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Question And Answer Of Research Methodology

Question and Answer of Research Methodology




A. Question Question and and Answer  Answer  Q1. Define Research? What are the characteristics of Research? Ans: RESEARCH: Research is a systematic investigation to search for new facts in any branch of knowledge. Research hels to arrive at new conclusions. !t enables us to find solutions to certain roblems. Research is often referred to as "scientific in#uiry$ into a secific roblem or solution. %his is  because the search for facts needs to be undertaken systematically and not arbitrarily. arbitrarily. %he systematic aroach to research enables the research to search for facts in a rational manner to arrive at conclusions whereas the arbitrary aroach attemts to find solutions to roblems based on one$s belief and imagination. Research involves a lanned aroach to unravel the mystery or  une&lained. A Researcher has to lan his work in advance so as to anticiate any obstacles in the course of research. research. Such a lan hels the researcher to take decisions decisions relating relating to the samle samle si'e( the tye of data to be collected( the analytical tools to be alied etc. Hence the research design design could be defined as the blue rint secifying secifying every stage of action in course of research. %he "Research )esign$ is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research urose with economy in rocedure. )efinition of Research: * According to +illiam C. Emory in his book ",usiness Research -ethods$( Research is any organi'ed in#uiry designed and carried out to rovide information for solving a roblem./ According to 0. Clover and H. ,alsley(/ Research is the rocess of systematically obtaining accurate answers to significant and ertinent #uestions by use of scientific method for gathering and interreting information./ CHARAC%ER!S%!CS 12 RESEARCH: 3. SC!E SC!E4% 4%!2 !2!C !C -E% -E%H1 H1) ) Research uses scientific method to find facts or to rovide solutions to secific roblems. %he resear researcher cher needs to follow follow a system systemati aticc roced rocedure ure to conduct conduct research research.. %here %here is a set of   rocedures that have h ave been tested over a eriod of time and are suitable to use in research. Each ste in the research rocedure must follow the other. 5. 1,6E 1,6EC% C%!0 !0E E A4) A4) 718 718!C !CA7 A7 %he scientific research is ob9ective and logical in nature. Research is based on valid rocedures and rinciles. %here is a need to collect relevant( accurate and ob9ective data to investigate into the research roblem. . A;;7 A;;7!E !E) ) A4) A4) ,AS! ,AS!C C RESEA RESEARC RCH H Research is broadly classified into two grous: * Alied Research ,asic Research Alied Research is designed to solve ractical roblems of the modern world( rather than to ac#uire knowledge. %he goal of alied research is to imrove the human condition. ,asic or fundamental Research is driven by a scientist$s curiosity or interest in a scientific #uestion. %he main goal of basic research is to e&and man$s knowledge. %here is no obvious commercial value to discoveries that result from basic research. <. E-;!R!CA7 4A%=RE 12 RESEARCH Research can be based on direct e&erience or observation by the research. Emirical Research is undertaken to study certain situations or event based on e&eriments( observations and surveys. >. 8E4ERA7!SA%!14 Research findings can be alied to larger oulation. A researcher can conduct a research on a samle of resondents that reresent the universe. %he samle selection must be done systematically so that it roerly reresents the whole oulation or the u niverse. ?. C14%R177E) 4A%=RE 12 ,AS!C RESEARCH !n real life e&erience there are many factors that affect the outcome. A single event is often the result of several factors. +hen similar event is tested in research( due to the broader nature of  factors are taken as controlled factors while others are tested for ossible effect. @. )E0E71;-E4% 12 ;R!4C!;7ES A4) %HE1R!ES A systematic research hels to develo new rinciles and theories. Such rinciles and theories can be useful to several organisations to manage an d deal with eole and things in a better way. . -A4!;=7A%!14 12 C14CE;%S %he researcher tries to maniulate things or concets. %he maniulation or uroseful control of  things or concets is done with a definite urose so as to arrive at statements of generality. B. -=7%!;=R;1SE AC%!0!