#2:724#$ (/,0 2#D7,2#4 )/ :# 4/$# ' &/7"0# )1# /2# (#'+(5 61,( )/" (/,0 ,( '$4 /)1#2 +')#2,'0( ,$)/ )1# /3 4#&'4#( 32/+ $/98 :? 47+"#4 '(,4# ,$ +/7$)',$(8 ",)( )1#? 1'.# &2#')#4 E '$4 91,&1 ),+# $/ &/+"'$? 9,00      )1,( ,( ' &/$4,),/$ 3/2 /"#2')%       "2#.#$) )1# +')#2,'0 32/+        +/$#? 3/2 )1# "72"/(#8 '( :? 0#'&1,$- ,$)/ 9')#2 :/4,#(8 1/"# )1,( 9,00 #.#2 1'""#$5 )1') ),+#8 )1# 0#'(# 9,00 $/) :#        61# "0',$ 3'&) ,( )1') 7$),0 )1# "2/47&,$- '$? ,$&/+#5 )1#(# "2'&),&#(8 )1# 2,.#2( 27$ +,$# ,( 3700? #;1'7()#4 E 2#4 472,$- )1# +/$(//$ '$4 91,&1 +#'$( #.#2? :,) /3 /2# B/2# )1'$ FG8GGG )/$$#(     ,( 2#+/.#4 E )1# ",) $##4 $/) /3 )1,( +')#2,'0 #.#2? ?#'2  :# &0/(#45 617(8 )1# 2#)72$ /3 0#'&1#( ,$)/ )1# 9')#29'?(5 61# #;)2'&)#4 +')#2,'0 &/$% )',$( (/,0 '$4 /2# ,$ )1# 2'),/ /3 < = >8 )1') ,(8 3/72 )/$$#( /3 (/,0 1'.# )/ :# #;&'.')#4 '$4 (#) '(,4# 3/2 9,$$,$- #.#2? )/$$# /3 /2#5 @00 )1,( 2#A#&)#4 +')#2,'0 3/2+( )1# +,$,$47+"(5 B/() /3 )1#(# 47+"( &'$$/) :# ",0#4 9,)1,$ )1# 0#'(# 47# )/ 0'&C /3 ("' 61#? '2# ,00#-'00? &2#')#4 /$ 7$7(#4 -/.#2$+#$) 0'$4 /2 ,$ 7$&0',+#4 '2#'(5 @ ",/$##2,$- ()74? :? )1#    %      ,$4,&')#4 )1') )1,( +')#2,'0        )1# #()7'2,#( /3 )1# B'$4/.,     %      )1# ()')#5 61# (,)7'),/$ )/4'? ,( ' 17$42#4 ),+#( 9/2(#5 61#       ()74,#( ,$ )1,( 4,2#&),/$5 Left and above: The Kushawati River supplies drinking and irrigation water to several communities downstream. Due to reckless mining activities, the river bed is now covered with mining silt, which turns the river turgid. Here, farmers scoop up silt to show the condition of the river bed. 51 But the scooped-out, exposed cavities, with their mountains of waste, are not the only devastation dealt upon the land... Black manganese deposits in a denuded section of the Netravali forests. Unfortunately, the richest pickings of the ore are often under the oldest forests. 52  Among the most serious long-term effects of mining in Goa is its heavy toll on watersheds. 53 Left: A recently cut hillside, with water pouring apparently from nowhere. This displays how hills act as catchments for water, keeping the water tables high due to capillary action. The undulating terrain of hills ensures catchment of water during               coast, with the slopes of the Ghats ensuring entrapment of moisture and creating                has for millennia replenished its own bountiful natural resources, but is now under threat of ceasing to do so because of the accelerated rate at which a few mining companies have started exploiting those resources for their own greed. Tiny pools like this one are constantly forming and disappearing in the hills and forests of the Western Ghats, symbols of the cycle of replenishment that nature undergoes if left alone. 54  A bloody fate awaits surface water bodies — rivers, canals, lakes, even the sea — once mining is sanctioned. Mining also destroys delicately poised groundwater aquifers. 55 How does mining cause village wells to run dry? When min-                                                - 56                                                                                                                                                      inches of rain!                                heard that mines were creat                                                      -                                                                                                                       Though pits accumulate water, the impounded water is sterile, biologically dead and hardly of use to village communities because of its sediment load. clearance letters which con57  The net effect of mining’s assault on the water table — mine pits are       pumped out, while adjacent areas suffer shortages in water supply. It is paradoxical and ironic that while development is to improve the standard of living of unprivileged villagers in Goa, mining development (see de-watering pix at extreme left) has resulted in empty tanks and wells, forcing people to line up with utensils before public water taps. Some villages are now provided with water in tankers, but what happens to them when mining ceases a few years from now? 58 The dust raised by mining activities, and more so by the trucks that roar by laden with ore, create a choking coat on plant life, as they do on the lungs of people. !"# %&#'()*#+ ,'-./0 *#0,'%1 ,"# '%)*2 ,"#3' %'# 043((0 %+ 3,5 60 ,"# #+*(#00 0,'#)7 %8 "#)&1 &#"3.(#0 ').# #)." %,"#' 8%' 7%'#            9 ):(# 8%' ,"%0# ;"% ")&# +% .%++#.,3%+ ;3," ,"# 73+3+< :-039           8%-+* )*=).#+, ,% 73+3+< *-740> 59 Monocultures of Australian acacia can be found gallantly occupying mining dump slopes and abandoned mining pits. Mining owners are promoting the use of their open cast abandoned pits as potential water reservoirs so as to avoid the necessity of restoring the land with indigenous species of plants.                                                            