PROJECT REPORT ON
“ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM SPEED BREAKER” Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Diploma in MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
Board of Technical Education Mumbai, Maharashtra
GUIDED BY:PROF. NAVNEET SINGH SUBMITTED BY 1. DEVENDRA BURDE 2. KASHIF ZAFAR 3. Md. DANISH 4. Md. IQBAL
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING G.H. RAISONI POLYTECHNIC, NAGPUR 2010 – 2011
Certificate This is to certify that the project report entitled
“ELECTRICITY GENERATION BY SPEED BREAKER ” submitted by
DEVENDRA BURDE, KASHIF ZAFAR, MD.
DANISH, MD. IQBAL students in final year Diploma in mechanical Engineering has been carried out successfully, under the guidance of Lect. NAVNEET SINGH and has been submitted in partial fulfillment of requirement for award of Diploma in Mechanical Engineering by M.S.B.T.E. In our college for the academic session 2010-2011.
PROJECT GUIDE Lect. NAVNEET SINGH
PROF. V.V.KALE Sir H.O.D. (ME DEPT)
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG.G.H.RASGNI POLYTECHNIC COLLEGE
SUBMISSION We, DEVENDRA BURDE, KASHIF ZAFAR, MD. DANISH, MD. IQBAL students of final year of the course Diploma in Mechanical Engg. Humbly submitted that we have completed form time to time the Project work as described in this report by our own skill and study between the period from July 2010-11 as per guidance of Lect. NAVNEET SINGH 1) DEVENDRA BURDE 2) KASHIF ZAFAR 3) Md. DANISH 4) Md. IQBAL
And that, we have not copied the report or its any appreciable part from any other literature in contravention of our academic ethics.
Review of Literature
Detail of project
Scope for future
ABSTRACT Energy is the basic need for the economic growth of any country. There is need for the efforts in order to use the energy efficiently& effectively. Every day million of vehicles run on the road which creates the possibility to utilize impact force exerted by them on the road. In this project an effort has been taken to utilize the force into energy form which is exerted by the vehicles and is available in huge amount.
CHAPTER: - 1 INTRODUCTION
CHAPTER: - 1
In our day to day life the energy sources are diminishing with a drastic speed. Soon the day will come when man has to rely on the non-conventional source of energy. Today it is the basic responsibility of a person to save as much energy as he can. Throughout the history of human race major advantage in the civilization has been accompanied by increase in consumption of energy. Today, energy consumption is directly related to the level of living population and industrialization of the country is increase. Hence, in the present time with the drastic increase in the population of vehicles. We need to think about the extraction of energy from these vehicles without any effect on the normal routine of vehicle. In this project the above concept about the possibility of energy extraction is used & an effort is taken to formulate a prototype to convert such concept into reality.
Energy extraction involves the principle of conversion of P.E into E.E. It is a model which has a mechanism connected with a speed breaker in order to absorb the impact force due to the passing of vehicles over a speed breaker. It is designed and fabricated with respect to the vehicle load of range 750kg to 1500kg with a velocity of 15 to 20 km\hr.
CHAPTER 2 PLANNING
Description: To complete any task a systematic planning of work with respect to time period has to be done. Proper synchronization between work and available time takes toward predetermined goals. Similarly in a project work various activate has to be planned which are required to be carried out one or many time? Selection of area of project topic is very important task without work cannot be started. From third week to end of July various problems are discussed to select the object for the project work. Then 2 and 3 weeks of August it is important to search literature survey, which we have done. In this period we discuss the pervious work that carried out by various researchers. This work is planned to carry out from third week of August to second week of September. After all the planning we will go for the designing work, for this we need 4th week of August to 3 week of September. In the 3 week of October and first week of November we will carry out the testing. Costing will be done in the 2 and 3 week of November. Similarly, conclusion and discussion would be carried out in 4 week of November. In the mean period fabrication and modification is done in last week of September and throughout October. In the first week of December the final submission of project work will be carried out.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
CHAPTER 3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE 3.1 History of Electricity:Depute what you have learned; Benjamin Franklin did not “invent” electricity. In fact, electricity did not begin when Benjamin Franklin at when he flew his kite during a thunderstorm or when light bulbs were installed in houses all around the world. The truth is that electricity has always been around because, is simply a flow of electrons between the ground and the clouds. When you touch something and gets a shock, which is really static electricity moving toward you. Hence, electrical equipment like motors, light blubs, and batteries isn’t needed for electricity to exist. They are just creative inventions to harness and use electricity. The first discoveries of electricity were made back ancient Greece. Greek Philosophers discovered that when amber is rubbed against cloth, lightweight objects will stick to it. This is the basis of static electricity. Over the centuries, there have been many discoveries made about electricity. We’ve all heard of famous people like Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Edison, but there have been many other inventors throughout history that were each a part in the development of electricity.