% Research is a multiurose activity. !t hels to discover new facts or verify old facts. !t hels not only to redict future events( but also may hel to control such events. !t establishes casual relationshi between variables. 3D. Q=A4%!%A%!0E A4) Q=A7!%A%!%0E RESEARCH Research undertaken to measure #uantity or amount is called as #uantitative research. 1n the other hand( research which is undertaken to find out the #uality of a articular situation or   henomenon is called as #ualitative research. Print document  In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll Q2. Explain need of Research in Business & Social Science? first need to download it. Ans: 4EE) 12 RESEARCH !4 ,=S!4ESS: ,usiness organi'ations can gain Cancel significantly with the hel of research. %he research and Download And Print develoment to develo new roducts( imrove the design and #uality of e&isting ones( and to reduce costs. 3. ;R1)=C% A4) )E0E71;-E4% %hrough marketing research( a business firm can identify the customer re#uirements( and therefore it is ossible to design new models or to modify e&isting roducts to satisfy the customers. 5. RE)=C%!14 !4 C1S%S Research in business hels a firm to reduce costs. %he research may indicate the areas where high costs are involved. !t may be ossible for the firm to cut down the costs in certain areas. . C=S%1-ER RE7A%!14SH!;S -arket research may hel the firm to develo good relations with its customers( esecially the  riority customers. Research can hel the firm to collect valuable inuts about riorities customers. <. )EA7ER RE7A%!14SH!;S )ealer relationshis are vital for the survival and success of business organisation. -arket Research enables a business firm to main good relationshis with dealers. %hrough research( the firm can get feedback from dealers regarding their e&ectations. >. C1R;1RA%E !-A8E 2irms need to build( maintain( and enhance cororate image in the minds of stakeholders( customers( dealers( emloyees.  4EE) 12 RESEARCH !4 S1C!A7 S%=)!ES: Social sciences refer to business( commerce( demograhic( sychology( and sociology. Research in social sciences deal with the eole$s behaviour in their different roles( such as consumers( consultant( learners( leaders( teachers( trainers( emloyees( e&ecutive( roducers( arents( artists( advisors etc... 3. )E0E71;-E4% 12 -E%H1)1718 )eveloment of -ethodology to deal with social issues is one of the contributions of social research. 2or instance( organisations face the roblem of e&ecutive stress( lack of concern of  ethics( oor leadershi styles etc %o overcome such roblem( certain methodology needs to be develoed. 5. S1C!A7 )E0E71;-E4% Print document  In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll Social Research contributes to societal develoment. Social develoment can be measured in first need to download it. terms of literacy( life e&ectancy( and other social develoment indicators. Research can be taken for social develoment standards of the society. Cancel Download And Print . S1C!A7 +E72ARE 8overnment organisations can undertake social research to enhance social welfare of the society. Research can hel to design suitable ackage of measures to reduce income ine#ualities( to reduce overty and unemloyment and to overcome roblems of social evils. <. 21R-=7A%!14 12 4E+ %HE1R!ES Social Research hels formulate new theories. %he e&isting theories can be re*evaluated and modified with the hel of social research. >. EC141-!C ;7A44!48 Social ;lanning can be immense use in economic lanning in a given society. Economic  lanning re#uires basic data on the various asects of our society and economy( resource endowment and the needs( hoes and roblems of the eole etc Q3. Discuss different types of Research? Ans: %;ES 12 RESEARCH: 3. ,AS!C RESEARCH !t is also called "ure$ or "fundamental$ research. !t is undertaken to develo a theory or a body of  knowledge. %he main goal is to e&and man$s knowledge. %here is no commercial angle. !t generates new ideas( rinciles and theories which may not be immediately utili'ed. 5. A;;7!E) RESEARCH !t is a scientific study designed to solve ractical roblems rather than merely ac#uiring knowledge. !t is used to find solutions to everyday roblems and develo innovative technologies. . )ESCR!;%!0E RESEARCH !t is also known as Statistical research rovides data about the oulation or universe being studied. !t is used when the ob9ective is to rovide a systematic descrition that is factual and accurate as ossible. <. A4A7%!CA7 RESEARCH !t is undertaken to collect facts or data( or the facts and data that are readily available. %he researcher attemts to critically evaluate fact and data so as to arrive at conclusions >. E-;!R!CA7 RESEARCH Print document  order to print this document from Scribd, you'll !t is defined as research Inbased on e&erimentation or observation. !t is a way of gaining first need to download it. knowledge by means of direct and indirect observation or e&erience or e&eriment. ?. Q=A4%!