60 In Rivona, a beautiful area of south Goa, many of these problems come together. Blasted and now abandoned hillsides, endless rows of trucks overloaded with ore and recklessly driven, trees covered          drying up due to the struggle to retain water in these areas (after mining goes below the water table) and State and Central governments in cahoots with the mining barons. 61 The unchecked interference with the ecosystem also results in a more immediate and devastating effect. Silting of rivers, clogging of drains             several regions. These incidents — and the resultant loss of life, livestock and property — can be directly linked to mining activities. Rivers and streams run red with mining silt. Eventually, the bed gets        have never faced them before. 62        !                         !            !                       !"# %&' ()%(&*'#% )+') ,- %&' +./'+ 0.' 1,*' *.#'12 3&'+' *.#.#4 )(%./.%5 .1 6'7 .#4 8#9'+%):'# -,+ %&' 0)1% ;< 5')+1 ,+ 1,= >'()81' ,- *.#.#42 9'/'0,?*'#%)0 )(%./.%5 )#9 9'-,+'1%)%.,# .# %&' ()%(&*'#% )+') ,%&' +./'+2 %&' 1,.0 *)#%0' 4'%1 9.1?0)('9         7 1'0- %+)#1?,+%'9 65 %&' +).# 3)%'+1 %, %&'  3)%'+ (,8+1'1= >'()81' ,- %&' 1%''?#'11 ,- %&' 6'9 10,?'1 .# %&' 8??'+ +')(&'1 ,%&'1' 3)%'+ (,8+1'12 %&' ()++5.#4 (&)##'0 )(@8.+'1 (,#1.9'+)60' /'0,(.%52 3&.(& .1 -8+%&'+ 1(,8+.#4 ,+ '+,9.#4 %&' 6'9 ,- %&' (&)##'0= A,3'/'+2 3&'# %&' +./'+ ,+ 3)%'+      7 .%5 4'%1 +'98('9 )#9 %&' *)%'+.)0 3&.(& .1 ()++.'9 .# 181?'#1.,# 4'%1 1'%%0'9 .# %&' (&)##'0 ()81.#4 1.0%.#4 )#9 +'98(%.,# .# %&' ()++5.#4 ()?)(.%5 ,- %&' (&)##'02 +'7 180%.#4 80%.*)%'05 .# %&' ,/'+,3.#4 ,6)#:1 )#9 .#8#9)%.,# ,- 0,3 05.#4 )+')1 )0,#4 %&' 6)#:1=B The extent of damage at Bicholim is horrifying, with entire hills sliced away, exposing the insides of the earth. To pacify the local villagers are sops like the bus stop below. 63 In general, people carry a low value in the mining equation. They are an expendable resource. This is evident in the unsafe conditions in which mine workers function (see coverage of the Tollem mine disaster above), the danger to local residents from the rushing trucks (an account of one horrible accident is recounted by an eyewitness in the write-up on the facing page) and the hazardous health conditions created for people living near the mines or along truck routes. 64  MINING KILLS 19-11-07 ! #$%&' () *+' ,%-.%/+.* 0- *+' 1.2 *0 3'4/.(5 *+$0(/+ *+' 3./+1.- 6.+.&''$ 7%4#4%8' 9.-:*(.$2 %; -'$&'<$.:=%-/> ?-;*'.# 08 *+' ;:'-* 08 *+' @(-/4'A 20( ;5'44 B($-%-/ B$.='C:4(*:+ 4%-'$; .-# #%';'4 8(5';> ,+' ;%4'-:' 08 *+' 80$';* +.; B''- ;+.**'$'# B2 5%-%-/ *$(:= '-/%-'; /$%-#%-/ () .-# #01- *+' D+.*;> ,.=%-/ 0$' 8$05 . -(5B'$ 08 5%-'; %- *+';' 80$';*'# .$'.; *0 *+' )0$* %- D0.A *$(:=; $.:' #01*0 /'* *+' 5.E%5(5 -(5B'$ 08 *$%); . #.2>  7+%4' *$.&'44%-/ 0- *+%; $0.# . :0()4' 08 2'.$; ./0A ).;* )0*+04'; .-# $.:%-/ *$(:=;A 1' ;.1 . 4.$/' )%4' 08 5%-%-/ 0$' #(5)'# %- *+' 5%##4' 08 *+' $0.# .-# B';%#' .- 0&'$*($-'# 5%-%-/ *$(:=> F'')%-/ 0(* 08 *+' 401'$ )0$*%0- 08 *+' )%4'A 1.; . 4%**4' 1+%*'  5'*.4 )%':'> G- ;*0))%-/A 1' ;.1 %* 1.; . ).$* 08 . :.$A . 1+%*' 7./0- HA B($%'# :05)4'*'42 B'-'.*+ %* .-# ;I(.;+'# *0 .B0(* *10<.-#<.<+.48 8''* +%/+>  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                                                                                                          65 Things have come to such a pass that the otherwise laid-back Goans are increasingly coming out in protest against the mines and their exploitative and disruptive operations. On the following pages are just a small sampling of some news coverage of such incidents (of late, a scan of the local dailies shows that there is almost one such item reported every day). 66  67  68 69 It’s not just the media — even the courts agree that something is rotten in the State of Goa. In a landmark  judgement, the High Court awarded compensation amounting to Rs 3.6 crore to farmers affected adversely by mining activity in parts of the State. The text alongside is extracted from a media report on this judgement. 70  Mining companies to pay compensation By Preetu Nair  PANJIM: The mining companies will deposit compensation of Rs 3.6 crore plus in the Bombay High Court, Panjim bench on or before August 30, 2007. This compensation is for the 761 aggrieved farmers in Surla village,North    have been destroyed due to mining activity. The High Court has appointed Deputy Collector/Sub Divisional Magistrate, Bicholim, as Court Commissioner for the purpose of disbursement of the amount deposited in the Court. If there are farmers whose names do     the list, then they would have to approach the Zonal   with an application raising a claim. While M/S V.M. Salgaonkar & Brothers Pvt Ltd will have to pay a compensation of Rs 85,56,930, M/S Chowgule & Co Pvt Ltd will pay a compensation of Rs 85,53,263, M/S Salgaoncar Mining Industries will pay a compensation of Rs 85,53,263, M/S V.S. Dempo & Co Pvt Ltd will pay a compensation of Rs 85,53,263, M/S D.B. Bandodkar & Co Pvt Ltd will pay a compensation of Rs 36,66,208 and M/S Timblo Pvt Ltd will pay a compensation of Rs 