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Political Science

political science project




PROJECT ON T.H.Green's view on liberty SUBMITTED TO: - MS. AY AYESHA RAHMAN (FACULT (FACULTY Y OF POLITICAL SCIENCE) SUBMITTED BY: - TANVI PRIYA ROLL NO. : 164 SEMESTER I DATE OF SUBMISSION:- 26/10/201 HIDAYATULLAH NATIONAL LA! UNIVERSITY RAIPUR" C.#. AC$NO!LED#MENT At the outset, I would like to express my heartfelt gratitude and thank my teacher, Ms. Ayesha Ayesha Rahman for putting her trust in me and giving me a project topic such as this and for having the faith in me to deliver. Ma’am, thank you for an opportunity to help me g row. I would also like to express my gratitude to my freinds for their support and help. My gratitude also goes out to the staff and administration of !"# for the infrastructure in the form of  our li$rary and I% "a$ that was a source of great help for the completion co mpletion of this project. %anvi priya R&"" no. '() *emester + I atch '- TABLE OF CONTENTS &!%/!% 0A1/ !&. * A2!&3"/41/M/!% 5 * &6/%I7/ A!4 80&%/*I* ) * I!%R&4#%I&! 9 * %..1reen : "ife ( * "I/R%8 ; * 0&*I%I7/ A!4 !/1A%I7/ '' "I/R%8 * %..1R//!’s 7I/3 &! '( "I/R%8 * 1R//!’* A!A"8*I* &! '< "I/R%8 * RI%IA" A!A"8*I* 5= *  &!"#*I&! 5' *  I"I&1RA08 55 OB%ECTIVES * %o understand what the term >li$erty? means. * %o discuss the types of li$erty. * %o research on the view of %.. 1reen on li$erty. * %o analy@e the %..1reen’s view on li$erty. H&'*+,, * %..1reen supports positive li$erty. * %..1reen’s idealist li$erty is inter:related with the concept of moral and individualistic li$erty . R+,+* M+*3& %he present study will $e a descriptive and analytical study $ased on review of seconda ry sources such as $ooks, literature, articles, journals, we$ pages, etc. I5 "i$erty can $e defined as the state of $eing free within society from oppressive restrictions imposed $y authority on ones $ehaviour or political views."i$erty is mainly of two main types , positive and negative. 0ositive li$erty means free from internal restraints, such as greed, lust ignorance, etc. ere expresses the rationality of the true soul that is uncovered when internal restraints are removed. *trict laws should  $e in effect to prevent people from irrational actsB laws against gam$ling CgreedDE laws against homosexuality Cunnatural actsDE laws against adultery ClustD. Most orthodox theology, /ast and 3est, is founded on positive li$erty. F8ou shall know the truth and the truth shall make you free. %he motto for  positive li$erty is one must do what one ought Caccording to the natural lawD. 0ositive li$erty morally  prescriptiveE it has positive moral content.  !egative li$erty means freedom from external restraints, which are em$odied in unnecessary laws, etc. As 6. entham statesB F/very law is an infraction of li$erty.F "aws are only conventional and convenient, and should $e kept to the $are minimum involving murder, physical assault, theft, and fraud. !o other laws are legitimate. &ne is allowed to indulge in the passions and eccentricities of the FsoulF as long as this does not affect anyone else, except perhaps a partner, who has consented to FsinF along with you. In short, you may freely enslave yourself, $ut no one else. %he motto for negative li$erty is one can do what one pleases Cwithin a minimal legal frameworkD. %here is an empirical test for negative li$erty, $ut none for positive li$erty. &ne can count the num$er of external o$stacles as a measure of negative li$erty. It is also empty CnegativeD of moral content. %homas ill 1reen is commonly considered to $e the father of modern reform li$eralism G the first major theorist to give a philosophical grounding to what $ecame Cin /nglandD the "a$our 0arty and Cin the #nited *tatesD the 4emocratic 0arty of the !ew 4eal and the 1reat *ociety.e wasa known to $e an advocate of postive li$erty. %he project tries to focus on the view of li$erty supported $y %..1reen and why he felt the importance for that view. THOMAS HILL #REEN --Life and general views . %homas ill 1reen was $orn on April H, '<-( in irkin, a tiny village in the 3est Riding of 8orkshire. is father 7alentine 1reen was an evangelical rector, the son of a suire from "eicestershire. 1reens mother, who died when he was one year old, was the daughter of /dward %homas 7aughan, a vicar in "eicester. 