A. Question Question and and Answer Answer Q1. Define Research? What are the characteristics of Research?
Ans: RESEARCH: Research is a systematic investigation to search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Research hels to arrive at new conclusions. !t enables us to find solutions to certain roblems. Research is often referred to as "scientific in#uiry$ into a secific roblem or solution. %his is because the search for facts needs to be undertaken systematically and not arbitrarily. arbitrarily. %he systematic aroach to research enables the research to search for facts in a rational manner to arrive at conclusions whereas the arbitrary aroach attemts to find solutions to roblems based on one$s belief and imagination. Research involves a lanned aroach to unravel the mystery or une&lained. A Researcher has to lan his work in advance so as to anticiate any obstacles in the course of research. research. Such a lan hels the researcher to take decisions decisions relating relating to the samle samle si'e( the tye of data to be collected( the analytical tools to be alied etc. Hence the research design design could be defined as the blue rint secifying secifying every stage of action in course of research. %he "Research )esign$ is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research urose with economy in rocedure. )efinition of Research: * According to +illiam C. Emory in his book ",usiness Research -ethods$( Research is any organi'ed in#uiry designed and carried out to rovide information for solving a roblem./ According to 0. Clover and H. ,alsley(/ Research is the rocess of systematically obtaining accurate answers to significant and ertinent #uestions by use of scientific method for gathering and interreting information./
CHARAC%ER!S%!CS 12 RESEARCH: 3. SC!E SC!E4% 4%!2 !2!C !C -E% -E%H1 H1) ) Research uses scientific method to find facts or to rovide solutions to secific roblems. %he resear researcher cher needs to follow follow a system systemati aticc roced rocedure ure to conduct conduct research research.. %here %here is a set of rocedures that have h ave been tested over a eriod of time and are suitable to use in research. Each ste in the research rocedure must follow the other. 5. 1,6E 1,6EC% C%!0 !0E E A4) A4) 718 718!C !CA7 A7 %he scientific research is ob9ective and logical in nature. Research is based on valid rocedures and rinciles. %here is a need to collect relevant( accurate and ob9ective data to investigate into the research roblem. . A;;7 A;;7!E !E) ) A4) A4) ,AS! ,AS!C C RESEA RESEARC RCH H Research is broadly classified into two grous: *
Alied Research ,asic Research Alied Research is designed to solve ractical roblems of the modern world( rather than to ac#uire knowledge. %he goal of alied research is to imrove the human condition. ,asic or fundamental Research is driven by a scientist$s curiosity or interest in a scientific #uestion. %he main goal of basic research is to e&and man$s knowledge. %here is no obvious commercial value to discoveries that result from basic research. <. E-;!R!CA7 4A%=RE 12 RESEARCH Research can be based on direct e&erience or observation by the research. Emirical Research is undertaken to study certain situations or event based on e&eriments( observations and surveys. >. 8E4ERA7!SA%!14 Research findings can be alied to larger oulation. A researcher can conduct a research on a samle of resondents that reresent the universe. %he samle selection must be done systematically so that it roerly reresents the whole oulation or the u niverse. ?. C14%R177E) 4A%=RE 12 ,AS!C RESEARCH !n real life e&erience there are many factors that affect the outcome. A single event is often the result of several factors. +hen similar event is tested in research( due to the broader nature of factors are taken as controlled factors while others are tested for ossible effect. @. )E0E71;-E4% 12 ;R!4C!;7ES A4) %HE1R!ES A systematic research hels to develo new rinciles and theories. Such rinciles and theories can be useful to several organisations to manage an d deal with eole and things in a better way. . -A4!;=7A%!14 12 C14CE;%S %he researcher tries to maniulate things or concets. %he maniulation or uroseful control of things or concets is done with a definite urose so as to arrive at statements of generality. B. -=7%!;=R;1SE AC%!0!% Research is a multiurose activity. !t hels to discover new facts or verify old facts. !t hels not only to redict future events( but also may hel to control such events. !t establishes casual relationshi between variables. 3D. Q=A4%!%A%!0E A4) Q=A7!%A%!%0E RESEARCH Research undertaken to measure #uantity or amount is called as #uantitative research. 1n the other hand( research which is undertaken to find out the #uality of a articular situation or henomenon is called as #ualitative research.
In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll Q2. Explain need of Research in Business & Social Science? first need to download it.
