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Paint Technical Training

Paint Technical Training




PAINT TECHNICAL TRAINING CORROSION CELL CURRENT-CARRYING ELECTROLYTE (SEAWATER, SOIL, ETC.) ANODE (CORRODING AREA) CATHODE (NONCORRODING AREA) CORROSION CELL CURRENT-CARRYING ELECTROLYTE (SEAWATER, SOIL, ETC.) ANODE (CORRODING AREA) CATHODE (NONCORRODING AREA) IONIC PATH schematic of a corrosion cell  CATHODE ELECTRON ANODE REACTION PATH REACTION Corrosion cell will stop if an reaction or pat! is stoppe" NE# PIPE OLD PIPE ANODE CATHODE -OTHER CELLS TAN$ DRAINAGE POOR POOR GOOD PAINT %EHA&IOUR O&ER SUR'ACE IRREGULARITIES IRREGULARITY SHARP CORNERS * EDGES INSIDE CORNERS PRO%LE( INSU''ICIENT THIC$NESS CRAC$ED OR SPONGY COATING CORRECTION GRIND TO +, IN. (INI(U( RADIUS 'ILLET #ELD * GRIND TO +,/ IN. (INI(U( RADIUS INSU''ICIENT THIC$NESS CRAC$ED OR SPONGY GRIND 'LUSH PRO)ECTIONS 'ILL #ITH #ELD (ETAL * GRIND 'LUSH PITS CRE&ICES ENTRAPPED AIR GAL&ANIC SYSTE( O' CATHODIC PROTECTION (ETAL RECEI&ING PROTECTION CURRENT-CARRYING ELECTROLYTE GALANIC ANODES  I(PRESSED CURRENT SYSTE( O' CATHODIC PROTECTION 0-1 (ETAL RECEI&ING PROTECTION CURRENT-CARRYING ELECTROLYTE RE(OTE ANODE GROUND %ED 021 RECTI'IER PAINT IS A %ARRIER 'RO( S3n O45en Salt #ater  PINPOINT RUSTING RUSTING #ILL OCCUR HERE STEEL COATING STEEL INHI%ITION %Y 6INC PRI(ER INHI%ITI&E COATING CONCEPT %rea7 in coatin5 to steel s3rface (oist3re a:sor:tion into fil; (moist!re "re#io!s coatin$) (oist3re allows 8inc to ioni8e Ioni8ation of in!i:itor  Cat!o"icall protectin5 steel Reaction wit! steel s3rface Ti5!t a"!esion pre9ents coatin5 3n"erc3t 6N 22 Passi9e laer  /n" or5anic topcoat /n" coat +st or5anic topcoat +st coat Inor5anic 8inc per;anent pri;er  STEEL In!i:iti9e pri;er  STEEL THREE CO(PONENTS O' PAINT SOL&ENT RESIN PIG(ENT SOL&ENT &EHICLE RESIN 'IL( SOLIDS PIG(ENT 'UNCTION O' PIG(ENT Pro9i"e opacit Pro9i"e colo3r  I;pro9e weat!er resistance Increase paint a"!esion Decrease ;oist3re per;ea:ilit Control 5loss #ET PAINT &EHICLE SOL&ENT PIG(ENT RESIN PRI(ARY SECONDARY PIG(ENT PIG(ENT RELATIONSHIP O' PAINT RESIN,PIG(ENT RATIO TO GLOSS HIGH-GLOSS SE(I-GLOSS 'LAT SOL&ENT< SOL&ENT< SOL&ENT< RESIN RESIN PIG(ENT PIG(ENT RESIN PIG(ENT HIGH RESIN, PIG(ENT RESIN PIG(ENT (ODERATE RESIN, PIG(ENT < A;o3nt of sol9ent ;a 9ar 5reatl #ET PAINT RESIN PIG(ENT RESIN PIG(ENT LO# RESIN, PIG(ENT CURED PAINT CROSSSECTION O' CURED PAINT A PAINT 'IL( (UST %E= Eas to appl    E    T    A    R    T    S    %    U    S Contin3o3s an" 3nifor; Ti5!tl a"!erin5 I;per;ea:le #eat!er resistant THREE (ETHODS O' PAINT CURING Air o4i"ation Sol9ent or water e9aporation C!e;ical reaction of co;ponents AIR O>IDATION O' PAINTS LI?UID DRYING OIL O>YGEN SOLID 'IL( O' DRYING OIL PROPERTIES O' AIR DRYING COATINGS Generic (chemical) t%"e &ro"erties Oleoresino3s Goo" wettin5@ 5enerall soft