1reen was distantly related to romwell and held a great admiration for his place in /nglish constitutional history. In '<9= he went to Rug$y school where he was undistinguished in his educational attainment, and thought of as constitutionally indolent. e went up to alliol ollege in '<99 where he gained a second class in classical moderations. *purred on $y a sense of failure and the stimulus of enjamin 6owett and harles 0arker he gained a first class in "iterae umaniores. e  $ecame a Jellow of alliol in '<(=, and was re:elected in 'freedoms of citi@ens that government may not infringe up on.? In other words, government may not limit these freedoms in any way. owever, despite the definition, government must and does limit these freedoms every single day in order to protect society. C/xampleB people have freedom of speech, $ut they cannot $e allowed to shout JIR/N in a crowded theatreD. ‟ %he real uestion is where exactly government should draw the specific line $etween what is allowed versus what must $e limited in order to protect society and maintain order. %his line is constantly changing in reaction to events like ;K'', and often we must await the results of a trial to see where the dividing line is at this time O place. () P L7+& B 0olitical li$erty is enjoyed $y a person in the capacity of a citi@en. %his li$erty ena$les a person to associate himself in the affairs of the state. It includes the right to vote, right to hold pu$lic office, right to canvass, right to petition etc. 0rof. "aski writes for the enjoyment of this li$erty two conditions are necessary: C'D widespread education, C5D supply of honest and straightforward information. () E9 L7+& B A person enjoys economic li$erty in the capacity of a worker. %his li$erty was highlighted $y 2arl Marx who propounded for an exploitation free society. It implies the a$sence of unemployment, exploitation, unfair wages, insecurity, su$standard living etc. (+) N L7+& B  !ational li$erty implies self:rule of the people /very nation has a right to rule over themselves. It means the a$sence of imperialism and colonialism. %hus when a states $orn, it is $orn with a right to $e 9 ivil "i$erties !otes httpBKKfswe$.$ain$ridge.eduKjvan@oKivilP5="i$erties.pdf independent and sovereign. %he nation should $e independent of foreign domination as it will lead to slavery, exploitation and racial discrimination.( esides the five li$erties, with the passage of time, the con cept of internationalism and International li$erty has emerged and the entire world is viewed as one family of nations. %he international li$erty implies renunciation of war, a$andonment of the use of force and peaceful settlement of all international disputes, limitation on the production of mass destructive weapons, coexistence of nation: states, international cooperation and peaceful world order. POSITIVE AND NE#ATIVE LIBERTY I5 F%he tree of li$erty must from time to time $e watered with the $lood of tyrants and patriots.F : %homas 6efferson M. 2.1andhi writes F"i$erty does not mean the a$sence of restraint $ut it lies in development o f  personalityF. %he Jrench 4eclaration of the Right of man C'H<;D says F"i$erty consists in the power to do everything that does not injure another.FH %he word liberty can refer to many things, $ut famous *ocial and 0olitical %heorist Isaiah erlin C';=;: ';;HD recogni@ed two main types of li$erty. erlin descri$ed a statement such as F I am slave to no manF as one of !egative "i$erty, that is, freedom from another individuals direct interference. e contrasted this with a 0ositive Jreedom statement such as F I am my own master F, which lays claim to a freedom to choose ones own pursuits in life . %he idea of differentiating $etween a negative and a  positive sense of the term Lliberty’ goes $ack at least to 2ant. "ater, it was examined and defended in depth $y Isaiah erlin in the ';9=s and ’(=s. 4iscussions a$out positive and negative li$erty normally take place within the context of political and social philosophy. %hey are distinct from philosophical ( Rohini 4asgupta, /ssay on "i$erty li$erty.html H httpBKKwww.preservearticles.comK5=''=)5(9;('K''9=:words:essay:on:$ertarianism.orgKpu$licationsKessaysKexcursionsKnegative:positive:li$erty:some:historical:reflections discussions a$out free will although sometimes they may $e related. 3ork on the nature of positive li$erty often overlaps with work on the nature of autonomy.  Positive liberty may $e understood as self:mastery which includes ones having a role in choosing who governs the society of which one is a part. Isaiah erlin traced positive li$erty from Aristotles definition of citi@enship, which is historically derived from the social role of the freemen of classical AthensB it was, erlin argued, the li$erty in choosing their government granted to citi@ens, and extolled, most famously, $y 0ericles. erlin granted that $oth concepts of li$erty represent valid human ideals, and that $oth forms of li$erty are necessary in any free and civilised society. Jor erlin, negative liberty represents a different, and sometimes contradictory, understanding of the concept of li$erty, which needs to $e carefully distinguished. Its later proponents Csuch as %ocueville, onstant, Montesuieu, 6ohn "ocke, 4avid ume and 6ohn *tuart Mill, who accepted hrysippus understanding of self:determinationD insisted that constraint and discipline were the antithesis of li$erty and so were Cand areD less prone to confusing li$erty and constraint in the manne r of rationalists and the  philosophical har$ingers of totalitarianism. %his concept of negative li$erty, erlin argued, constitutes an alternative, and sometimes even opposed, concept to positive li$erty, and one often closer to the intuitive modern usage of the word. POSITIVE LIBERTY 0hilosophers