Ans: 4EE) 12 RESEARCH !4 ,=S!4ESS: ,usiness organi'ations can gain Cancel significantly with the hel of research. %he research and Download And Print develoment to develo new roducts( imrove the design and #uality of e&isting ones( and to reduce costs. 3. ;R1)=C% A4) )E0E71;-E4% %hrough marketing research( a business firm can identify the customer re#uirements( and therefore it is ossible to design new models or to modify e&isting roducts to satisfy the customers. 5. RE)=C%!14 !4 C1S%S Research in business hels a firm to reduce costs. %he research may indicate the areas where high costs are involved. !t may be ossible for the firm to cut down the costs in certain areas. . C=S%1-ER RE7A%!14SH!;S -arket research may hel the firm to develo good relations with its customers( esecially the riority customers. Research can hel the firm to collect valuable inuts about riorities customers. <. )EA7ER RE7A%!14SH!;S )ealer relationshis are vital for the survival and success of business organisation. -arket Research enables a business firm to main good relationshis with dealers. %hrough research( the firm can get feedback from dealers regarding their e&ectations. >. C1R;1RA%E !-A8E 2irms need to build( maintain( and enhance cororate image in the minds of stakeholders( customers( dealers( emloyees. 4EE) 12 RESEARCH !4 S1C!A7 S%=)!ES: Social sciences refer to business( commerce( demograhic( sychology( and sociology. Research in social sciences deal with the eole$s behaviour in their different roles( such as consumers( consultant( learners( leaders( teachers( trainers( emloyees( e&ecutive( roducers( arents( artists( advisors etc... 3. )E0E71;-E4% 12 -E%H1)1718 )eveloment of -ethodology to deal with social issues is one of the contributions of social research. 2or instance( organisations face the roblem of e&ecutive stress( lack of concern of ethics( oor leadershi styles etc %o overcome such roblem( certain methodology needs to be develoed. 5. S1C!A7 )E0E71;-E4%
In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll Social Research contributes to societal develoment. Social develoment can be measured in first need to download it. terms of literacy( life e&ectancy( and other social develoment indicators. Research can be taken for social develoment standards of the society. Cancel Download And Print . S1C!A7 +E72ARE
8overnment organisations can undertake social research to enhance social welfare of the society. Research can hel to design suitable ackage of measures to reduce income ine#ualities( to reduce overty and unemloyment and to overcome roblems of social evils. <. 21R-=7A%!14 12 4E+ %HE1R!ES Social Research hels formulate new theories. %he e&isting theories can be re*evaluated and modified with the hel of social research. >. EC141-!C ;7A44!48 Social ;lanning can be immense use in economic lanning in a given society. Economic lanning re#uires basic data on the various asects of our society and economy( resource endowment and the needs( hoes and roblems of the eole etc
Q3. Discuss different types of Research?
Ans: %;ES 12 RESEARCH: 3. ,AS!C RESEARCH !t is also called "ure$ or "fundamental$ research. !t is undertaken to develo a theory or a body of knowledge. %he main goal is to e&and man$s knowledge. %here is no commercial angle. !t generates new ideas( rinciles and theories which may not be immediately utili'ed. 5. A;;7!E) RESEARCH !t is a scientific study designed to solve ractical roblems rather than merely ac#uiring knowledge. !t is used to find solutions to everyday roblems and develo innovative technologies. . )ESCR!;%!0E RESEARCH !t is also known as Statistical research rovides data about the oulation or universe being studied. !t is used when the ob9ective is to rovide a systematic descrition that is factual and accurate as ossible. <. A4A7%!CA7 RESEARCH !t is undertaken to collect facts or data( or the facts and data that are readily available. %he researcher attemts to critically evaluate fact and data so as to arrive at conclusions >. E-;!R!CA7 RESEARCH
order to print this document from Scribd, you'll !t is defined as research Inbased on e&erimentation or observation. !t is a way of gaining first need to download it. knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or e&erience or e&eriment.
?. Q=A4%!%A%!0E RESEARCH
Download And Print !t is a method of in#uiry emloyed in many discilines( esecially in social sciences. Researchers aim to gather an in deth understanding of human behaviour and reasons that govern the behaviour. Cancel
@. Q=A7!%!%A%!0E RESEARCH !t is e&laining henomena by collecting numerical data that are analysed using mathematically based methods. %he ob9ective is to develo and emloy mathematical models( theories and hyothesis ertaining to henomena.
