PROJECT MANAGEMENT AND PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT
Contents What is a project? How does project management benefit you? Project cycle management (PCM) PCM tools Project managers
Contents What is a project? How does project management benefit you? Project cycle management (PCM) PCM tools Project managers
What is a project ± Defined start start and end, end , specific scope, cost and duration ± A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service or result ± A series of activities aimed at bringing about clearly specified objectives within a defined time period and with a defined d efined budget (EU Aid delivery methods)
of project management
Project management was developed to save time by properly planning a project and considering all relevant factors which may affect its outcome The benefits have been proven - it saves time and money - and generate generatess a more more successful successful outcome . if guidelines are followed
How does project management benefit you? You will have goal clarity and measurement Your resources will be coordinated Your risks will be identified and managed You will increase the possibilities of time savings You will increase the possibilities of cost savings You will increase the th e possibilities of achieving the agreed outcome You will increase the possibilities to deliver projects successfully
Decision-making routes and processes are
costs and resources are controlled systematically ±
processes in the project management activity chain are coordinated to ensure they remain in harmony with one another
The result will help you to get: ± more speed ± greater flexibility ± improved quality
What project management helps you to achieve
Plan tasks in project Avoid dependencies problems Reduce risks Track progress accurately Organize project process and timeline Improve stakeholder - staff communication Improve management of stakeholders expectations Complete within budget and on time
Project success factors Stakeholder involvement Executive management support Clear statement of requirements Proper planning Realistic expectations Smaller project milestones Competent staff Ownership Clear vision and objectives Hard working and focused staff
Project Cycle Management (PCM) PCM ± Is a methodology for the preparation, implementation and evaluation of projects based on the principles of the logical framework approach
± It describes management activities and decision-making procedures used during the life cycle of a project (key tasks, roles and responsibilities, key documents and decision options)
Project cycle management (PCM) Is useful in designing, implementing and monitoring a plan or a project A clear concise visual presentation of all the key components of a plan and a basis for monitoring It clarifies: ± ± ± ±
How the project will work What it is going to achieve What factors relate to its success How progress will be measured
The project cycle Programming
Financin g decision Implementation
Defining project activities Activity scheduling Create and controlling the project activities
An inch of time cannot be bought for an inch of gold." - Chinese proverb
Time management grid Urgency
Urgent and important
Important but not urgent
Urgent but not important
Neither urgent nor important
an old joke when it comes to project management time:
' T he first 90 percent of a project schedule takes 90 percent of the time. T he last 10 percent takes the other 90 percent of the time'
Managing the scope of the project Project scope management constitutes 'the processes to ensure that the project includes all of the work required, and only the work required, to complete the project successfully. Project scope has several purposes: ± It defines what work is needed to complete the project objectives ± It determines what is included in the project ± It serves as a guide to determine what work is not needed to complete the project objectives ± It serves as a point of reference for what is not included in the project
Role of a project manager The role of a project manager is affected by the oneshot nature of the project The role of a project manager is difficult when team members are still linked to their permanent work areas ± Members may be assigned to several projects simultaneously
Managers must rely on their communication skills and powers of persuasion
Project manager duties
Reports to senior management Communicates with users Plans and schedules Obtains and allocates resources Controls risks Manages people Coordinates Implements quality assurance Controls the budget Delivers results
Cross-functional Self-directed Often ad-hoc or temporary Often distributed (geographically) Start and end dates
Project personnel skills Technical Political Problem-oriented ± (vs. discipline-oriented)
Goal-oriented Flexibility, adaptability High self-esteem ± can handle failure, risk, uncertainty, unexpected ± can share blame and credit
PROJECT DESIGN & NETWORK ANALYSIS
Project Design primary deals with organizing, planning and scheduling of projects. The role of Project Design is very important because project development is always subject to budget and schedule constraints.
Designing a Project activity compasses measurement and metrics, management activities, project planning, scheduling, tracking and risk management.
The Design or framework clearly identifies the impacts or objectives the project will achieve. It also allocates measurable and/or tangible performance targets to them.
The framework also clearly identifies the inputs and outputs the project will deliver to enable achievement of the proposed objectives.
Thus, the framework presents a cause and effect matrix where inputs lead to outputs and outputs lead to immediate objectives, which in turn lead to longer-term objectives.
NETWORK ANALYSIS Network analysis is the general name given to certain specific techniques which can be used for the planning, management and control of projects.
It is usually done through 1.
The Critical Path Method or Critical Path Analysis, is a
mathematically based algorithm for scheduling a set of project activities
It is an important tool for effective project management
Commonly used with all forms of projects, including construction, software development, research projects, product development, engineering, and maintenance, among others
The longest path of planned activities to the end of the project The earliest and latest that each activity can start and finish without making the project longer
Critical Path Analysis is an effective and powerful method of assessing:
Tasks which must be carried out Where parallel activity can be carried out The shortest time in which a project can be completed Resources needed to achieve a project The sequence of activities, scheduling, and timings involved Task priorities
PER T PER T, is a statistical tool, used in project management, that is designed to analyze and represent the tasks involved in completing a given project. A PERT chart presents a graphic illustration of a project as a network diagram consisting of numbered nodes (either circles or rectangles) representing events, or milestones in the project linked by labeled vectors (directional lines) representing tasks in the project.