like 0lato, /pictetus, hristian theology, 2ant, and Marx supported the idea of 0ositive "i$erty. It means free from internal restraints, such as greed, lust ignorance, etc. It expresses the rationality of the true soul that is uncovered when internal restraints are removed. According to this view, strict laws should $e in effect to preven t people from irrational actsB * laws against gam$ling CgreedDE * laws against homosexuality Cunnatural actsDE * laws against adultery ClustD. Most of the orthodox theologies of /ast and 3est are founded on positive li$erty. %he motto of positive liberty isB FYou shall know the truth and the truth shall make you freeF, that means one must do what one ought, in accordance to the natural law. 0ositive li$erty has a moral prescriptiveE it has positive moral content.< 0hilosopher erlin notes that historically positive li$erty has proven particularly suscepti$le to rhetorical a$useE especially from the 'freedom from,? while positive li$erty means >capacity to.? Another way of thinking a$out the differenceGthough again, it’s a rough oneGis to see negative li$erty as $eing a$out the a$sence of external limits, while positive li$erty is a$out the a$sence of internal  limits. In the positive aspect of li$erty free and full opportunity is provided $y law to every individual for the development of his personality. 0rof. "aski supports the positive aspect of li$erty. All the modern democratic states accept and recognise the positive aspect of li$erty as against the negative aspect of li$erty, as a$solute and unrestrained freedom will degenerate into licence. 0rof. arker   $elieves all actions of the individual are social:actions as they affect society. Thomas ill Green's view on Liberty '=$ertarianism.orgK$logKwhat:are:negative:positive:li$erty:why:does:it:matter  %.. 1reen $elieved in the eternal consciousness. 1reen’smetaphysics $egins with the uestion of man’s relation to nature. Man, he said, is self:conscious. %he simplest mental act involves consciousness of changes and of distinctions $etween the self and the o$ject o$served. %o know, 1reen asserted, is to $e aware of relations $etween o$jects. A$ove manGwho can know only a small portion of such relationsGis 1od. %his >principle which renders all relations possi$le and is itself  determined $y none of them? is an eternal self:consciousness''. e often euates the actualisation of Lthe eternal consciousness’ with $oth the unfolding of the individuals will, and the actualisation of the 1od in the world. According to him the eternal consciousness is the law of nature or the will of 1od or its idea, or freedom in the conscious union with 1od, or harmony with the true law of ones $eing. e also defined eternal consciousness as freedom in devotion to self:imposed duties. All these arguments are same with different words. e $elieved in unfolding of the eternal consciousness means increasing manifestation of 1od in the world. %he imperatives of divine reason are communicated to the individual through the assimilation and reformulation of the accumulated social wisdom $y individual conscience. 1reen argues 1od is not to $e sought in nature, nor in any $eginning or end of nature, $ut in man himself. >1ods fulfilment of himself? is then the growing explicitness of the eternal consciousness in the life of man G a growth which is self:generating. '5 %hat is, the growing unity of mens will and reason with the will and reason of 1od. %hus, through his society the individual tends to reach an increasingly clear and sophisticated recognition of what is ultimately true and good. e thinks individuals feel a natural drive to understand their pe rceived world as $eing underlain $y a system of categories and relations that is complete and internally ha rmonious. e extends the world of the eternal consciousness to encompass the world of values as well as the world of facts. 1reen holds that mans reason is in an underdeveloped state to the extent that it fails to recognise mans a$solute goal as the attainment of that set of circumstances and character which accords with the ultimate harmony of the worldE that which o$tains when the eternal co nsciousness is fully explicit in the world. 3illing involves choice, and so 1reen argues reason is central to freedom, for it is $ y employing ones rationality that an agent makes choices. 1reen holds that >$y reason, in the practical sense, Qis meant the capacity on the part of Qthe individual to conceive of a $etter state of Qhimself as an end to $e attained $y action? .Reason and will are then connected in such a way as to allow the individual to seek  to attain an >ideal?, understood as a state of affairs which the individual prefers to his present situation. Moreover, the individuals will is only truly free and reasona$le when it draws man to chose that state which is a$solutely prefera$le and leads to harmony. '' '5 %..1reen, !rolegomena to "thics #$%%&. httpBKKplato.stanford.eduKentriesK1reenK %he individuals capacities need to $e given content so that they can $e realised, there$y making him truly satisfied and complete. 