Q. What is Research !ethodolo"y? What are re#uisite for $ood Scientific !ethods?
Ans: RESEARCH -E%H1)1718: -ethodology is the systematic analysis of methods alied to a field of study. !t comrises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and rinciles associated with a branch of knowledge. -ethodology does not set out to rovide solutions. %herefore( it is not the same as method. !t offers the theoretical base for understanding which method( best methods that can be alied to a secific case. REQ=!S!%E 12 811) SC!E4%!2!C -E%H1): 3. CARE2=7 718!CA7 A4A7S!S 12 ;R1,7E5. =4EQ=!01CA7 )E2!4!%!14 12 %ER-S A4) C14CE;%S . C177EC%!14 12 )A%A ;A%!E4% %1 ;R1,7E<. C7ASS!2!CA%!14 12 )A%A >. EF;RESS!14 12 )A%A !4 Q=A4%!%A%!0E %ER?. R!81R1=S EF;ER!-E4% @. S1=4) G 718!CA7 REAS14!48 . EFAC% C14C7=S!14 B. C1-;7E%E E7!-!4A%!14 12 ;ERS14A7 EQ=A%!14 3D. C1-;REHE4S!0E RE;1R%
Q%. Explain stepsprocess in Scientific Research?
Ans: S%E;S;R1CESS !4 SC!E4%!2!C RESEARCH: 3. !)E4%!2!CA%!14 A4) SE7EC%!14 12 RESEARCH ;R1,7E-
In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll !t is the first and the most imortant ste of research rocess. !t is identification of a destination first need to download it. before undertaking a 9ourney. !t is said that a roblem half defined is a roblem half solved.
5. RE0!E+ 12 7!%ERA%=RE
Download And Print %he researcher should undertake e&tensive literature survey relating to the roblem. He may consider various ublications such as 9ournals( books( reorts and other ublished matter. Cancel
. 21R-=7A%!14 12 H;1%HES!S Researcher should formulate hyothesis. !t is a tentative assumtion made to test its logical or emirical conse#uences. <. RESEARCH )ES!84 %he researcher must reare a research design. !t is a logical and systematic lan reared for conducting a research study. !t can be called as a blue rint for collection( measurement and analysis of data. >. )ES!84!48 %HE Q=ES%!144A!RE !f the researcher cannot solve the roblem with the hel of secondary data( observation and e&erimentation( then he should make the effort to collect rimary data from the field for which he re#uires a #uestionnaire. ?. SA-;7!48 )ES!84 !t is not ossible to collect data from each member of the universe or eole under study due to time constraints. %herefore( the researcher needs to select a samle of resondents that reresent the universe. @. C177EC%!14 12 )A%A ;roblem solving is essentially a rocess of collecting information. %he data can be collected from various sources i.e. rimary and secondary data. . ;R1CESS!48 12 )A%A %he data collected is mostly available in raw form and therefore( it needs to be rocessed. !t involves editing( coding( classification and tabulation. B. )A%A A4A7S!S 1rganisation of data is generally followed by its analysis and interretation. %he urose of analysing data is to establish relation between information and roblem. !nterretation refers to analysis and generali'ation of results. !t enables to clear the meaning and imlication of study. 3D. H;1%HES!S %ES%!48
In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll After analysis and interretation of data( the researcher must be in a osition to test the first need to download it. hyothesis. %he researcher should find out whether or not the research findings suort the hyothesis or rove to be contrary. Cancel Download And Print
33. ;RE;ERA%!14 12 RESEARCH RE;1R% %he research findings and conclusions are resented with the hel of research reort. !t is divided into: * ;reliminary Contents -ain ,ody Conclusion ;art
35. 21771+ =; RE;1R% %he researcher should submit the reort to concerned authorities. A business research reort should be submitted to guide for aroval and then to the concerned university.
Q'. Write a note on Re(ie) of *iterature?
Ans: RE0!E+ 12 7!%ERA%=RE: Review of 7iterature is an imortant stage in research activity. !t refers to e&tensive review of literature relating to research roblem which the researcher intends to undertake. %he researcher reviews revious research studies( relevant reference books( articles in secific 9ournals and other ublished sources. Such Review of 7iterature rovides a good insight into the research roblem. %he researcher gets familiar with all revious research studies undertaken by other researchers which are relevant to the research ro9ect. %he research scholar reviews the findings of revious research studies. He evaluates the conclusion drawn from the research findings. He also analysis the imact of recommendations made by other researchers. 7iterature Review can be conducted throughout the research activity. !t starts with identification and selection of the activity. !t continues throughout the various stages of research rocess and ends with the writing of research reort. Review of 7iterature hels to identify the concets relating to the research toic and otential relationshi between them. !t also hels in aroriate analysis of data. -oreover( it gives broader vision and even the secondary data to the research. 2ollowing literature is carefully reviewed and studied by the researcher. A literature review is a form of research reort( where the "data$ are the readings that have been located and the ma9or art of the reort is the analysis of that "data$. And this is erhas the heart of the matter I analytical insight. A review must not simly describe or summarise the literature( a review must critically assess that literature.
order to print this document from Scribd, you'll A literature review is an Inevaluative reort of studies found in the literature related to your first need to download it. selected area. %he review should describe( summari'e( evaluate and clarify this literature. !t should give a theoretical basis for the research and hel you determine the nature of your own research. Select a limited numberCancel of works Download that are central to your area rather than trying to And Print collect a large number of works that are not as closely connected to your toic area.