an" slow "rin5 cannot :e 3se" in i;;erse" 8one Al7" Goo" wettin5@ ;a :e !ar" or soft@ cannot :e 3se" in i;;erse" 8one Silicone al7" I;pro9e" "3ra:ilit an" 5loss@ cannot :e 3se" in i;;erse" 8one P!enolic Can :e 3se" in i;;ersion ser9ice CURING O' LAC?UERS AND #ATER E(ULSIONS SOL&ENT 'U(ES OR #ATER &APOR SOLID RESIN IN SOL&ENT OR #ATER     N    O     I     T    A     R    O     P    A     &     E SOLID RESIN UNCHANGED CHE(ICALLY PROPERTIES O' COATINGS THAT CURE %Y SOL&ENT OR #ATER E&APORATION Generic (chemical) tpe Properties SOL&ENT %ASED COATINGS &inl 0pol9inl c!lori"e1 Goo" water li;ite" sol9ent resistance@ easil to3c!e"-3p or topcoate" C!lorinate" r3::er  Goo" water li;ite" sol9ent resistance@ "3ra:le easil to3c!e"-3p or topcoate" Coal tar an" asp!altic Soft@ :lac7@ of li;ite" 3se freB3entl on ;ec!anicall cleane" s3rfaces Pol9inl :3tral Use" e4cl3si9el in pretreat;ent ('ash) pri;ers for "rin5 oil an" 9inl coatin5s #ATER %ASED COATINGS Acrlic Use" in at;osp!eric area onl@ poor wettin5 Pol9inl acetate Sa;e as acrlic CURING O' PAINTS %Y CHE(ICAL REACTION LI?UID LI?UID LI?UID RESIN A RESIN % RESIN A-% PROPERTIES O' CHE(ICAL REACTING COATINGS General (chemical) t%"e &ro"erties Epo4 Goo" water an" c!e;ical resistance@ c!al7 freel@ "iffic3lt to topcoat Coal tar epo4 E4cellent water resistance@ :lac7 onl@ "iffic3lt to topcoat Uret!ane Goo" water an" sol9ent resistance alip!atic 3ret!anes weat!er well in s3nli5!t@ "iffic3lt to topcoat Polester  'reB3entl 3se" wit! 5lass fi:res to 5i9e to35! water resistant coatin5 or 5lass fla7es to i;part a:rasion resistance Inor5anic 8inc Goo" a:rasion resistance@ 3se" in pre-constr3ction pri;ers@ topcoate" for 3se in i;;erse" 8one COATING PROPERTIES RELATED TO CHE(ISTRY (ec!anis; an" ti;e of c3rin5 Perfor;ance in "ifferent en9iron;ents Perfor;ance on "ifferent s3:strates Co;pati:ilit wit! ot!er coatin5s Ease of top coatin5 an" repair  'le4i:ilit an" to35!ness Application properties ('ettin$, !il, "ot life etc.) THE TOTAL ?UALITY O' A COATING SYSTE( IS ONLY 'OR  DEPENDING ON THE PAINT ITSEL'. F O' PAINT 'AILURES ARE CAUSED %Y I(PROPER SUR'ACE PREPARATION. SUR'ACE PREPARATION RE?UIRE(ENTS Proper constr3ction Proper "e5ree of cleanliness Proper profile !ei5!t (te*t!re) REPA REP AIRS,(ODI'IC IRS,(ODI'ICA ATIONS RE?UIRED %E'ORE SUR'ACE SUR'A CE CLEANING Steel wel"in5 c3ttin5 5rin"in5 of wel"s an" e"5es fillin5 cre9ices #oo" replace;ent c3ttin5 nailin5 Concrete,(asonr patc!in5 fillin5 crac7s an" pores Plastic c3ttin5 :on"in5 RULE O' THU(% T!e profile !ei5!t of steel s!o3l" :e :etween +,/ an" / +,/ ;ills an" ne9er ;ore t!an one-!alf t!e pri;er "r fil; t!ic7ness R8 PRO'ILE &ALUE 6+ 6/ 6 6 6 CO((ON (ETHODS O' CLEANING SUR'ACES 'OR PAINTING Han" an" power tools 'la;e Sol9ent Stea; #ater :last A:rasi9e :last 'LA(E CLEANING  ' loosens ;ill scale ol" paint 'ollow wit! wire :r3s!in5 