1reen therefore sought for a form of li$erty where an individual can grow, choose freely and his choices are with the impression for general good. 3hat is the nature of such a >good for all?S #nfortunately, no one can truly answer this uestion until the goo d life has $een fully actualised. #ntil then, the life aimed at the perfection of ones personality must $e sought. ence,  !icholson argues that >1reen T centres his moral philosophy not on a system of all:encompassing su$stantive principles from which one can deduce the acts which ought to $e done, $ut on a type of character in moral agents?.'- %his type of character is $ased on conscience in its truest sense that is, conscientious judgement which has not $een perverted $y short:sighted self:interest. It is in this move that the individuals li$erty $ecomes an essential element of moral progress. %herefore, 1reen is found as a consistent supporter of positive li$erty which is idealistic and moralistic. Green(s )nalysis *+ Liberty 1reen starts his analysis $y distinguishing $etween positive and negative li$erty. As he phrases it, negative li$erty is one’s freedom to do as he likesE positive li$erty is one’s freedom to do as he likes in  pursuit of his doing what  he likes. As he phrases it, negative li$erty is one’s freedom to do as he likesE positive li$erty is one’s freedom to do as he likes in pursuit of his doing what  he likes. In other words, li$erty has a higher purpose. 3e dont pursue unlimited li$erty, we dont pursue li$erty for its own sakeE rather, we pursue li$erty $ecause and to the extent that  it serves a higher goal, namely, to $e a$le to make the most of ourselves. %o show us that we seek li$erty not for itself 1reen uses the example of someone who walks the wilderness in perfect solitary freedom, hunting the game he likes, growing the crops he likes, pursuing the avocations that he likes, taking what pleasures he likes. %hat person has perfect individual li$erty, at least as far as social constraint is concerned, $ut we would not consider him particularly free. As 1reen says, this person Fis not the slave of man, $ut he is the slave of nature.F eing in society, with '- Ro$ert /.1oodin and 0hilip 0etit, A ompanion to ontemprorary political philosophy,lackwell pu$lishing all of its associated constraints, nevertheless gives this person immensely more freedom that he had in the state of nature. 1reen then moves to the uestion of whether one persons increased li$erty can rightly $e purchased at the expense of another persons decreased li$erty. !o, he says, pointing to our rejection of slave societies, even though the slave:owners might have increased li$erty. !ote that he is not making a utilitarian argument against slaveryE he is not arguing that slavery makes the overall sum of li$erty go down, $ecause the slave has to give up so much more than the master gains. Rather, he is arguing simply that it is wrong to take away one persons li$erty to increase anothers li$erty. 1reen says that property rights are su$ordinated to this goal of positive li$erty, just like other forms of  li$erty. e uses this to o$ject to certain claims a$out property rights G most importantly, that la$our  cannot $e treated as just any other commodity. %his is crucial, $ecause we often speak of a la$our  market in the same terms as we speak of the commodities market. In the latter, we are $uying and selling thingsE in the former, we are $uying and selling peoples a$ility to pursue those ends of self: development. 1reen doesnt deny that la$our can $e $ought and soldE rather, he is arguing that in some circumstances the vagaries of the market might wind up interfering with peoples a$ility to pursue their  self:development. Jinally, 1reen takes up the o$jection that the laws necessary to implement these programs and  protections represent a violation of peoples li$erty. is $asic point is that such laws are not constraints on what we want anyway.  %he type of character that 1reen wishes to promote is $ased on the individuals rational $ut personal evaluation of moral situations, social norms and laws. *tate’s task is to promote understanding and rational harmony in society $y allowing individuals to come to their own recognition of the rationality which is inherent in themselves and their society. %hey should encourage personal li$erty, rather than  personal license. C A&,, "i$erty is a concept a$out whose nature a direct definition or demarcation is not possi$le. %he term li$erty has meant different things to different people. It is derived from the "atin word "i$er which means free. It is not merely a philosophical or legal concept. It is a product of historical circumstances and its meaning can $e made clear $y looking at its developmnt in western political thought. "i$erty is not merely an idea, or ideal, or slogan, or an emotion, $ut it is fundamental concept without which man is hardly a man. It is concerned with the uality of human life. Jreedom for man not merely an empty claim $ut a $asic necessity. It is