A literature review goes beyond the search for information and includes the identification and articulation of relationshis between the literature and your field of research. +hile the form of the literature review may vary with different tyes of studies( the basic uroses remain constant: ;rovide a conte&t for the research J 6ustify the research J Ensure the research hasnKt been done before Lor that it is not 9ust a Mrelication studyMN J Show where the research fits into the e&isting body of knowledge J Enable the researcher to learn from revious theory on the sub9ect J !llustrate how the sub9ect has been studied reviously J Highlight flaws in revious research J 1utline gas in revious research J Show that the work is adding to the understanding and knowledge of the field J Hel refine( refocus or even change the toic
Q+. What is Research Desi"n? What are its essentials?
Ans: RESEARCH )ES!84: According to )avid G 4achmias( Research )esign actually constitutes the blue rint for the collection( measurement and analysis of the data./ According to 6ohn +. ,est( Research )esign is the lan( structure( strategy and means of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers of research #uestions. !t is a lan or an overall scheme or a rogramme of research. %he Research )esign is the ground lan for conducting the research investigation. !t rovides guidelines to researcher to hel him kee track of his actions and to know he is moving in the right direction in collecting data. ESSE4%!A7S 12 811) RESEARCH )ES!84: 3. 21C=S 14 1,6EC%!0ES
order to print this document from Scribd, you'll %he research design mustInfocus on its ob9ectives. %he ob9ectives must be very clear to the first need to download it. researcher as well as to the researcher staff. %he ob9ectives differ deending on the tye of the research. Cancel Download And Print 5. 27EF!,!7!%
%he research design should not be rigid. !t must be fle&ible deending uon the situation. . ;!71% S%=) !t is always advisable to conduct a ilot study for finali'ing the research design. ;ilot study is a research activity undertaken for small segment of research universe. !t is conducted to find out whether or not the researcher would be in a osition to collect relevant data from it sources( or whether or not the data would be relevant to solve the roblem. <. ACCE;%A4CE %he research design should be accetable to the ersons concerned. !n case of commercial research( the research design should be accetable to the higher authorities. !n case of academic research( the research should be accetable to the research guide. !n case of social research( the research design should be accetable social and other organisations that are going to finance or sonsor the research activity.
>. S=!%A,!7!% %he research design must be suitable to achieve research ob9ectives. Certain factors are considered while finali'ing the research designs such as availability of funds( time( manower etc. ?. S!-;7!C!% %he research design should be simle and easy to understand. %he language used should be clear and simle. %he research design must be suorted by footnotes. %echnical 9argons must be avoided. @. C1S% I E22EC%!0E %he research design should be cost effective. !n a commercial research( the research work based on research design must bring benefits to the organisation. %he research design should enable roer collection and analysis of data which in turn should facilitate roer decision making. . EASE !4 !-;7E-E4%A%!14 %he research design should facilitate roer imlementation of the research activity. %he research design should avoid comlicated rocedures an d techni#ues which are difficult to follow. B. %RA!4!48 %1 RESEARCH S%A22
In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll %o conduct effective research roer training must be given to the research staff. %raining hels first need to download it. to imrove knowledge( attitude( skills( and social behav iour.
Download And Print Q,. Explain different types of Research Desi"n? Cancel
Ans: %;ES 12 RESEARCH )ES!84: 3. EF;71RA%1R RESEARCH 5. C14C7=S!0E RESEARCH 3. EF;71RA%1R RESEARCH: !t is conducted to e&lore information about the nature or cause of research roblem. !t is conducted when the causes of the research roblem are not known to the researcher. -anagement may conduct e&loratory research to find out the causes of declining sales in the ast few months. %hey may be declined due to certain number of factors such as : roblem in #uality of roduct ( increase in cometition( ineffective romotion mi&( oor management of channels of distribution ( incometence of sales( force etc. E&loratory research can be conducted for following uroses such as( to define the roblem more clearly( to develo hyothesis( to identify alternate courses of action( to isolate key variables and to develo relationshis among the variables for further e&amination or to establish riorities for further research etc. E&loratory researches have certain uses such as( background information( develoment of hyothesis and research riorities. -ethods used in e&loratory research are: * Secondary data Analysis E&erience Surveys Case Analysis 2ocus 8rous and( ;ro9ective %echni#ues
5. )ESCR!;%!0E RESEARCH !t is conducted to obtain descritive information about central asects of a roblem. 2or instance( a researcher may like to know detailed information about students aearing for their %. ,C1e&ams of 4.- College in resect of age( income( gender( occuation etc. it may be undertaken for commercial uroses.