%A%!0E RESEARCH Download And Print !t is a method of in#uiry emloyed in many discilines( esecially in social sciences. Researchers aim to gather an in deth understanding of human behaviour and reasons that govern the  behaviour. Cancel @. Q=A7!%!%A%!0E RESEARCH !t is e&laining henomena by collecting numerical data that are analysed using mathematically  based methods. %he ob9ective is to develo and emloy mathematical models( theories and hyothesis ertaining to henomena. Q. What is Research !ethodolo"y? What are re#uisite for $ood Scientific !ethods? Ans: RESEARCH -E%H1)1718: -ethodology is the systematic analysis of methods alied to a field of study. !t comrises the theoretical analysis of the body of methods and rinciles associated with a branch of  knowledge. -ethodology does not set out to rovide solutions. %herefore( it is not the same as method. !t offers the theoretical base for understanding which method( best methods that can be alied to a secific case. REQ=!S!%E 12 811) SC!E4%!2!C -E%H1): 3. CARE2=7 718!CA7 A4A7S!S 12 ;R1,7E5. =4EQ=!01CA7 )E2!4!%!14 12 %ER-S A4) C14CE;%S . C177EC%!14 12 )A%A ;A%!E4% %1 ;R1,7E<. C7ASS!2!CA%!14 12 )A%A >. EF;RESS!14 12 )A%A !4 Q=A4%!%A%!0E %ER?. R!81R1=S EF;ER!-E4% @. S1=4) G 718!CA7 REAS14!48 . EFAC% C14C7=S!14 B. C1-;7E%E E7!-!4A%!14 12 ;ERS14A7 EQ=A%!14 3D. C1-;REHE4S!0E RE;1R% Q%. Explain stepsprocess in Scientific Research? Ans: S%E;S;R1CESS !4 SC!E4%!2!C RESEARCH: 3. !)E4%!2!CA%!14 A4) SE7EC%!14 12 RESEARCH ;R1,7E- Print document  In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll !t is the first and the most imortant ste of research rocess. !t is identification of a destination first need to download it.  before undertaking a 9ourney. !t is said that a roblem half defined is a roblem half solved. 5. RE0!E+ 12 7!%ERA%=RE Download And Print %he researcher should undertake e&tensive literature survey relating to the roblem. He may consider various ublications such as 9ournals( books( reorts and other ublished matter. Cancel . 21R-=7A%!14 12 H;1%HES!S Researcher should formulate hyothesis. !t is a tentative assumtion made to test its logical or  emirical conse#uences. <. RESEARCH )ES!84 %he researcher must reare a research design. !t is a logical and systematic lan reared for  conducting a research study. !t can be called as a blue rint for collection( measurement and analysis of data. >. )ES!84!48 %HE Q=ES%!144A!RE !f the researcher cannot solve the roblem with the hel of secondary data( observation and e&erimentation( then he should make the effort to collect rimary data from the field for which he re#uires a #uestionnaire. ?. SA-;7!48 )ES!84 !t is not ossible to collect data from each member of the universe or eole under study due to time constraints. %herefore( the researcher needs to select a samle of resondents that reresent the universe. @. C177EC%!14 12 )A%A ;roblem solving is essentially a rocess of collecting information. %he data can be collected from various sources i.e. rimary and secondary data. . ;R1CESS!48 12 )A%A %he data collected is mostly available in raw form and therefore( it needs to be rocessed. !t involves editing( coding( classification and tabulation. B. )A%A A4A7S!S 1rganisation of data is generally followed by its analysis and interretation. %he urose of  analysing data is to establish relation between information and roblem. !nterretation refers to analysis and generali'ation of results. !t enables to clear the meaning and imlication of study. 3D. H;1%HES!S %ES%!48 Print document  In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll After analysis and interretation of data( the researcher must be in a osition to test the first need to download it. hyothesis. %he researcher should find out whether or not the research findings suort the hyothesis or rove to be contrary. Cancel Download And Print 33. ;RE;ERA%!14 12 RESEARCH RE;1R% %he research findings and conclusions are resented with the hel of research reort. !t is divided into: * ;reliminary Contents -ain ,ody Conclusion ;art 35. 