36,66,208. Once the amount is deposited in the High Court by the mining companies, the amounts paid to the occupants or owners between 1997 and 2007, would be deductible and adjustable on providing documentary proof of payment. It was agreed by both parties that by paying the compensation, the obligation of the mining companies as regards the de- Rs 100 crore for silting of silts in     charged. The villagers of Surla had suffered immense loss in agricultural yield from the year 1993 due to silting of     adjoining mining     a writ petition in the year 2004. A report on evaluation of crop loss suffered by farmers from 1993-2004 and assessment of cost of removal of silt and damage to agricultural property in terms of fertility and water retaining facility in Surla village had suggested that the farmers be paid compensation from 1993-2004 for loss of yield. This committee was constituted on April 5, 2005. The Court, while hearing the matter said that the compensation should be paid from January 1, 1993, to December 31, 2006, to 761 occupants. The committee report states that there are active mines on North, East and South sides all along the hills in the village. Due to silting, approximately 1,090 ha consisting of 124 ha under paddy (both kharif and rabi), 603 ha under garden crops and 363 ha under dry crops have been affected. While there    have incurred total loss of kharif and rabi crops, the main yield of cashew crop has also fallen by 50%, the report states. Goa’s wilderness On January 4, 2008, the Supreme Court accepted the recommendations of the Central Empowered Committee that 16 mines in Goa would have to pay compensatory sums exceeding Rs.100 crore before they would be allowed to resume work on their leases in forest areas. Division bench of Justice R.S. Mohite and Justice N.A. Britto hearing the matter has further directed all mining companies operating in Surla village to carry out and undertake adequate protective measures such as provisions catchment drains, providing protective walls for silt arrestation/check dams in between as also afforestation of the dumps. The CEC found that the costs imposed on the companies for destruction of forests on their leaseds were undervalued by the MoEF to the advantage of the companies. The CEC also found that temporary working permits to work in forest areas had been granted by the MoEF in blatant disregard of the Supreme Court’s orders and that these permits needed to be cancelled. The CEC has proposed the amounts, when collected, would be placed at the disposal of a committee for restoring wilderness areas in the states. 71 P assing the buck for the damage done by mining companies in Goa has been a regular pastime among the statutory authorities. This is how the blame game works: The blame game Pinning the responsibility for the destruction of Goa 72 The Goa State Pollution Control Board held the view that it was not required to grant consents under the Air and Water Pollution Control Acts, on the specious grounds that what happened on the mining leases was the responsibility of the Regional Controller of Mines. As a result, the regulations under these two Acts remained unenforced vis-avis mining, and no authority  bothered about air and water pollution control for the past 40 years. It is only in the year 2006 that the Board com- menced granting consents under these two Acts. The Board still refuses to monitor air and water pollution from mining. It says that all air pollution from mining trucks is the responsibility of the RTO under the Motor Vehicles Act. All discharges into the rivers are beyond its control. The Regional Controller of Mines (RCM) indicates it is not concerned with the pollution caused by mines as this is the responsibility of the Ministry of Environment which grants environment clearances after looking into all aspects of the environment, and the Pollution Control Board, which has to monitor pollution levels. The RCM says it is only concerned with approval of mining plans. The Department of Mines, Government of Goa, says its only job is to grant the leases for mining. It does not concern itself with mining operations after the leases are granted. That is the responsibility       Collector (if people are affected), or the Pollution Control Board or the RCM. The Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India, admits that it grants environment clearances but insists that this clearance is effective only if the mining company has obtained NOCs from the Wildlife Warden, the State Pollution Control Board and other authorities. It claims that when it grants environment clearances, it does not consider the impacts of mining operations on wildlife and forests as there are separate departments for these aspects. Hence, its environment clearances are issued without any reports on these critical environmental components. Parties must get these separately. This is the equivalent of the MoEF saying that it issues a formal graduate degree to a student, but the degree is valid