3.1 HOW IS ELECTRICITY GENERATED? Transmission line for long distance
Transformer step up Voltage for transmission
Neighborhood transformer step down voltage
The electricity is generated by any of the following devices which work on Faraday’s Law.
.Generator .Dynamo GENRETOR
An electric generator is a device for converting mechanical energy into electrical energy. The process is based on the relationship between magnetism and electricity. When a wire or any other electrically conductive material moves across a magnetic field, an electric current occurs in the wire. A generator produces electricity. In a generator, something causes the shaft and armature to spin. An electric current is generated, as shown in the picture (lighting bolt)
The Dynamo was the first electrical generator capable of delivering power for industry. The dynamo uses electromagnetic principles to convert mechanical rotation into an alternating electric current. A dynamo machine consists of a stationary structure which generates a strong magnetic field, and a set of rotating windings which turn within that field. On small machines the magnetic field may be provided by a permanent magnet ; larger machines have the magnetic field created by electromagnets. The first dynamo based on faraday’s principles was built in 1832 by Hippolyte Pixii, a French instrument maker. It used a permanent magnet which was rotated by a crank. The spinning magnet was positioned so that its north and south poles passed by a piece of iron wrapped with wire.
This generated electricity can be stored for future use in the form of charge in the device known as battery.
Classification of batteries Batteries are usually divided into two broad classes:
. Primary battery . Secondary battery Primary batteries irreversibly transform chemical energy to electrical energy. Once the initial supply of reactants is exhausted, energy cannot be readily restored to the battery by electrical means. Secondary batteries can have the chemical reactions reversed by supplying electrical energy to the cell, restoring their original composition.
MECHANICAL COMPONENT (RELATED TO PROJECT)
a) CHAIN DRIVE
CHAPTER 4 DETAIL OF PROJECT
Working Principle To utilize the reciprocation movement of speed breaker to rotary motion of freewheel and utilize the rotary movement of freewheel to generate electricity. Construction and Working In our project all the system are arrange in the side of the road & the speed breaker is on road when any vehicle pass from the speed breaker then the speed breaker give the jerk to the connecting rod of the crank & the crank start to rotate which one end is connected to gear & that gear is connected with the freewheel with the help of chain drive & that freewheel is connected with the tyre of bicycle. When the vehicle pass from converted in rotary movement by crank which rotate the tyre & by that the shaft of Dynamo is rotate & by that we generate the Electricity.
Vehicle Pass from the Road
Speed Breaker gets the jerk
Connecting rod get jerk & gives the rotary Movement to crank
Gear gives the rotary movement to free wheel by chain drive
CHAPTER 5 CAD DESIGNING
CHAPTER 5 CAD DESIGNING Pro/ENGINEER CAD Software has been used for designing of Speed breaker Electric generation-Mechanism
The above diagram shows the various component of the mechanical entities of the system. They are as follows. Gear--- Number of teeth 60 Gear--- Number of teeth 44 Dynamo Wheel = 1 cm Wheel – radius 37 cm Number of teeth in sprocket is 17 Crank shaft rotation 10º to 170º
5.1 Design of Project :When we design any machine part or machine us considerer may thing:Load : - Shock Load Motion of machine part :- reciprocating motion converted in rotary motion. Selection of material : - Galvanized mild steel Form and size of part: - less space required Friction resistance and lubrication :- very less lubrication is used. Use of standard parts:- bearing, gear nut sprocket etc. Safety of operation:- very safe; Work shape facilities :- it can be made in any ordinary workshop Number of machine to be manufactured L- Only welding machine are used Cost of Construction :- very less n comparison to other station. Assembly:- very easy, no much necessary of skilled person. Convenient and economical :- Convenient in used and most economical Calculation :Circumference of bigger fly Wheel D = 2 x π x r = 2 x π x 37 = 232.36 cm = 2323.6 mm Circumference of Smaller fly Wheel D = 2 x π x r =2xπx1 = 6.28 cm = 62.8 mm
In 1 minute Number of vehicle passing through road in about 50 in busy road. 1 vehicle gives 320 rotation of bigger wheel 50 vehicle gives = 320 x 50 = 16000 rpm As we know the 360º in completer rotation of cycle wheel 1º = 1/360 32000 = 1/360 x 16000 N = 44.444 rotation in 1 minute Diameter of a crank shaft = 3cm Radius = D/2 = 3/2 = 1.5 cm Torque = = =
= Force x Displacement 60 x 1.5 90 N cm 900 N mm
Then we find speed of dynamo wheel D/d = N2/N 2324.78/62.83 N2 =
= N2/44.4444 = (2324.78x 44.444) / 62.8 1645.26 rpm.