or scrapin5 #ar;s an" "ries s3rface Slow= + -  linear feet per ;in3te #ear 5o55les 5lo9es !el;et Re;o9e all so3rces of fla;;a:le 5ases SOL&ENT #ASHING Re;o9es oil 5rease "3st Use clean ra5s T3rn an" replace often Replace sol9ent for final rinse #ear 5o55les an" 5lo9es %LASTING HAS LI(ITATIONS Re;o9al oil,5rease Re;o9al t!er;oplastic ;aterials D3st pro:le;s C!e;ical waste CLEANING (ETHOD CONTA(INANT Sol9ent cleanin5 Stea; Grease , Salt , Dirt Oil , #el";ar7s #ater:lastin5 (arine 5rowt! , Loose paint Han" or power tools Loose ;ill scale , #el" fl34 , Loose r3st , #el" splatter , Loose paint 'la;e cleanin5 followe" : wire:r3s!in5 R3st Loose ;ill scale , so;e ti5!t ;illscale A:rasi9e :lastin5 All 9isi:le r3st , Ti5!t paint Ti5!t ;ill scale , 'orei5n ;atter  RECO((ENDED CLEANING (ETHODS 'OR &ARIOUS SU%STRATES < #oo" san"in5 after scrapin5 loose paint Plastic san"in5 after scrapin5 loose paint Concrete,(asonr caref3l water:lastin5 Steel a:rasi9e :lastin5 5enerall preferre" o9er  ;ec!anical cleanin5 Al3;ini3;,Tin,Copper,%rass,Gal9ani8e" steel ;ec!anical cleanin5 or :r3s! off :last@ pretreat;ent ('ash) pri;e + Sol#ent 'ash to remo#e oil or $rease CRITERIA 'OR COATING SELECTION Desire" coatin5 properties Nat3re an" con"ition of s3:strate %asic f3nction of coatin5 Li;itations of ti;e space eB3ip;ent etc Si5nificant en9iron;ental factors STEEL PAINTING COSTS SUR'ACE PREPARATION PAINT APPLICATION PAINT (ATERIAL  -   -  + - + COATINGS CO((ONLY USED ON #OOD S3:strate Paint Co;;ents Interior woo" Oil Slow "rin5 an" relati9el soft Al7" (a :e !ar" or soft Late4 (#in%l or acr%lic) Can :e applie" o9er oil al7" or  late4 pri;er  Oil Goo" wettin5@ slow "rin5@ soft Al7" Goo" wettin5@ ot!er properties ;a E4terior woo" 9ar Silicone Al7" Goo" wettin5 an" 5loss Late4 Poor wettin5@ easil applie" an" cleane" 3p (#in%l or acr%lic) COATINGS CO((ONLY USED ON (ASONRY AND CONCRETE SUR'ACES Interior ;asonr plaster an" wall :oar" Acrlic late4 Easil applie"@ ;3st re;o9e all loose c!al7 &inl late4 Sa;e as acrlic late4 C!lorinate" r3::er  Goo" for waterproofin5 E4terior concrete an" ;asonr Acrlic late4 'ill coats will re"3ce water  penetration &inl late4 Sa;e as acrlic late4 C!lorinate" r3::er Goo" for waterproofin5 for  &inl Epo4 concrete in corrosi9e con"itions COATINGS CO((ONLY USED ON IRON AND STEEL SUR'ACES S3:strate Interior iron an" steel Paint Al7" &inl Co;;ents Not for i;;erse" s3rfaces Goo" water poor sol9ent resistance Epo4 Goo" "3ra:ilit an" c!e;ical resistance Goo" "3ra:ilit an" c!e;ical resistance Uret!ane E4terior iron an" steel Al7" Silicone Al7" 'or ;il" an" ;arine en9iron;ents Sa;e as Al7" :etter 5loss retention Inor5anic 8inc Topcoate" wit! epo4 for  seawater i;;ersion tan7coatin5s &inl Epo4 Uret!ane Goo" "3ra:ilit easil to3c!e" 3p Goo" "3ra:ilit c!al7s in s3nli5!t Alip!atic tpe !as 5oo" weat!erin5 AL$YD A"9anta5es