provided that the student has obtained       her subjects! How does one grant an environment clearance when the issue of forests and biodiversity impacts are not considered by the expert    fact is once an environment clearance is granted, all other approvals are granted as a matter of routine because it is simply assumed by all the authorities lower down that the environment clearance was granted after taking all relevant factors into consider           Wardens) are actually subor    ment Ministry: try getting any of them to produce a report contrary to their bosses! It is ironic tht the entire procedure for grant of environmental clearance was recently reviewed and revised by the previous Environment Secretary, Prodipto Ghosh, under the garb of infusing them      bases. Can this be called a sci    the review exercise by this     engineered to sabotage the environment laws in favour of  business? 73  As of December 31, 2007, there were about 70 mines cleared for operation in Goa by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MoEF), which granted its clearances without visiting any of these devastated areas. In addition, there are a large number of illegal mines. A list of mines is provided on the reverse of the maps attached at the end of the book. 74  These “environment” clearances do not take into account the severe ecological havoc perpetrated by these mines over the past decades, but treat the mining as if it is just due to start. The past is forgiven in the interest of business! No conditions are therefore imposed for restitution, repair and recovery of ecological endowments from earlier activity;  No conditions are imposed to protect the right to life of the settled communities on or adjacent to the mining leases, to protect their quality of air (including dust and noise pollution) and water;  Clearances have been issued for “two years” with the requirement          activities will not impact the ground water. However, the clearances record that mining has already intersected the ground water table. The Ministry, when it issued such orders, had only a base-line study done after 2005 and despite the experts knowing that it would take           The clearances were issued without considering impact on forests, as MoEF claims “forests” are not part of “environment” as per its procedures; similarly with wildlife;  Carrying capacity of the Western Ghat system to absorb the impact of all the l eases approved taken together was not even considered;  No protection was afforded to adjoining rivers or lakes;  No consideration was allowed of rich agricultural plantations and farms. According to the MoEF and its experts, such concerns are seen as being part of “environment” clearances;  The clearances were granted on concocted data produced by the       75  A good number of leases lie within the wildlife sanctuaries. The Goa Government allowed mining to continue in these leases despite the Supreme Court’s orders till they were stopped by the Central Empowered Committee. Within the last year, the expert committee and the MoEF have granted environment clearance to three leases within the Netravali wildlife sanctuary! 76  Environment clearances have  been granted for several      “reserve forests” under the Indian Forest Act, 1927. 77  As the maps indicate, the so-called expert committees of the MoEF have approved open-cast mining within 1-3 km of Goa’s wildlife sanctuaries. If the protector himself turns hunter, pity the game. As the white square within this map indicates, mining leases have been granted “environment clearance” even when located within the corridors enveloped  by three connected wildlife sanctuaries. 78 79 The story of the mining industry in Goa is replete with gross violations of the law, and abuse of the land. Take, as an example, the case of the mine with TC no. 135, circled in white on the map extract above. This mine is lo        The document on the facing page is the opening sheet of the environmental clearance provided to this mine by the MoEF. Read it carefully. 80 Of particular interest are the lines circled in red:  The clearance refers to Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary as being “located at a distance of 4.0 km towards South of the lease”. Where is the point of mentioning Cotigao when in fact this lease borders and spills into the Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary and has nothing to do with Cotigao? This is a deliberate             The sanctuary directly affected is Netravali. The clearance gets around this by referring to the Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary as “proposed”. The fact is that the sanctuary was noti           Even had this not been the case, the Supreme Court’s order  banning mining in protected areas covers all sanctuaries,                                    What is most shocking about documents such as this, is that this subterfuge is being practised by the very Ministry set up to protect India’s wildlife and forest resources. 