21771+ =; RE;1R% %he researcher should submit the reort to concerned authorities. A business research reort should be submitted to guide for aroval and then to the concerned university. Q'. Write a note on Re(ie) of *iterature? Ans: RE0!E+ 12 7!%ERA%=RE: Review of 7iterature is an imortant stage in research activity. !t refers to e&tensive review of  literature relating to research roblem which the researcher intends to undertake. %he researcher  reviews revious research studies( relevant reference books( articles in secific 9ournals and other   ublished sources. Such Review of 7iterature rovides a good insight into the research roblem. %he researcher gets familiar with all revious research studies undertaken by other researchers which are relevant to the research ro9ect. %he research scholar reviews the findings of revious research studies. He evaluates the conclusion drawn from the research findings. He also analysis the imact of recommendations made by other researchers. 7iterature Review can be conducted throughout the research activity. !t starts with identification and selection of the activity. !t continues throughout the various stages of research rocess and ends with the writing of research reort. Review of 7iterature hels to identify the concets relating to the research toic and otential relationshi between them. !t also hels in aroriate analysis of data. -oreover( it gives broader vision and even the secondary data to the research. 2ollowing literature is carefully reviewed and studied by the researcher. A literature review is a form of research reort( where the "data$ are the readings that have been located and the ma9or   art of the reort is the analysis of that "data$. And this is erhas the heart of the matter I  analytical insight. A review must not simly describe or summarise the literature( a review must critically assess that literature. Print document  order to print this document from Scribd, you'll   A literature review is an Inevaluative reort of studies found in the literature related to your  first need to download it. selected area. %he review should describe( summari'e( evaluate and clarify this literature. !t should give a theoretical basis for the research and hel you determine the nature of your own research. Select a limited numberCancel of works Download that are central to your area rather than trying to And Print collect a large number of works that are not as closely connected to your toic area. A literature review goes beyond the search for information and includes the identification and articulation of relationshis between the literature and your field of research. +hile the form of  the literature review may vary with different tyes of studies( the basic uroses remain constant: ;rovide a conte&t for the research J 6ustify the research J Ensure the research hasnKt been done before Lor that it is not 9ust a Mrelication studyMN J Show where the research fits into the e&isting body of knowledge J Enable the researcher to learn from revious theory on the sub9ect J !llustrate how the sub9ect has been studied reviously J Highlight flaws in revious research J 1utline gas in revious research J Show that the work is adding to the understanding and knowledge of the field J Hel refine( refocus or even change the toic Q+. What is Research Desi"n? What are its essentials? Ans: RESEARCH )ES!84: According to )avid G 4achmias( Research )esign actually constitutes the blue rint for the collection( measurement and analysis of the data./ According to 6ohn +. ,est( Research )esign is the lan( structure( strategy and means of  investigation conceived so as to obtain answers of research #uestions. !t is a lan or an overall scheme or a rogramme of research. %he Research )esign is the ground lan for conducting the research investigation. !t rovides guidelines to researcher to hel him kee track of his actions and to know he is moving in the right direction in collecting data. ESSE4%!A7S 12 811) RESEARCH )ES!84: 3. 21C=S 14 1,6EC%!0ES Print document  order to print this document from Scribd, you'll %he research design mustInfocus on its ob9ectives. %he ob9ectives must be very clear to the first need to download it. researcher as well as to the researcher staff. %he ob9ectives differ deending on the tye of the research. Cancel Download And Print 5. 27EF!,!7!