P.I. 100 (TF 10:30- 12:00) 24 Hour Exam Test I 1. Illustrate (draw a diagram) and discuss about the ancient Philippine political institutions. Answer: Before the Spaniards came to the Philippines, we already have a simple political institution. Filipinos before lived in a kinship headed by a Datu or a chief within a community called Barangay (compose of no more than a few hundred individuals). Some Datu are also called Rajah. They make and execute laws which also have their own council of leaders. The second in line is the Babaylans. They are women and the religious leaders at their time wherein they perform rituals to the environment. Filipinos ask wisdom from them. Lastly is the Bagani or the warrior class. They are considered the military body, the protectors of the kin. 2. Illustrate (draw a diagram) and discuss about political institutions in the Philippines under the Spanish rule. In 1565- 1821, the Philippines was captain-general by the Spanish king through viceroyalty of Nueva Espana (Mexico). All Spanish possessions were governed by the Royal Supreme Council of the Indies. The bureaucracy of the colonial Philippines was subdivided into different levels of administration. The national level was governed by the Gobernador- General, the representative of the king. He was the commander-in-chief of the army and the navy, president of the Supreme Court and has a vice-patrol or the power over ecclesiastical appointments in the church and the right to supervise mission work. Next in line is the Alcalde Mayor for the lalawigan or provincial level. He exercised executive and judicial powers in the pacified provincial level (Luzon and the Visayas regions) and multiple prerogatives as judge, inspector of encomiendas, chief of police, tribute collector and even vice-regal patron. Corrigidor General ruled over the not pacified regions (regions not colonized by the Spain) which were mostly the Islam community. The Ayuntamiento who governed the city was formed last 1894. An example was the Manila cabildo (city council) consisted of alcalde ordinaries (elected by Spanish residents of the regidors (councilors), alguacil mayor (chief constable) and escribano (secretary). The highest position that a Filipino could achieve was the Gobernadorcillo who governed the municipal. He was assisted by the 3 supernumeraries or inspectors and 4 tenientes segundos. Lastly is the Cabeza de Barangay who ruled the barrio or barangay. They were the tax and contributions collector for the gobernadorcillo and exempted from taxation. 3. Analyze and compare the changes of the ancient Philippines political institutions and the Hispanized Philippine political system and government. Before the Spaniards came, the political institution of the Philippines was simple and decentralized. It was simple since there were only three levels and with simple tasks that were to ensure food and unity of the kin for the datus; keep the faith from the environment for the babaylans; and protection from the other kin for the warriors. It was decentralized since they had their own duties to fulfil and there were not any step by step process of doing things like reporting to whom and to whom. We also have our own simple rules and policies. Under the Spaniards, the political system was very centralized and complex. There was a bureaucratic system that is up to now used in our government. They were asked to report in every head of that province, city, municipal and barangay. It was complex in the sense that the church has a big influence of these leaders. Every decision, rules, and policies had their “blessing” or interventions and are only for their own good. Furthermore, the political system was changed from 3 hierarchies to 6 hierarchies which made it more complex. 4. Illustrate (draw a diagram) and discuss about the ancient Filipino social stratification. Ancient Filipino was composed of the Datu, Datu’s his family, and the noble as the highest class followed by the Babaylans, and the Bagani or the warrior class. Third was the Freeman. They were class that don’t hold any political positions. Lastly were the oripuns or the slaves that were categorized into two: Aliping Sagigilid and Aliping Namamahay. They were slaves because of debt to the datus, and captives of the kin from other kin during wars. 5. Illustrate (draw a diagram) and discuss about the Hispanized social stratification. There were five Hispanized social stratifications in the Philippines. They were the Peninsulares, who were the born and raised in the Spain; the Inuslares, who were born in the Philippines but full blooded Spaniards; the mestizos, who were half bloodied Spaniards; Principalles, who were the datus and the Cabeza de Barangay; and the Indios, who were the ordinary native Filipinos. Indios were considered second class citizens to their own native land. 6. Analyze and compare the changes between the ancient Philippine social stratification and the Hispanized Filipino social stratification. We already had our own social stratification before the Spaniards came. This social stratification had the concept of rich who were the datus and noble class; and poor that constitutes to slavery. When the Spaniards came, slavery became worst not just on the oripuns but they also considered the freemen as well. Before, we already had given our own rights to the society and we are free to exercise those rights in the different levels according to class. Unfortunately, when the Spaniards came, they had taken away our rights and considered us as the second class of the society in our own land. TEST II. 1. What is the political socialization theory? Discuss how it can be utilized in the study in the life and works of Jose Rizal? Political socialization is a theory in which human beings acquire and develop values and opinions in which in turn affects their behaviour. Individuals become acquainted with the political system wherein a significant degree determines their perception about politics and reactions to political phenomena. It has three levels of analysis: personal level, events on one’s personal lives; nation level, events of the immediate environment; and global level, events of the world. It can be utilize in the study of Rizal’s life and his works through looking at his personal events just like at a very young age he was aware of the political system around him. He was that accustom that even at innocent age, leads him to how he thinks about the future – especially for his countrymen. His immediate events and how it affects his family and friends. Also in looking at the global environment especially when he went to Europe for studies and how it affects his ideas and principles. Also it is important to study the institutions, the peer, primary and secondary groups that influenced and formed Rizal's life and his works. 2. What is your stand regarding the debate betwee n Jose Rizal’s reformation movement and Andres Bonifacio’s nationalist revolutionary struggle? Who do you think should be the Philippine National Hero? What do you think constitutes being a hero? For me, I realized that there are different boundaries that constitute a reformation movement and a nationalist revolutionary struggle. The reformation movement was through the Propaganda movement. There was same objective, to free the abused Filipino from the Spaniards but with different means. Rizal used the pen and paper as a mean to end the struggle while Bonifacio used bolo or deadly weapons. Both showed nationalism and their love for the country to the extent of risking their lives for the Filipino people. Both have slight difference in family background and personal experiences that triggered their response towards freedom. Freedom for Rizal was at first, equality between Filipinos and the Spaniards. Freedom for Bonifacio was a totality of executing the Spaniards. Both eventually wanted the Spaniards to flee away in our land. Both succeeded in doing so but Rizal greatly contributed to the freedom that we experienced from the Spaniards. This thought me that violence is not always the means of giving solutions to problems.