81 MoEF reduces public hearings to a farce The lease is located on the       olim river from which the town takes its name. The Bicholim River is a fresh water perennial tributary of the Mandovi, which originates in the Western Ghats. Nothing illustrates the complete farce involved in MOEF supervised public hearings as the instance of the hearings surrounding the Sarvona minThere are residential areas ing lease located at a hamlet around and in close vicinity of called Vathadev in Bicholim      Taluka. lic hearing on the lease, the to be-affected residents protested The Sarvona mining lease (TC improper procedures and got       the hearing postponed. They Pvt. Ltd. was granted in 1953! also went on a protest morcha. (It was operated manually for manganese sporadically till At the second public hear1956. Thereafter, mining was ing held on 24.3.2007, all the permanently stopped). The local people including the lease covers an area of 72.00 women unanimously opposed ha. which – 50 years later – is the proposed mining opall agricultural plantation erations. The hearing lasted forest land, and settled comover six hours. The hearing munities. established that the rapid EIA 82 prepared by the company was a false and fabricated document: it provided incorrect in     and did not disclose existence of forest on the lease. The gram sabha of Sarvona village had already passed a resolution against the mining project. At the request of the villagers, the Collector agreed to refer the matter to the state government before sending the public hearing proceedings (including video recordings) to Delhi. However, the company directly presented the public hearing proceedings to the MoEF, which despite the unanimous opposition, granted environment clearance in a record period of four months. The environment clearance does not even mention the exis- tence of the Bicholim River or any measures to protect it from destruction. The mining activity proposed is an absolute threat to the river and to the forest on the river bank. Mining would also devastate horticulture spread over one lakh sq.m and dairy operations presently yielding 2 to       residents; their 22 water wells and homes. The Tillari irrigation canal passes through the lease area, covering more      None of these concerns are addressed in the environment clearance order. The environment clearance has now been challenged  before the National Environment Appellate Authority in Delhi. The environment clearance letter on the Sarvona mining lease states the lease does not have forest or vegetation. Pictures alongside show rich forest, especially adjoining the Bicholim river (at far left). The area is also rich in     number of very ancient trees, some taller than 10-storey buildings. Despite huge public protests expressed at the public hearing ( below) and an absoute rejection of the mining proposal by the Gram Sabha of the village, the MoEF granted clearance in a record time of three months. It is on record that the Pollution Control Board was yet to send the proceedings of the public hearing to the MoEF at Delhi when the grant of environment clearance was announced. 83 The Goa Regional Plan 2011 — a disastrous agenda hidden deep away        behind the claims of mining being the ‘backbone’ of the economy.            Goa 2011 which is a statutory land-use plan accompanied by a surface utilisation map. Due to major anomalies discovered  by the public and an an ensuing well-documented well-documented outcry, outcry, the RP 2011 was withdrawn with retrospective effect in October 2006. Interestingly, whereas a surface utilisation map requires that ALL zones of impact be shown on it, the mining leases were         activists found details hidden deep within. The existing mining areas were indicated (shown here in black), while the proposed expansion of mining in Goa for the future was marked (here shown in red). This was a shocking discovery. discovery. Mining would not only cover             the Bhagwan Mahaveer and Netravali Sanctuaries. If the Plan had not been withdrawn, a terrible fate would have befallen these havens of nature. 84 Existing and proposed (RP 2011) mining areas in Goa Comparison of proposed geographical footprint (RP         for some key sectors in the economy of Goa Contribution to Net SDP Geographical footprint  Mine owners are able to convince gullible experts that they are           comparison of the footprint of the Regional Plan 2011 in terms of its proposed industrial estates, agricultural lands and coastal settlements (for hotels and tourism) vs Net State Domestic                                        Manufacturing     l   a    t   o    t    f   o   e   g   a    t   n   e   c   r   e    P  Tourism trade  Agriculture,      Mining      A comparison of the geographic geographic footprint versus the economic      reveals that mining fares poorly in comparison to the other industries. The data is indicative of the lopsidedness of land use vs income. Add to that the huge environmental and social costs of mining, and the equation is skewed beyond any reasonable level. The Goa government receives approximately Rs 200 crore annually as royalty from the mines, and the Central Government several times that amount as excise. However, nothing of this is set aside to repair the damage to ecological assets. 