% %he research design should not be rigid. !t must be fle&ible deending uon the situation. . ;!71% S%=) !t is always advisable to conduct a ilot study for finali'ing the research design. ;ilot study is a research activity undertaken for small segment of research universe. !t is conducted to find out whether or not the researcher would be in a osition to collect relevant data from it sources( or  whether or not the data would be relevant to solve the roblem. <. ACCE;%A4CE %he research design should be accetable to the ersons concerned. !n case of commercial research( the research design should be accetable to the higher authorities. !n case of academic research( the research should be accetable to the research guide. !n case of social research( the research design should be accetable social and other organisations that are going to finance or  sonsor the research activity. >. S=!%A,!7!% %he research design must be suitable to achieve research ob9ectives. Certain factors are considered while finali'ing the research designs such as availability of funds( time( manower  etc. ?. S!-;7!C!% %he research design should be simle and easy to understand. %he language used should be clear  and simle. %he research design must be suorted by footnotes. %echnical 9argons must be avoided. @. C1S% I E22EC%!0E %he research design should be cost effective. !n a commercial research( the research work based on research design must bring benefits to the organisation. %he research design should enable  roer collection and analysis of data which in turn should facilitate roer decision making. . EASE !4 !-;7E-E4%A%!14 %he research design should facilitate roer imlementation of the research activity. %he research design should avoid comlicated rocedures an d techni#ues which are difficult to follow. B. %RA!4!48 %1 RESEARCH S%A22 Print document  In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll %o conduct effective research roer training must be given to the research staff. %raining hels first need to download it. to imrove knowledge( attitude( skills( and social behav iour. Download And Print Q,. Explain different types of Research Desi"n? Cancel Ans: %;ES 12 RESEARCH )ES!84: 3. EF;71RA%1R RESEARCH 5. C14C7=S!0E RESEARCH 3. EF;71RA%1R RESEARCH: !t is conducted to e&lore information about the nature or cause of research roblem. !t is conducted when the causes of the research roblem are not known to the researcher. -anagement may conduct e&loratory research to find out the causes of declining sales in the  ast few months. %hey may be declined due to certain number of factors such as : roblem in #uality of roduct ( increase in cometition( ineffective romotion mi&( oor management of  channels of distribution ( incometence of sales( force etc. E&loratory research can be conducted for following uroses such as( to define the roblem more clearly( to develo hyothesis( to identify alternate courses of action( to isolate key variables and to develo relationshis among the variables for further e&amination or to establish  riorities for further research etc. E&loratory researches have certain uses such as( background information( develoment of  hyothesis and research riorities. -ethods used in e&loratory research are: * Secondary data Analysis E&erience Surveys Case Analysis 2ocus 8rous and( ;ro9ective %echni#ues 5. )ESCR!;%!0E RESEARCH !t is conducted to obtain descritive information about central asects of a roblem. 2or instance( a researcher may like to know detailed information about students aearing for their %. ,C1e&ams of 4.- College in resect of age( income( gender( occuation etc. it may be undertaken for commercial uroses. Print document  In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll %hrough descritive research it would be difficult to answer the #uestion "why$. !n order to first need to download it. answer the #uestion "why$( a casual research is re#uired. %here are two tyes of descritive research: Cancel Download And Print Cross Sectional Studies 7ongitudinal Studies Q-. What is saplin"? Explain essentials of "ood saplin"? Ans: SA-;7!48 Samling is a rocess used in statistical analysis in which a redetermined number of observations are taken from a larger oulation. %he methodology used to samle from a larger oulation deends on the tye of analysis being erformed( but may include simle random samling or systematic samling . ESSE4%!A7S 12 811) SA-;7!48 1. Representati(e/ %he samle should truly reresent the characteristics of the verse. 2or this investigator should be free from bias and the method of collection should be aroriate. 