One-pac7a5e coatin5 Disa"9anta5es Goo" e4terior "3ra:ilit Poor c!e;ical an" sol9ent resistance (o"erate cost Poor water resistance Goo" fle4i:ilit Poor resistance to al7alinit E4cellent a"!esion to ;ost s3rfaces incl3"in5 poorl prepare" s3rfaces Eas to appl Goo" 5loss retention LATE> (Acr%lic or in%l) A"9anta5es Disa"9anta5es (o"erate cost Li;ite" "3ra:ilit o3tsi"e Goo" fle4i:ilit Eas to appl topcoat repair  Poor c!e;ical an" sol9ent resistance En9iron;ental accepta:ilit Poor i;;ersion resistance C3rin5 te;perat3res ;3st :e a:o9e  ' %ITU(INOUS A"9anta5es Disa"9anta5es Low cost Poor weat!erin5 properties Goo" ;oist3re :arrier  %lac7 color onl Goo" corrosion protection Poor sol9ent resistance Goo" fil; :3il" &INYL (Acr%lic) A"9anta5es Disa"9anta5es Rapi" "rin5 an" recoatin5 Poor sol9ent resistance E4cellent "3ra:ilit Low fil; :3il" per coat E4cellent "3ra:ilit &er 5oo" 5loss retention Applica:le at low te;perat3res CHLORINATED RU%%ER A"9anta5es Disa"9anta5es Rapi" "rin5 an" recoatin5 Poor sol9ent resistance 'air c!e;ical resistance Poor !eat resistance (-/ 0) Poor 5loss retention Goo" water resistance Goo" "3ra:ilit Applica:le at low te;perat3res Eas to repair  EPO>Y A"9anta5es E4cellent c!e;ical an" sol9ent resistance Goo" water resistance &er 5oo" e4terior "3ra:ilit Har" slic7 fil; E4cellent a"!esion E4cellent a:rasion resistance Goo" ca3stic resistance Disa"9anta5es Two-pac7a5e coatin5 - li;ite" potlife C3rin5 te;perat3res ;3st :e a:o9e  ' Poor 5loss retention 'il; c!al7s on a5ein5 Ro35!enin5 3p reB3ire" for repair  COAL TAR EPO>Y A"9anta5es E4cellent resistance to fres! an" salt water  Goo" fil; :3il" E4cellent resistance to alip!atic petrole3; pro"3cts Disa"9anta5es C!al7in5 Topcoatin5 ;a present pro:le;s (tar leein$) POLYURETHANE A"9anta5es E4cellent 5loss retention Can :e applie" at low te;perat3res E4cellent "3ra:ilit in e4terior e4pos3re Recoata:le Disa"9anta5es Gloss "rop wit! !i5! !3;i"it "3rin5 "rin5 Two co;ponent - li;ite" pot life Hi5! cost Personal protection reB3ire" ORGANIC 6INC A"9anta5es E4cellent corrosion protection Pro9i"es 5al9anic protection Easier to topcoat t!an inor5anic 8inc (less "oro!s) One or two-pac7a5e "epen"in5 3pon or5anic resin Disa"9anta5es Hi5! cost Spra application onl Constant stirrin5 necessar "3rin5 application Not s3ita:le for aci"ic or  ca3stic ser9ice 6inc salts to :e re;o9e" INORGANIC 6INC A"9anta5es E4cellent corrosion protection E4cellent e4terior "3ra:ilit E4cellent !eat resistance Pro9i"es 5al9anic protection properties Pro9i"es per;anent pri;er  capa:ilit w!en 3se" in conJ3nction wit! proper topcoats an",or  ;aintenace practices E4cellent sol9ent resistance Disa"9anta5es Hi5! cost Spra application onl@ s7ille" applicators reB3ire" Not s3ita:le for aci"ic or  ca3stic ser9ice ReB3ires caref3l selection of  tiecoats an" topcoats Drin5 infl3ence" : !3;i"it - "epen"in5 on tpe Constant stirrin5 necessar 'ACTORS A''ECTING SELECTION O' (ETHOD O' COATING APPLICATION C!aracteristic %r3s! Roller   Spra Spee" Ease of application Si;plicit of eB3ip;ent Safet (aterial conser9ation Porta:ilit &ersatilit Initial econo;ics Lon5 ran5e econo;ics Hi"in5 power  Unifor;it fair  fair  e4cellent e4cellent e4cellent e4cellent 5oo" e4cellent fair  5oo" poor  5oo" 5oo" e4cellent e4cellent 5oo" 5oo" fair  e4cellent fair  fair  fair  e4cellent poor  poor  poor  poor,5oo"< poor  e4cellent poor  e4cellent poor,5oo"< 5oo" + #aries 'ith e1!i"ment an o"erator  (ETHOD (s1!are feet a""lie "er  ho!r a%) %r3s! +. sB. ft. Roller  / - . sB. ft. Air Spra  - K. sB. ft. Airless Spra K - +/. sB. ft. THREE 'ACTORS A''ECT PAINT &ISCOSITY Sol9ent , soli"s ratio Paint te;perat3re Paint ;i4in5 TE(PERATURE &S. &ISCOSITY K    1    S    D    N    O    C     E    S    0    Y    T    I    S     O    C    S    I    & /   F  TE(PERATURE 0  '1 +/ (I>ING AND THINNING PROCEDURE One-pac7a5e paints Two-pac7a5e paints = tpe an" a;o3nt of t!inner to :e 3se" if an = ratio of catalst to :ase paint in"3ction ti;e an" pot life PROPER O&ERLAPPING TECHNI?UE O9erlap stro7es :  for 3nifor; fil; :3il" PROPER STRO$ING TECHNI?UE....... SECTIONING A LARGE SUR'ACE +K - M  o9erlap +K - M +K - M  o9erlap Di9i"e a lon5 s3rface area into sections +K - M wi"e PAINT INSPECTION DUTIES Inspection of ;aterials Inspection of s3rface preparation Inspection of paint application 'inal inspection for acceptance PROPER STORAGE O' PAINT NO  2ES  'la;es Te;perat3re control Spar7s Direct s3n Stoc7 rotation On pallets &entilation Oil or 5rease conta;ination Poor a"!esion creates areas w!ere ;oist3re 9apo3r can con"ense or t!e 9apo3r press3re in t!e 9oi" ;a :e 5reater t!an e4terior water press3re ca3sin5 :listers an" e9ent3al coatin5 "isr3ption STEEL %U%%LE O' TROU%LE &AINT 3LISTER 0OR4ED 32 SOLENT ENTRA&&ED 3ETWEEN COATS  &APOR 'RO( SOL&ENT TRYING TO ESCAPE PRI(ER COAT TOP COAT STEEL #ALL SECOND COAT SUR'ACE PREPARATION SPECI'ICATIONS SSPC-G3i"e to &is + Pictorial s3rface preparation Stan"ar"s for paintin5 steel s3rfaces SSPC-G3i"e to &is / Stan"ar" ;et!o" of e9al3atin5 "e5ree of  r3stin5 on painte" steel s3rfaces SSPC-SP + Sol9ent cleanin5 SSPC-SP / Han" tool cleanin5 SSPC-SP  Power tool cleanin5 SSPC-SP  #!ite ;etal :last cleanin5 SSPC-SP M Co;;ercial :last cleanin5 SSPC-SP F %r3s!-off :last cleanin5 SSPC-SP K Pic7lin5 SSPC-SP + Near-w!ite :last cleanin5 APPEARANCE O' THE CO(PLETED SUR'ACE T!e s3rface s!all :e ro35!ene" to a "e5ree s3ita:le for t!e specifie" paint sste; T!e co;plete" s3rface s!all :e cleane" to a 5re-w!ite ;etallic colo3r. T!e appearance of  t!e s3rface ;a :e affecte" : t!e partic3lar  :lastin5 a:rasi9e 3se" Unifor;it of colo3r ;a :e affecte" : t!e 5ra"e ori5inal s3rface con"ition an" confi53ration of t!e ;aterial :ein5 cleane" as well as : "iscolo3rations fro; ;ill or fa:rication ;ar7s an" t!e s!a"owin5 fro; :last cleanin5 patterns SSPC-&is + or ot!er 9is3al stan"ar"s of s3rface preparation a5ree" 3pon : t!e contractin5 parties ;a :e 3se" to f3rt!er "efine t!e s3rface SUR'ACE PREPARATION SPECI'ICATIONS 'OR A%RASI&E %LAST CLEANED STEEL S3rface &is3al stan"ar" SSPC-&is + NACE Spec. SSPC-SIS SSPC-spec. Description #!ite ;etal + SSPC-SP  CSa Gre-w!ite colo3r  + free of oil 5rease "irt r3st ;ill scale an" paint Near w!ite / SSPC-SP + CSa/ Onl 9er li5!t s!a"ows strea7s or  "iscolo3ration. (At least 5-6 free) Co;;ercial  SSPC-SP M CSa/ At least two-t!ir"s free of 9isi:le resi"3es %r3s!-off   SSPC-SP F CSa+ Onl ti5!t ;ill scale an" ti5!tl a"!erin5 r3st after :lastin5 'OUR RUST GRADES O' UNPAINTED STEEL A"!erent ;ill scale R3stin5 ;ill scale R3ste" Pitte" an" r3ste" HAND TOOL PO#ER TOOL CO((ERCIAL %LAST NEAR #HITE %LAST #HITE %LAST  .+ ./ . . . .M .F .K . +. +.+ TOTAL COST IN DOLLARS PER S?UARE 'OOT OTHER STEEL STRUCTURES PAINTING COUNCIL SUR'ACE PREPARATION SPECI'ICATIONS SSPC specification Inten"e" 3se Sol9ent cleanin5 SSPC-SP+ Re;o9al of oil 5rease an" ot!er  sol3:le ;aterials prior to re;o9al of ;ill scale r3st an" coatin5 : ot!er ;et!o"s Han" tool cleanin5 SSPC-SP/ Re;o9al of loose ;ill scale r3st an" coatin5 : !an" san"in5 scrapin5 c!ippin5 or ot!er i;pact tools 'la;e cleanin5 of new steel SSPC-SP Preparin5 3npainte" steel wit! o4-acetlene fla;e followe" : wire :r3s! re;o9al of loosene" ;ill scale an" r3st Pic7lin5 SSPC-SPK Preparin5 ;etal s3rfaces for coatin5 : re;o9al of ;ill scale an" r3st : c!e;ical reaction electrolsis or :ot! STEEL SUR'ACE PREPARATION RE?UIRE(ENTS 'OR CO((ONLY USED COATINGS Coatin5 tpe (ini;3; s3rface preparation Drin5 oil Al7" Oleoresino3s P!enolic Coal tar  Asp!altic &inl C!lorinate" r3::er  Epo4 Coal tar epo4 Uret!ane Or5anic 8inc Inor5anic 8inc Han" or power tool cleanin5 (SS&C7S&8 or 9) Co;;ercial :last (SS&C7S&:) Co;;ercial :last (SS&C7S&:) Co;;ercial :last (SS&C7S&:) Near w!ite or co;;ercial :last Near w!ite or co;;ercial :last Near w!ite or co;;ercial :last Near w!ite or co;;ercial :last (SS&C7S&; or :) (SS&C7S&; or :) (SS&C7S&; or :) (SS&C7S&; or :) Near w!ite or co;;ercial :last (SS&C7S&; or :) Near w!ite or co;;ercial :last (SS&C7S&; or :) Near w!ite or co;;ercial :last (SS&C7S&; or :) #!ite or near w!ite (SS&C7S&- or ;) CO(PRESSOR HP CO(PRESSOR CAPACITY C'( RATING 0electric "ri9e1 + / /    M F +  F  3p 3p 3p 3p 3p 3p to to to to to to F  + + +F /+ /M / / NO66LE PRESSURE + psi CLEANING RATE +  (Stanar for com"arison)  psi K/  appro4. K psi FK  appro4. F psi M  M psi   PRESSURE LOSS IN AIRHOSE DUE TO 'RICTION HOSE SI6E LINE COUPLED PRESSURE END PSI , + inc! +-+, C'( 'REE AIR PASSING THROUGH  'T. LENGTHS  M K + +/ + LOSS O' PRESSURE PSI< M K + ++ +./ .K .M . /.K +. +. +. ./ .M /.F /. K.M .K . . K.K M.M . ++.