The Framework for PER T and CPM Essentially, there are six steps which are common to both the techniques. The procedure is listed below: 1. Define the Project and all of it¶s significant activities or tasks. The Project (made up of several tasks) should have only a single start activity and a single finish activity. 2. Develop the relationships among the activities. Decide which activities must precede and which must follow others.
3. Draw the "Network" connecting all the activities. Each Activity should have unique event numbers. 4. Assign time and/or cost estimates to each activity 5. Compute the longest time path through the network. This is called the critical path. 6. Use the Network to help plan, schedule, monitor and control the project.
DEFINITION OF TERMS IN A NETWORK
any portions of project (tasks) which required by project, uses up resource and consumes time ± may involve labor, paper work, contractual negotiations, machinery operations Activity on Arrow (AOA) showed as arrow, AON ± Activity on Node beginning or ending points of one or more activities, instantaneous point in time, also called µnodes¶ Combination of all project activities and the events SUCCESSOR
PR ECEEDING ACTIVITY
Example Develop the network for a project with following activities and immediate predecessors: Activity
Network of Seven Activities
Earliest start & earliest finish time Starting at the networks origin (node 1) and using a
starting time of 0, we compute an earliest start (ES) and earliest finish (EF) time for each activity in the network.
can be used to find the earliest finish time for a given activity. EF = ES + t
For example, for activity A, ES = 0 and t = 5; thus the
earliest finish time for activity A is EF = 0 + 5 = 5
Scheduling with activity time Activity
A B C D E F G H I
Immediate predecessors A A A E D,F B,C G,H
Completion Time (week) 5 6 4 3 1 4 14 12 2 Total «« 51
Network with ES & EF time
Activity, duration, ES, EF, LS, LF EF = earliest finish time ES = earliest start time Activity 3
2 LF = latest finish time LS = latest start time
Latest start & latest finish time Starting at the completion point (node 7) and using a latest finish time (LF) of 26 for activity I, we trace back through the network computing a latest start (LS) and latest finish time for each activity
LS = LF ± t can be used to calculate latest start time for each activity.
For example, for activity I, LF = 26 and t = 2, thus the latest start time for activity I is LS = 26 ± 2 = 24
Network with LS & LF time
Meaning Implementation is the stage where all the planned activities are put into action. Before the implementation of a project, the implementers should identify their strength and weaknesses (internal forces), opportunities and threats (external forces). The strength and opportunities are positive forces that should be exploited to efficiently implement a project . The weaknesses and threats are hindrances that can hamper project implementation. The implementers should ensure that they devise means of overcoming them.
Steps for implementation Prepare the infrastructure . -Many solutions are implemented into a production environment that is separate and distinct from where the solution was developed and tested. -This strategy includes a review of hardware, software, communications, etc. -When you are ready for implementation, the production infrastructure needs to be in place.
Coordinate with the organizations involved in implementation -Part of the implementation work is to coordinate the work of any other groups that have a role to play. -In some cases, developers simply failed to plan ahead and make sure the infrastructure groups were prepared to support the implementation. -As a result, the infrastructure groups were forced to drop everything to make the implementation a success.
Implement training -Many solutions require users to attend training or more informal coaching sessions. This type of training could be completed in advance -Training that takes place close to the time of implementation should be made part of the actual implementation plan.
Convert the data. -Data conversion, changing data from one format to another , needs to take place once the infrastructure and the solution are implemented.
Perform final verification in production. -You should have prepared to test the production solution to ensure everything is working as you expect. -Depending on the type of solution being implemented, this verification step could be extensive.
Implement new processes and procedures. -Many IT solutions require changes to be made to business processes as well. These changes should be implemented at the same time that the actual solution is deployed.
Monitor the solution. - Usually the project team will spend some period of time monitoring the implemented solution. If there are problems that come up immediately after implementation, the project team should address and fix them.
project organization is a temporary thing.
It will only exist from the projects start until its end.
project team members are coming from different organizations of part of the organization.
They will all have a temporary assignment to the project.
The project organization should be a result from the project strategy, it should be constructed in such a way that the strategy can be implemented within the environment of the project The project team that does the work should be as small as possible. Stakeholders can also be a part of thr project team.
What's involved in Effective Project Organization? Identifying all key roles and in particular defining their responsibilities (i.e. not just your own element)
crystal clear terms of reference and accountabilities for all key roles and bodies; e.g. sponsor; steering committee etc
clear supplier/ partner / customer interfaces, at all levels, and their specific responsibilities ways of working' for your team, describing how you will work with key partners, supplier and the customer(s)
Types of project organization structure
functional organization is the most common type. 2. It works best in small organizations 3. In a functional structure, the organization is broken into different sections based upon specialty A
Project 1. In
a project structure, all the work is looked at as a project. 2. The project manager has complete control, unlike in the functional structure, and all team members report directly to the project manager. 3. Sometimes these team members are permanent, and sometimes they are hired as temporary workers to help with the project until its completion.
The matrix structure combines both the functional and project structures. 2. Each team member has two bosses; they report both to the functional manager and the project manager.