Dynamo N2 =
In 25 vehicle = In 50 vehicle =
822.24 rpm 1645.26 rpm
In 50 vehicle =
Battery 12v / 7amp 2 Bulb = 15watt = 2 x 15 = 20 watt For Charging Volt
12+ 14/v 15 volt
From Dynamo current = 10 amp 10 x 1/5 Time =
= 2 amp 10 amp / 2amp = 5 hours When current rate increase then battery charging time is reduces Precaution for battery automatic cutoff of the power with the help of magnetically relay to be set accordingly it’s prevent from over charging of battery. Bulb used in street lights in India are as follows:GLS (gas filled lamp) Halogen GLS (Gas Filled Lamp) :- This provides light with the amount of heart i.e. current gives more heat and then it produce more light. It consumes very much power. Cost of GLS is 2500/- Rupees. Halogen :- it is one kind of GLS Bulb current flow develop the halogen gas into liquid form. And these are made with the help of chromium & tungsten. Due to hear process the power consumption is more just like GLS. Cost of GLS is 2500/- Rupees
But in our project we use CFL (compact florescent lamp) this is also called critically low power filament circuit which develop less hear with more light that is known as florescent tube(FTL). Due to this process consumption of power is less both the corner tungsten wire is provided which develop florescent in the meaning of light. Mirror :- In our project highly polished mirror is used are used. Spreading of light depending upon dot of mirror (silver ammonium polish) Note: In CFL electric circuit watt reduces but current will increase it consume 10 times less current then other bulb as compare to halogen bulb. Cost of CFL is 100/- Rupees. Rating on a street light for: Halogen and GLS 500 watt of each bulb in one Kilometer 60 bulb wants but we take 100 bulbs. Per bulb gain 250 volts. 1 Bulb 100 Bulb =
= 500 watt 50000 watt or 50 kw
The current required = 50000/250 So dynamo required 200 Amp / 50kw Cost of 50 kw and 200 Amp Dynamo or it required speed 1440rpm to 3500rpm
250Amp 5 lac
For CFL we know that electric current CFL (100 watts) required 10 times less than in comparison to Halogen. In 1 Kilometer (30 poles) are required in 1 pole we use 5 bulb so in 30 poles it required 150 bulbs. But we take 500 bulbs in 1 kilometer 1 bulb 500 bulbs
100 watt 500 x 100
50000watt 50 kw
we know that CFL used 10 times less electric in comparison to Halogen. 50/10 Current required =
= 5kw = 50000/250 X 10 20 Amp
Volt required for bulb 50000 = = 20 Volt
50000/250 X 10
Heating of electricity for 1 bulb halogen bulb for 10 hours. 500 watt X 1 Hours = 5000 watts In 1000 watts
Introduction to Pro/E Wildfire 4.0 Pro/ENGINEER is a parametric, feature based, solid modeling System. It is the only menu driven higher end software. Pro/ENGINEER provides mechanical engineers with an approach to mechanical design automation based on solid modeling technology and the following features. 3-D Modeling The essential difference between Pro/ENGINEER and traditional CAD systems is that models created in Pro/ENGINEER exist as three-dimensional solids. Other 3-D modelers represent only the surface boundaries of the model. Pro/ENGINEER models the complete solid. This not only facilitates the creation of realistic geometry, but also allows for accurate model calculations, such as those for mass properties.
Parametric Design Dimensions such as angle, distance, and diameter control Pro/ENGINEER model geometry. You can create relationships that allow parameters to be automatically calculated based on the value of other parameters. When you modify the dimensions, the entire model geometry can update according to the relations you created.
CAD Geometry of Electric generation-Mechanism
Feature-Based Modeling You create models in Pro/ENGINEER by building features. These features have intelligence, in that they contain knowledge of their environment and adapt predictably to change. Each features asks the user for specific information based on the feature type. For example, a hole has a diameter, depth, and placement, while a round has a radius and edges to round.