the value of individuals to the agency. It holds an agreement with it that includes the freedom of will and determinism with the role of responsi$ilities of the individual in society. If li$erty is to $e enjoyed $y all, that li$erty has to $e limited. %he li$erty of one can not $e allowed to $e an o$struction in the li$erty on any other. "i$erty demands the man to $ e a rational $eing and exercise his freedom for rational and ideal o$jects. If this happens then every individual will has his freedom and happiness. owever, as no man is perfect it is necessary to safeguard li$erty $y making some restrictions. ence , li$erty should $e provided $ut in a regulated manner so that every individual gets an eual opportunity to exercise his freedom. In the context of 1reen, he is noticed giving more emphasis on individualism. Individualism is strong in all li$eral thought $ut 1reen had replaced the emphasis of the autonomy of the individual that the formers li$erals supported with the emphasis on the organic society, and the value of community attri$ute. e stressed that an individual is a part of society and he holds the o$ligations towards the community. %he development of his ideas has to $e seen in the context of the historic circumstances given during his lifetime. %hese were highly uneual socio:economic conseuences of the industrial revolution. %he drastic economic d evelopment was accompanied $y  poor work and health conditions. *uch conditions made him to critici@e the $urdens, ineuities of market system $urdened on working class. It urged him to demand policies which would not only in saying $ut de facto provide for eual opportunities and li$erties. e wished for full and eu al human development, where he emphasised upon the eternal link of a man with his consciousness and the need for that consciousness to grow freely. e stressed the need for moral and ethical considerations and o$ligation of society as a whole to $etter ensure each individuals possi$ility of self:reali@ation.. 1reen has $een properly descri$ed as Fthe Jather of ritish Idealism,F. e felt that if an individual is free to make his choices it should $e with the thought of general good and not only  personal greed. e said that li$erty should $e the freedom to follow what one wants to $ut in restrains of harmony and one should urge for ideal goals. CONCLUSION %he project dealt with the concept of li$erty, the life of %.. 1reen, philosophy and mainly concentrated upon his view on li$erty. %.. 1reen was the $eliever of positive li$erty. e supported the notion of individualism and idealism %.. 1reen views li$erty as a positive power capacity of doing or enjoying something worth doing or enjoying. It was not only a legal $ut actual possi$ility. It was $oth legal and social conception. Jor him the uality of li$erty enjoyed $y the people depended upon the moral uality of society and the persons who constituted that society. It was the duty of government to remove o$stacles which stood in the way of moral development of people. According to 1reen an individual should act as per his own conscience. %he moral li$erty is contained in the individualistic interpretation of li$erty. It can $e understood as the autonomy of the rational will, where an individual should recogni@e and perform his duties properly in the alignment of the goodwill of the state. Moral is  judged at a point for li$erty as it is connected with the individual’s self realisation that has a meaning only in the context of common good or welfare for all. It is not concerned with state $ut one’s own self  $ut keeping with the general good in mind. ence, without moral li$erty there is no free scope for development of the personality of an individual. It is a very important characteristic of man. . %he hypothesis that %.. 1reen’s idealist li$erty is inter:related with the concept of moral and individualistic li$erty was found correct. 1reen was also discovered to $e a $eliever that every man has a consciousness that is eternal and related to god. %he thrust of 1reens immanentism was clearly heretical in his day, and this heresy underlies many of his arguments regarding the nature and dynamics of the eternal consciousness. is religious thought and his conception of its relationship to the philosophy strongly suggests that he  $elieved the eternal consciousness did exist within every human $eing, whether or not its existence was recognised and irrespective of the apparent logic of the particular individuals particular life:world. ence the 1reen’s love for free will was related to his $elief that a man eternal consciousness needs to grow to increase manifestation of 1od in the world. &nes experiences and $eliefs are the deciding factors in shaping his choices, $eliefs and followings.  It can $e said that his experiences and $eliefs played a major role in his support for positive li$erty . %he project concludes with an analysis $y 1reen on his views and an analysis on the concept of li$erty, its need and 1reen’s philosophy. 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