85 Costs and  It was already known several       mining in Goa are more than cancelled by the economic      by mining activity on fragile ecosystems, water resources, forests and public health. The Energy Resources Institute (TERI) made an elaborate study of this issue and recommended that the costs of mining could be mitigated if the mining companies were asked to pay Rs. 7 per tonne of every ore excavated. If the government was serious about a total rehabilitation plan, this would require a tax of Rs. 26 per tonne to be sourced to  both mining companies companies and the Goa government. (This recommendation recommendation was made in 86         government, when iron ore fetched US$15. Today, a tonne fetches US$90!) However, till today none of these recommendations has seen the light of day. Two major problems villagers in mining locations face are: a) Who will supply them water once mining is over and the mining companies withdraw from the lease? (At present, after disrupting groundwater groundwater aquifers and turning village wells dry, companies supply water in trucks).          mining pits, some of which      deep, as much of the existing material excavated has already gone into the rivers and nullahs? In 2003, the Central Government amended the MMRD Rules to require the approval       from all mining companies. Under the plan, the mines will deposit bank guarantees at the rate of Rs. 25,000 per hectare of land used for mining. At Rs. 25,000 an hectare, not much reclamation can be done in any case since the cost of      material for even a few dozen feet of mine pit would require much more than that.     the prospect of getting the According to the proposal, mines reclaimed was better. It this money will be set aside appears the 2003 Rules have for reclamation and rehabilita-       tion of exhausted mines and ing companies get out of their pits. The companies can claim responsibilities responsibilities to reclaim and deductions from this amount rehabilitate rehabilitate mines. if they carry out reclamation and rehabilitation work durThus Goa is bound to have a ing the life of the mine. series of moon craters for all time to come, generating their Knowing the companies’ past own brand of havoc for the habits, all of them are going coming generations. to claim in any case that they have already spent Rs. 25,000 reclaiming each hectare of their exhausted mines. Two ‘expert’ committees have been responsible for much of the irresponsible recommendations relating to the continuance of Goa’s iron ore mines despite the gross environmental damage associated with such mines for several years.          ing, headed by Dr Velu Annamalai, a former Chairman of SAIL (the Steel Authority of India). The list of members is given alongside. List of Expert Appraisal Committee (Mining) members 6. Dr S.D. Attri (those responsible for Indian Meteorological Department Member Director, approving Goa mining leases till August 2006) 7. Prof Narendra Kumar Goel Member 1. Dr Velu Annamalai Professor and Head, Chairman Department of Hydrology, Indian Institute of Technology, 2. Professor G.S. Roonwal Roorkee  Vice Chairman 8. Dr V.B. Mathur 3. Shri B.K.P. Sinha Member Member Dean, Former Director Faculty of Wildlife Sciences, Hindustan Zinc Ltd, Wildlife Institute of India, 4. Shri R.K. Sinha 9. Shri B.P. Singh Member Member Controller of Mines (Planning & Director of Mines Safety (S&T), Co-ordination), Directorate General of Mines Indian Bureau of Mines Safety 5. Dr Sudhir Kanaiyalal Dave 10. Dr S.K. Aggarwal Member Member-Secretary Sr Deputy Director, Director, National Institute of Occupational Ministry of Environment & Forests Health As the pressures mounted for quicker and speedier (and more careless and thoughtless) approvals, a second,    was set up under M.L. Ma jumdar, former Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Mines (also therefore from the industry side). The other members of the Majumdar expert committee are listed on the following page. The environment stood little chance in the face of these two committees headed by persons wholly sympathetic to the iron and steel industry and mining.    mittees followed a blatantly partisan methodology. They     ed by the project proponents 87     tion and, till fairly recently, did not even bother to consult the public hearing records generated by the public hearing process. The poor villagers who attended the public hearings genuinely believed their voices were going to be heard. Little did they know that the public hearings were nothing but a farce because     scarcely be able to even read the voluminous notes sent in by the Pollution Control Boards, since they were ex     projects at each sitting! So they had no time to visit the mines, not a single one of them — much less try to meet the people affected by mining operations or NGOs who had made representations. 