+ . M K + ++ - .M . . . +./ .K .M .M /. +. +. . . /. +. +. F./ . /. /.+ M K - ./ .+ - . ./ ./ ./ .M . . . +. .M . . +. .F .M + ++ < Press3re "rops for ot!er len5!ts in "irect proportion to c!an5e in len5t! RULE O' THU(% %i55er an" s!orter are t!e 7e to :last !ose efficienc. If a c!oice ;3st :e ;a"e :etween !a9in5 a s!ort air !ose or a s!ort :last !ose c!oose t!e s!ort :last !ose. RIGHT E>TERNALLY-'ITTED ?UIC$ COUPLING #RONG INTERNALLY-'ITTED COUPLING RULE O' THU(% A loss of press3re at t!e no88le of onl + PSI ;eans a + loss in pro"3ction RULE O' THU(% C!oose t!e s;allest 5rain si8e w!ic! can re;o9e t!e conta;inant on t!at partic3lar s3rface. %i55er is not :etter !ere. RULE O' THU(% It onl ta7es one spra painter to 7eep 3p wit! fo3r :lasters AIR SPRAY 'EATURES 'inest ato;i8ation * finis! &ersatile Eas to 3se PO#ER SOURCE Electric Gas Air  AIRLESS SPRAY 'EATURES Re"3ce" o9erspra * :o3nce-:ac7 Increase" pro"3ction (aterial sa9in5s La:or sa9in5s Ener5 sa9in5s I;pro9e" co9era5e TYPICAL AIRLESS TIP SELECTION Paint tpe Orifice si8e Press3re Acrlic ;o"ifie" .+  tip // C!lorinate" r3::er  .+ // Epo4 pola;i"e .+ / &inl copol;er  .+ - .+F / Epo4 a;ine .+F - ./+ // P!enolic ;o"ifie" .+ - ./ // Antifo3lin5 ./+ Inor5anic 8inc ./ - ./  Or5anic 8inc ./M - .+  Coal tar epo4 .+ psi / / - +K - +K E>TERNAL IONI6ATION CHARGED PRO%E ELECTROSTATIC SPRAY 'EATURES Increase" transfer efficienc 'ewer passes #rap aro3n" e"5es * irre53lar s3rfaces Lower ;aterial 3sa5e 'ewer reJects Re"3ce" la:or  ($reater "ro!cti#it%) SA'ETY HA6ARDS IN PAINTING OPERATIONS Hi5! places Hi5! press3res 'la;;a:le ;aterials To4ic ;aterials HA6ARDOUS (ATERIALS IN SUR'ACE PREPARATION Aci"s Al7alis Stea; Partic3late ;atter in :lastin5 "3sts Lea" an" ot!er to4icants fro; ol" paint in :lastin5 "3st HA6ARDOUS (ATERIALS IN PAINT APPLICATIONS 'la;;a:le sol9ents To4ic pi5;ents (lea, chromi!m, etc.) To4ic or aller5ic resins (!rethane, e"o*%, etc.) (A>I(U( ALLO#A%LE CONCENTRATIONS O' SOL&ENT &APORS (4AC) Tpe of  sol9ent Acetone Alco!ols %3tl Et!l Isopropl (et!l (Woo) %en8ene (3enlene (>%lol) < 'or K !o3rs e4pos3re@ PP( : 9ol3;e in air   /   F +  /  + / + + / RESPIRATORS Protection fro;= D3rin5= D3st San":lastin5 R3st "irt scale particles A:rasi9e :last cleanin5 To4ic f3;es fro; paints or sol9ents 'la;e cleanin5 Sol9ent cleanin5 'LASHPOINT AND E>PLOSI&E LI(ITS O' PAINT SOL&ENTS Tpe of sol9ent Acetone Alco!ol :3tl Alco!ol et!l Alco!ol isopropl %en8ene (enlene Tol3ene Nap!taQs 1 1 %it an" tar  1 Alco!ols (et!lEt!lPropl%3tl- $etones Esters Acetone (E$ (I%$ (et!l- Et!lPropl- %3tl- Et!ers Glcolet!ers TYPE O' PAINTS Epo4ies Pol3ret!anes C!lorr3::ers &inls Al7"s ACID 2 ALCOHOL ALCID AL$YD %INDER 'UNCTIONS A"!esion Gloss &iscosit Protection weat!er  water  c!e;icals (ec!anical properties= stren5t! fle4i:ilit !ar"ness 'il;for;in5