Associativity Pro/ENGINEER is a fully associative system. This means that a change in the design model anytime in the development process is propagated throughout the design, automatically updating all engineering deliverables, including assemblies, drawings, and manufacturing data. Associativity makes concurrent engineering possible by encouraging change, without penalty, at any point in the development cycle. This enables downstream functions to contribute their knowledge and expertise early in the development cycle.
Capturing Design Intent The strength of parametric modeling is in its ability to satisfy critical design parameters throughout the evolution of a solid model. The concept of capturing design intent is based on incorporating engineering knowledge into a model. This intent is achieved by establishing feature and part relationships and by the feature-dimensioning scheme. An example of design intent is the proportional relationship between the wall thickness of a pressure vessel and its surface area, which should remain valid even as the size of the vessel changes.
Combining Features into Parts The various types of Pro/ENGINEER features serve as building blocks in the progressive creation of solid parts. Certain
features, by necessity, precede others in the design process. The features that follow rely on the previously defined features for dimensional and geometric references. The progressive design of features can create relationships between features already in the design and subsequent features in the design that reference them. The following figure illustrates the progressive design of features.
Parent-Child Relationships The definition of a feature frequently relies on dimensional and geometric cues taken from another feature. This kind of relationship is termed a parent-child relationship. The parent-child relationship
Pro/ENGINEER. When a parent feature is modified, its children are automatically recreated to reflect the changes in the geometry of the parent feature. It is therefore essential to reference feature dimensions and geometry so design modifications are correctly propagated throughout the model. Because children reference parents, features can exist without children, but children cannot exist without their parents.
Part Modeling • Starting Out in Part Mode--Describes how to start creating a part with Pro/ENGINEER.
Sketcher--Describes how to create sketches in a stand-alone Sketcher mode.
Datums--Describes how to create datum features: datum planes, datum points, datum curves, datum axes, coordinates features, graphs, evaluate features.
Sketching on a Model--Describes how to create 3-D sections in the process of feature creation.
Feature Creation Basics--Describes how to create extruded and revolved protrusions.
Sweeps, Blends, and Advanced Features --Describes how to create sweeps, blends, and advanced features.
Construction Features--Describes how to create construction features, such as holes, slots, and cuts.
Rounds--Describes how to add rounds to part geometry.
Tweak Features--Describes how to create tweak features, such as draft, local push, and section dome.
Creating Surface Features--Describes how to create surface features.
Creating Advanced Surface Features--Describes how to create advanced surface features.
Working with Quilts--Describes operations that you can perform on quilts.
Freeform Manipulation--Describes how to dynamically manipulate a surface of a part or quilt.
Patterning Features--Describes how to pattern features.
Copying Features--Describes how to create and place groups of features, and how to copy features.
Modifying the Part--Describes how to modify and redefine the part.
Regenerating the Part--Describes how to regenerate the part and resolve regeneration problems.
Assembly Just as you can combine features into parts, you can also combine parts into assemblies. Assembly mode in Pro/ENGINEER enables you to place component parts and subassemblies together to form assemblies, as well as to design parts based on how they should fit together. You can then modify, analyze, or reorient the resulting assemblies.
Overview To create a subassembly or an assembly, you must place a base component or feature, then attach additional components to the base and to each other. You cannot attach components to an exploded assembly. You must unexplode it first. You can add components to an assembly in the following ways: •
Attach a component parametrically by specifying its position relative to the base component or other components in the assembly.
Attach a component nonparametrically using the Package command in the COMPONENT menu. Use packaging as a temporary means to include the component in the assembly; then finalize its location with assembly instructions.
Create a part or subassembly directly in Assembly mode. This option is available only if you have a Pro/ASSEMBLY license.
Working with Assemblies To work with an assembly, use the File menu to open or create an assembly file (see Introduction to Pro/ENGINEER for more information). The ASSEMBLY menu displays the following options: •
Component--Manipulates assembly components (using the COMPONENT menu).
Feature--Manipulates assembly features (using the ASSY FEAT menu).
Modify--Modifies assembly or component dimensions and features (using the ASSEM MOD and MODIFY menus).
Restructure--Modifies assembly groupings, moving components from one assembly or subassembly to another (using the RESTRUCTURE menu).
Simplfd Rep--Creates, modifies, or sets a simplified representation (using the SIMPLFD REP menu).
Design Mgr--Accesses tools to manage assembly design (using the DESIGN MGR menu).
Expld State--Creates, sets, and modifies explode states of an assembly (using the EXPLD STATE menu).
Regenerate--Updates modified part and assembly dimensions (using the PRT TO REGEN menu).