88 List of IInd Expert  Appraisal Committee (Mining) members (those responsible for approving Goa mining leases Dr A. Mohankumar Dr T.K. Joshi Director, B/22, New Krishna Park, 2-511 (A), CTC Colony, Dhouli Piao, Shivaji Marg, Near Pillaiyar Koil, New Delhi 110 018  Vivekananda School Opp., since September 2006, who Tirupur 641 608 Dr S. Subramaniyan will take up the remaining Tamilnadu 54, V.G.P. Golden Sea View Part II, lease cases for approval) Shri M.L. Majumdar, IAS (Retd.) Dr K. Suresh 2nd Main Road, 5th Cross Street, 21, Venu Reddy Street, Palavakkam, Chennai 600041  Alandur North, Chennai 600 032 Shri B.S. Roy Chairman B-3 01, Harmony Apartments, Dr B.K. Mishra Member, Plot No. 6-B, Sector 23, Professor, Expert Committee on Mining, Dwarka Phase I Department of Eco-Development Ministry of Environment and New Delhi 110 075 Planning and Participatory Forests, Management, Government of India, Dr B. Padmanabhamurthy Wildlife Institute of India, G-280 Sarita Vihar, Ex-Director, Indian Dehra Dun New Delhi 110 076 B-3B/*C, Janakpuri, Dr Binayak Rath Dr Gurdeep Singh New Delhi 110 058 Professor of Economics, Professor and Head of Indian Institute of Technololgy, Department, Centre for Mining Environment, Deputy Director & Head, House No.405 (R),       Environmental Impact and Risk Kanpur 208 016 (U.P.) Dhanbad 826004 Metereological Department, Dr Satish R. Wate  Assessment Division, NEERI, Nehru Marg, Nagpur 440 020 Indian School of Mining,   on damages from mining in Goa Neither the expert committees named in this book nor the Environment Ministry cared        studies already carried out on the impact of mining activities in Goa. This is extremely unusual for a Ministry that was set up as a science-based department. It is even more unusual for a government that is duty bound to follow the three principles of environment law laid down by the Supreme Court of India: “Polluter Pays”; “Precautionary Principle” and the “Public Trust Doctrine”. Listed here are a few of the studies, some sponsored by the MoEF itself. Chachadi A.G., Impact Assessment Government of India, Ministry of Nayak, G.N., Impact of Mining on of Open Cast Mine Dewatering on     Environment in Goa: Present Status. Local and Regional Ground Regimes Districts (circular), Feb 17, 1987. Goa University, 1994. in Goa. TERI, 1997. Indian Bureau of Mines, Study of Nayak, G.N. and Rao, T.S.S., D’Souza J., Lobo, Belinda, Souza, Environmental Pollution Control Studies on Sediment Flux of Rivers, Marina, Effect of Mining on Microbial Measures in Goa, 1995. Estuaries and Adjoining Coastal Ecology of Bicholim Taluka, Goa: Waters of Goa, West Coast of India. Possible Restoration Processes in Modassir, M., Impact of Current the Region. Ministry of Environment Iron Ore Mining Activities on the and Forests, Govt of India, 1995. Environment of Goa and Proposed Measures to Minimise Long-term MoEF, Government of India, 1993. Parulekar, A.H. et al, Effect of Mining  Activities on the Clam Fisheries and De Souza, S.N. (National Institute Environmental and Economic Bottom Fauna of Goa Estuaries, of Oceanography), Effect of Mining Damage, University of Hull, UK. Proceedings of Indian Academy of Rejects on the Nutrient Chemistry Sciences (Animal Sciences), Vol. 95, of Mandovi Estuary, Goa. Indian J Nayak G.N., A Technical Report Marine Sci, 28(4) (1999), 355-359. on Impact of Mining and Physico- No. 3, June 1986. Chemical Changes due to Siltation Rank, J.S., Study of the Impact of Dhaveji C.S., Survey of Goan Mining in Mayem Lake and Other Water Mining Rejects on Degradation of Industry, 1992. Bodies of Bicholim Taluka, Goa. Soil and River Ecology, Met Centre, MoEF. Nov. 1995.  Ahmedabad. Ganihar, S.R., Impact of Mining on the Faunal Composition of Goa. Goa University, 1990.  “The Mandovi river is estimated to carry about 200 thousand metric tonnes of sediment from the North Goa mining belt every year. After Gonsalves, D.V. and D’Souza monitoring the environmental health of the estuary in 1974-5 and J., Impact of Mining Rejects on 1984-5 the scientists of National Institute of Oceanography did not Water Quality at Selaulim Water dare to repeat the sampling in 19 94-5. Would we see the same Project, Goa. Indian Journal of         Environmental Protection, June 1999, pp.427-431. Nandukumar Kamat, eminent environmentalist 89  “I wish to also point out that mining activities in Goa, in addition Depletion of fresh water in the mining regions of Goa, India: to causing environmental hazards like air pollution, deforestation Gendered impacts and responses and damage to agricultural land, pose a constant threat of physical By Shirin Cooper, Yogita Mehra and Anuradha Joshi accidents to around 16,000 persons employed in the mining sector in the State. It is essential that the Annual Plans have appropriate This paper by three researchers