In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll %hrough descritive research it would be difficult to answer the #uestion "why$. !n order to first need to download it. answer the #uestion "why$( a casual research is re#uired.
%here are two tyes of descritive research: Cancel
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Cross Sectional Studies 7ongitudinal Studies
Q-. What is saplin"? Explain essentials of "ood saplin"?
Ans: SA-;7!48 Samling is a rocess used in statistical analysis in which a redetermined number of observations are taken from a larger oulation. %he methodology used to samle from a larger oulation deends on the tye of analysis being erformed( but may include simle random samling or systematic samling . ESSE4%!A7S 12 811) SA-;7!48 1. Representati(e/
%he samle should truly reresent the characteristics of the verse. 2or this investigator should be free from bias and the method of collection should be aroriate. 2. 0de#uacy/
%he si'e of the samle should be ade#uate i.e.( neither too large nor small but commensurate with the si'e of the oulation.
%here should be homogeneity in the nature of all the units selected for the samle. !f the units of the samle are of heterogeneous character it will imossible to make a comarative study with them. . ndependent aility/
%he method of selection of the samle should be such that the items of the samle are selected in an indeendent manner. %his means that lection of one item should not influence the selection of another item in any manner d that each item should be selected on the basis of its own merit.
Q14. Explain different techni#ues and ethods of $ood Saplin"?
Ans: SA-;7!48 -E%H1)S %here are two tyes of samling methods: * ;robability -ethods
4on* ;robability -ethods In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll first need to download it.
;R1,A,!7!% -E%H1)S !t is also known as random samling. means ossible chance. %herefore( each Cancel ;robability Download And Print element of the oulation has known chance or oortunity of being selected or included in the samle. %he following are the tyes of robability methods: * 3. Simle Random Samling %his is the most oular method which is normally followed to collect data. %he techni#ue rovides every element or unit an e#ual chance of being selected in the samle. 5. Systematic Samling !t is a variation of simle random method. %his techni#ue is suerior to simle random method. . Cluster Samling !t is also called as "Area Samling$. !n this method( instead of selecting individual units( researcher divides the oulation into clusters or grous and accordingly samle is selected. <. Stratified Samling %he oulation is divided into various strata or segments based on income( occuation( age( religion( gender etc.
414 I ;R1,A,!7!% -E%H1)S %he following are the tyes of non*robability methods: * 3. Convenience Samling %he samle is selected as er the convenience of the researcher. Every element of the oulation does not get a chance of being selected. %he researcher may consider factors to select the samle of resondents. 5. Accidental Samling %he researcher may select the samle by chance without following a systematic rocedure. Every element of the universe does not get the chance of getting selected. . 6udgement Samling
In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll Samle is selected on the basis of 9udgment of the researcher or some other erson assisting or first need to download it. advising the researcher.
<. Quota Samling
Download And Print %he researcher allocates certain #uota to certain grous under study. %he #uotas differ from each area deending uon factors such as age( occuation( income etc. Cancel
>. Se#uential Samling !t is a non*robability samling techni#ue wherein the researchers ick a single or a grou of sub9ects in a given time interval( conducts his stud y( analyses the results then icks another grou of sub9ects if needed and so on. ?. Snowball Samling !t is a non*robability samling techni#ue that is used by researchers to identify otential sub9ects in studies where sub9ects are hard to locate.
Q11. What is Secondary Data? Explain its liitations?
Ans: SEC14)AR )A%A Secondary data is readily available data from ublic rinted sources. !t is generally used in the case of academic research and to certain e&tent in the case of research. However( commercial research re#uires more of rinting data as comared to secondary data. %he researcher makes first attemts to obtain information from secondary sources to solve the roblem. However( when secondary data is insufficient and outdated( the researcher resorts to rimary data.
7!-!%A%!14S 12 SEC14)AR )A%A 3. ;R1,7E- 12 ACC=RAC %he #uality of secondary data is affected due to roblem of accuracy. 1ne cannot be certain of the genuineness of data. %he records may not be well maintained or organised. %herefore( one must be cautious in using secondary data. 5. ;R1,7E- 12 RE7!A,!7!%
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