Relations--Edits parametric labels and adds or edits constraint equations (using the MODEL REL and RELATIONS menus).
Family Tab--Edits assembly family tables or creates assembly instances (using the FAMILY TABLE menu).
Set Up--Assigns assembly mass properties, and specifies length units, mass units, dimension bounds, and other set up properties (using the ASSEM SETUP menu).
Layer--Performs layer procedures (using the LEVEL SEL and MODEL INFO menus).
Program--Provides an option (Pro/PROGRAM) to create a program to control the design of parts in an assembly (using the PROGRAM menu).
Integrate--Retrieves integration project files (created in Pro/PDM) and generates difference reports to resolve differences between source and target assemblies (using the INTEGRATE menu).
Copy From--Copies entire assemblies or subassemblies into the new assembly.
Initial Procedures To place a base component or feature, you must either create three orthogonal datum planes as the first feature, assemble an existing component (part, subassembly, or skeleton model), or create a base component.
Datum Planes as the First Features When you create three orthogonal datum planes as the first features in an assembly, you can assemble a component with respect to these planes, or create a part in Assembly mode as the first component. Using datum planes as the first feature has the following advantages: •
You can redefine the placement constraints of the first assembled component.
You can pattern the first component you add, creating a flexible design.
You can replace the first component with interchangeable components.
You can reorder subsequent components to come before the first one (if the components are not children of the first component).
Placing a Base Component If you do not create three orthogonal datum planes, the base component is the first part, subassembly, or skeleton model placed into an assembly. In many ways it is like the base feature of a part. The initial assembly units are the same as the units of the base component. When a base component is the first object in an assembly (before any assembly features), no placement constraints are defined. The component is simply placed by default. If you replace a base component with interchangeable components, the replacing components will always be placed by default as well.
Creating a Base Component When you create the first component of an assembly, you can either create an empty component or copy from an existing component. As with an assembled base component, the initial assembly units are the same as the base component, and
interchange components that replace the created base component will always be in the default orientation. For more information on creating a base component.
Assembling a Component Parametrically You can position a component relative to its neighbors (components or assembly features) so that its position is updated as its neighbors move or change. This is called parametric assembly. Pro/ENGINEER allows you to specify constraints to determine how and where the component relates to the assembly. To assemble a component parametrically, use the Component Placement dialog box. You can access this dialog box through either the pop-up menu in the Model Tree window or the Assemble command in the COMPONENT menu. For more information about the Model Tree Window.
The Component Placement dialog box contains two tabs, as shown in the following figure. The Place tab provides options for constraining a new component, and the Move tab provides options for translating, rotating, and adjusting a component once you have placed it in the assembly. For more
information on the Move tab, the following boxes appear in the Place tab in the Component Placement dialog box: •
Display Component In--Allows you to change the screen window in which the component appears while you position it. This box has two option buttons, which you can change at any time.
Separate Window--Shows the component in its own window while you specify its constraints.
Assembly--Shows the component in the assembly window while you specify its constraints.
Constraints--Displays the constraints that you have defined, and allows you to add new constraints or remove existing ones.
Add--Adds a placement constraint for the component.
Remove--Deletes a placement constraint for the component. To access this option, you must select a constraint in the Constraints box.
Retr Refs--Retrieves any other components which define the location of the component. This option appears if, in a simplified representation, you redefine a component that depends on components that are not in the simplified representation.
aint Type --Allows you to select a type of constraint to define. •
Component Reference--Allows you to specify a reference on the placed component.
Assembly Reference--Allows you to specify a reference in the assembly.
Offset--Allows you to define the offset from the reference. (Valid for Mate Offset and Align Offset constraints.)
Placement Status--Displays the current placement status of the component.
and Buttons •
OK--Places the component with the current constraints
Preview--Shows the location of the component as it would be with the current placement constraints.
Cancel--Quits the placement operation and removes the component from the Model Tree.
How to Assemble a Component 1. Either choose ASSEMBLY > Component > Assemble, or click the right mouse button on the assembly name in the Model Tree and choose Component > Assemble. 2. Select the component. The Component Placement dialog box appears and the component appears in the Assembly Window. 3. Choose Add, then select the type of constraint to add. The default constraint type is Mate. 4. Define the placement constraints. As you do so, Pro/ENGINEER automatically updates a line in the Constraints box corresponding to the constraint. If you have chosen Assembly from the Display Component In box, the placement of the component in the assembly window is also updated as you specify constraints. As you add constraints to the component, the Placement Status window is updated with the following messages: •
5. When the component is either ``fully constrained,'' or ``partially constrained,'' click OK to leave the Component Placement dialog box. If constraints are incomplete, you can leave the component as packaged components follow the behavior dictated by the configuration file option package constraints
Note: Since the components are packaged but not placed, you cannot create children that reference them. If constraints are conflicting, you can restart or continue placing the component. If you choose to restart, it erases all previously defined constraints for the component.