focuses on the human dimensions of provisions for providing safeguard measures to prevent accidents changes in ground water in the mining belt of Goa from a gendered apart from checking environmental pollution and degradation of perspective. The Ministry of Environment and Forests has legitimised agricultural land.”  all mines working below the ground water tables. The environment clearance letters of the Ministry mostly record, without understanding, Opening remarks by that mining will cross-sect the water table. However, no measures Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission of India are suggested, even for the mines cleared in the vicinity of wildlife Tenth Plan & Annual Plan Discussion 2002-2003: Goa sanctuaries. Samat, L.D., Environmental The Energy Research Institute Management and Reclamation (TERI), Areawide Environmental of Iron Ore Mines of Goa. In: Quality Management (AEQM) Plan carrying iron ore. While sailing These studies present strong National Seminar on Protection of for the Mining Belt of Goa, 1997. through the estuaries, barge    “Barges are used in Goa for movement gives rise to strong Environment and Ecology by Mining Torne, S.G. and Gaonkar, R.V. waves, which sometimes Response of Plant Species to damage the young mangrove Shetty, S.M. et al, Effects of Mining the Mining Sites Situated at Pale seedlings. Rhizophora on the Ecosystems of Sanguem, and Sirigao, Technical Report, seedlings are broken by the Bicholim, Sattari and Quepem 1986-1989. 1989. boats passing through the Industry, Vol. I and II, 1989. Talukas: Goa, Technical Report I, plantation (Hong, 19 96).”  Department of Environment, Forests and Wildlife, Government of India, Rajiv Kumar New Delhi, 1987. Extension Division, Forest Research Institute, Dehradun 90 evidence about the ill effects of mining on various aspects of life and society, but that does not seem to concern the experts.  Area-wide environmental for the villages in the study Goa: Blood on the mountains quality management plan for area show that in many of Sunita Narain , Centre for Science and Environment, the mining belt of Goa villages the population is in Down to Earth magazine, April 11, 2007 The Energy Research exposed to poor/bad air quality. Institute (TERI) (1998) Dust pollution is a problem in  “Present conditions in the study area can be summarised as:       “We were standing between a massive mine and a stunning water cluster II and III villages and reservoir. Local activists were explaining to me that this iron ore mine along certain stretches of road was located in the catchment of the Salaulim water reservoir, the only corridors. water source for south Goa. Suddenly, as I started clicking with my     camera, we were surrounded by a jeepload of men. They said they since the 1950s and has led to      were from the mine management and wanted us off the property. We environmental degradation. of concern to the villages. explained that we had come on a public path and that there were no      been taken to control land, air and water pollution.              signs to indicate that we were trespassing.. But they were not in a all clusters but more acute in mood to listen. They snatched the keys of our jeep, picked up stones to villages in clusters III and IV. hit us and got abusive.     In the next village, Colomba, I was surrounded once again: not by pit water discharge and the are almost non existent in the goons of a mining company, but by women of the village. We were     villages. Alternate employment standing on top of the hill, overlooking the village. But where we were, for most of the sediment (TSS) opportunities are very limited in bulldozers, mechanised shovels and trucks were hard at work. They loads in rivers/streams/nallahs. the mining area. were breaking the hill, shovelling its mud, dumping the rejects and then The worst affected rivers are Bicholim, Mhadei, and      absent in the villages. taking away the ore. The mine had just started operations, said the agitated women, but their streams were already drying up. The sight of Kandepar. Some of the mines       have their dumps right on the was developed for each river banks from which there is village taking into account run off directly into the rivers environmental impacts and during the monsoon. social conditions in the mining their streams. They walked me to a home where the walls had been       villages. 11 villages are highly badly damaged, they said, because of the blasting in the mines. The affected about 320 Ha of stressed with TII > 10 and 20 house owner, Devki Katu Velip, told me that when she complained agricultural land due to silting. villages are moderately stressed to the miners, the supervisor told her they would destroy her house (TII > 5 but < 10).”  completely if she dared protest again.      the red waste on the green lands presented a stark contrast. They dragged me down into the village, where they showed me             — and there are tonnes of this red mud — was being dumped into 91