2. 0de#uacy/ %he si'e of the samle should be ade#uate i.e.( neither too large nor small but commensurate with the si'e of the oulation. 3. oo"eneity/ %here should be homogeneity in the nature of all the units selected for the samle. !f the units of the samle are of heterogeneous character it will imossible to make a comarative study with them. . ndependent aility/ %he method of selection of the samle should be such that the items of the samle are selected in an indeendent manner. %his means that lection of one item should not influence the selection of another  item in any manner d that each item should be selected on the basis of its own merit. Q14. Explain different techni#ues and ethods of $ood Saplin"? Ans: SA-;7!48 -E%H1)S %here are two tyes of samling methods: * ;robability -ethods Print document   4on* ;robability -ethods In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll first need to download it. ;R1,A,!7!% -E%H1)S !t is also known as random samling. means ossible chance. %herefore( each Cancel ;robability Download And Print element of the oulation has known chance or oortunity of being selected or included in the samle. %he following are the tyes of robability methods: * 3. Simle Random Samling %his is the most oular method which is normally followed to collect data. %he techni#ue  rovides every element or unit an e#ual chance of being selected in the samle. 5. Systematic Samling !t is a variation of simle random method. %his techni#ue is suerior to simle random method. . Cluster Samling !t is also called as "Area Samling$. !n this method( instead of selecting individual units( researcher divides the oulation into clusters or grous and accordingly samle is selected. <. Stratified Samling %he oulation is divided into various strata or segments based on income( occuation( age( religion( gender etc.  414 I ;R1,A,!7!% -E%H1)S %he following are the tyes of non*robability methods: * 3. Convenience Samling %he samle is selected as er the convenience of the researcher. Every element of the oulation does not get a chance of being selected. %he researcher may consider factors to select the samle of resondents. 5. Accidental Samling %he researcher may select the samle by chance without following a systematic rocedure. Every element of the universe does not get the chance of getting selected. . 6udgement Samling Print document  In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll Samle is selected on the basis of 9udgment of the researcher or some other erson assisting or  first need to download it. advising the researcher. <. Quota Samling Download And Print %he researcher allocates certain #uota to certain grous under study. %he #uotas differ from each area deending uon factors such as age( occuation( income etc. Cancel >. Se#uential Samling !t is a non*robability samling techni#ue wherein the researchers ick a single or a grou of  sub9ects in a given time interval( conducts his stud y( analyses the results then icks another grou of sub9ects if needed and so on. ?. Snowball Samling !t is a non*robability samling techni#ue that is used by researchers to identify otential sub9ects in studies where sub9ects are hard to locate. Q11. What is Secondary Data? Explain its liitations? Ans: SEC14)AR )A%A Secondary data is readily available data from ublic rinted sources. !t is generally used in the case of academic research and to certain e&tent in the case of research. However( commercial research re#uires more of rinting data as comared to secondary data. %he researcher makes first attemts to obtain information from secondary sources to solve the  roblem. However( when secondary data is insufficient and outdated( the researcher resorts to  rimary data. 7!-!%A%!14S 12 SEC14)AR )A%A 3. ;R1,7E- 12 ACC=RAC %he #uality of secondary data is affected due to roblem of accuracy. 1ne cannot be certain of  the genuineness of data. %he records may not be well maintained or organised. %herefore( one must be cautious in using secondary data. 5. ;R1,7E- 12 RE7!A,!7!% Print document In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll first need to download it. Cancel Download And Print You're Reading a Preview Unlock full access with a free trial. Download With Free Trial  Print document In order to print this document from Scribd, you'll first need to download it. Cancel Download And Print You're Reading a Preview Unlock full access with a free trial. Download With Free Trial 