Placement Constraint Types Using the TYPE options, you can specify 11 placement constraint types: mate, mate offset, align, align offset, insert, orient, coordinate system, tangent, edge on surface, point on surface, and default. This section provides a description and example of each type. If you are aligning or mating a datum plane, a yellow arrow appears on the specified datum plane by default, pointing in the direction that the yellow side currently faces. The Datum Orient dialog box also appears; choose Red or Yellow to indicate which side of the datum plane should face in the direction indicated by the arrow.
Mate Option Use the Mate option to make two surfaces touch one another: coincident and facing each other. When using datum’s, you must specify which sides, red or yellow, to mate.
Steps in Modeling of the Axial Turbine The following is the list of steps that are use to create the required model:
The base feature is created on three orthogonal datum planes.
Creating two circular entities on either sides of rod crank and piston pin end (with the help of sketcher Option).
Filling the material between the crank and piston pin End (with the help of EXTRUDE Option).
The second feature is also created on datum planes.
A cut-feature is created on the second feature.
Creation of plane perpendicular to axis for first hole.
Creating the first hole at the piston end (with the help of Make HOLE Option).
Creation of plane perpendicular to axis for second hole.
Creating the second hole at the piston end (with the help of Make HOLE Option).
1000 watt = 10 Rupees So 1 watt = 10/1000 50000 watts = (10/1000) X 50000 = 500 Rupees in one day for one bulb In one year cost of electricity = 500 X 365 = 182500 Rupees Total cost of bulb. = =
Cost of Dynamo + Cost of electricity + Cost
500000 + 182500 + 250000 932500 rupees
In CFL Cost of 100 watt CFL 500 CFL = Rating :1000 watt So1 = 5000 watt = = In one year 365 x 50 necessary) Total cost = =
= 100 rupees 50000 Rupees
= 10 Rs. In one day 10/1000 (10/1000) X 5000 50 Rs. = 18250 Rs (this cost is not
= Dynamo cost + bulb cost + battery cost 100000 + 300000+50000 450000Rs.
Battery required fro CFL 20 Amp; 5kw
CHAPTER 6 Validation
CHAPTER 6 Validation The testing of the system was done and the following result were observed testing below: Instruments used : Electric Multimeter, tachometer, Stop watch. Sr. No.
Rpm of Motor
1 2 3 4
60 120 180 320
Voltage Time Generated (Volts) Required for charging Battry 6V 16 Hours 12 V 12 Hours 18 V 8 Hours 24 V 4 Hours
CHAPETER 7 CONCLUSION
CHAPETER 7 CONCLUSION CONCLUSION
-Low Budget electricity production -No obstruction to traffic -Less floor area -maintenance is very easy -multiplexes, malls, toll booths, signals, etc can make use of this system.
It can be used for Charging batteries and using them to light up the streets, etc. Principle of operation: Simple conversion from Mechanical energy to Electrical energy. It Generates electricity using the vehicle weight (potential energy) as input. The 3 different mechanisms proposed are: -Roller mechanism -Crank-shaft mechanism -Rack- Pinion mechanism: This mechanism is most popularly used. This is because of the disadvantages of other mechanisms: Crank-shafts are required to be mounted on bearings which creates balancing problem leading to mechanical vibrations which in turn damage the bearings.Secondly as bearings are of sliding type, any occurrence of variable load( which is bit obvious in case of vehicles!!) leads to balancing problem. From the test carried it is clear that the system can charge a battery within 4 hours and it can give a backup of about 4-5 hour. It was found that at high rpm the battery gets recharged very fast i.e. within 4 hours The power can supplied for approximately 4 to 5 hours to the 20 watts fluorescent light tube. The annual saving of electricity will be 523.602 KW per year if the system works at full efficiency for 8 hours per day.
CHAPETER 8 FUTURE WORK
The system can be modified to store a greater amount of energy to have a longer backup power. This can be done by implementation of the system on road which is busy running.
CHAPETER 9 BIBLIOGRAPHY The following are some books and sites from where the data was used or imported for the project. Electrical Engineering by Dr. B. L. Thareja