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Reef Resources Assessment And Management Technical Paper The Roleoforganizationalintelligenceoftheemployeesin Customerrelationshipmanagementinmedicalsciencesof Mazandaranuniversity

Reef Resources Assessment and Management Technical Paper The RoleofOrganizationalIntelligenceoftheEmployeesin CustomerRelationshipManagementinMedicalSciencesof MazandaranUniversity




   Available online at Reef Resources Assessment and Management Technical Paper ISSN: 1607-7393 RRAMT 2013- Vol. 38(2), 2013, 5 `The Role of Organizational Intelligence of the Employees in Customer Relationship Management in Medical Sciences of Mazandaran University Mehraneh kazemian a , Maryam Hafezian*  b , Qader Vazifeh Damirchi  c, Batul Kazemikani  b , Fahima Balouei  b , Sekine Salmanian  b a  Medical Sciences University of Mazandaran, Sari, Iran b  Department of Educational management, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran  c  Department of Management, Germi Branch, Islamic Azad University, Germi, Iran Abstract This resear  ch investigated the role of employees’ organizational intelligence in communication management with their customers in Medical Sciences University of Mazandaran. The statistic community of the study is all of the official employees in Medical Sciences University, and 70 persons participated in this research as a sample. Data collection tools were Standardized questionnaires of Albrecht (2002) organizational intelligence, with 7 variances which include 18 closed answer questions, questionnaire of communication management with customer by Ocker and Mudambi (2002) in three aspects and each aspect included 3 measure and generally 38 questions which each one investigates the present and ideal condition of communication management with customer. In this research descriptive statistics is applied for demographic information, inference statistics like Kolmogorov-Smirnov for testing the normality of the research variances, and different tests including Pearson correlation, variance analysis, variant single t tests and independent t. The results show that there is a direct and significant relation between the employees’ organizational intelligence components and communication management with customer. That is the improvement in the employees’ organizational intelligence components leads to improvement in communication management with customer. © 2013 Published by RRAMT France Ltd.  Keywords:  Organizational intelligence, Communication management with customer, Official employees 1.   Introduction In the present era, institutions, companies and executive organizations with any purpose, mission or goal which they follow they act ultimately in a regional, national or international territory and they are responsible for demanders, customers and beneficiaries. Human being is the most important element in the field of management which is attracted by the managers’ theorists in different periods, and human force is the most important factor which has a fundamental role in surviving each organization. There are successful and efficient people in human world and his tempestuous life which are intelligent and benefit from high aptitude, they will undoubtedly solve their problems by  benefiting from their divine aptitude. In organizational world it is certainly the same and specially in the present era gradually by regarding the changes in the workplaces and increase in the speed of technology and its entrance to working life the organizations will also become more complicated and their management also becomes more  problematic, so instead of individual intelligence the arguments will go to organizational intelligence. Intelligence is one of the cognitive processes in human which according to the scientists, make concordance between human,   Reef Resources Assessment and Management Technical Paper/ Vol. 38(2), 2013, 5, pp. 484-495 485 environment and the pace of understanding, besides it influences other cognitive traits. David Weksler has made a comprehensive definition of intelligence, he believes that “Intelligence means rational thought, wise performance and effective behavior in the environment”. In his view, intelligence is a collection of a person’s abilities based on  purposeful activities, correct and rational thought and concordant reaction with surrounding condition. Louis Thorstone 1 states that “Intelligence is made up of seven primary elements which include: understanding pace, finding the meaning of the words, easiness in applying the words, spatial understanding, digital calculations, reasoning and memory (Salehi and Vakili, 2008). The researcher and psychologist of Harvard, Dr. Howard Gardner refers to this point that human has more than one intelligence. This view disagree with the previous view of individual intelligence which only believed the existence of one general factor “G” or the level of general qualification. He believes that we have seven intelligences which include linguistic-oral, mathematic, spatial, musical, feeling, inter- individual and motivated reason (Malekzadeh, 2009). In addition to the mentioned cases, other types of intelligence like cultural, spiritual, moral and organizational intelligence have attracted theorists and specialists. 2. Organizational Intelligence Organizational intelligence is a new concept in the texture of organization and management. Organizational intelligence was first clearly introduced in a published article under the name of “Organiz ational intelligence, its importance as a process and product” by Matsuda in an economic international conference in Tokyo. (Jaffari, Faghihi, 2009) he introduced a general approach in relation with organizational intelligence and suggested a model for it which is a mixture of human and data process based on machine. Matsuda (1992) defined organizational intelligence as a complicated, homogenous, accumulated and harmonized collection of human and machine intelligence. Macmaster (1998), suggested two definitions of organizational intelligence: organizational intelligence as the ability to be directed, rationality, acting to flexible, creative and concordant methods. Leibowitz defined organizational intelligence as: all of the organization’s intelligence which  is applied for making a common view, the  process of revising, leading and directing the whole organization (Faghihi, Jaffari, 2009).Albrecht thinks that organizational intelligence includes 7 components, which is presented in figure 1: Figure 1: seven components of organizational intelligence reference: (Carl, Albrecht, 2002) Strategic vision: strategic vision points to capacity production and goal explanation. Any organization needs a theory, concept, organizational principals and a definition of their performance. Their leaders should ask questions and answer them: who are we? Why do we exist? What’s our fundamental value? Why should others accept us, appreciate us and reward us for what we do? Shared fare: in order that the employees account themselves a helpful member of the organization and the managers participate with the employees in the programs and its execution and assessment. So they know organizational missions and feel the sympathy and harmony towards the goals and share in the organization’s success and failures, in fact, they feel they have common fate in the organization. Appetite for change: In some organizational cultures, performance method, reflection and reaction towards the surrounding environment has become so homogeneous that any change shows a disease or disturbance,   while in others it shows challenge, new and excited business and in other words it is an opportunity for starting a new work and business.The organizations which benefit more from more flexibility and compatibility with environmental changes reach more Strategic vision Organizational intelligence   Shared fate  Appetite for change Heart  Alignment and   congruence   Performance pressure Knowledge deployment   Reef Resources Assessment and Management Technical Paper/ Vol. 38(2), 2013, 5, pp. 484-495 486 success and victory. Heart: In addition to the factor of shared fate, the element of heart shows the tendency of the activity more than the measures. Each one of the organization’s member have to share in the organization’s affairs. Social psychologists call the amount of energy which the employees spend for higher affairs of their commitments “optional effort”. In an organization with low spirit, the employees only do their tasks properly, while in an organization with high spirit try more than what is expected and their power is increasing day by day. Alignment and congruence   (organizational structure): when some people work with each other, they will face  problems if there is no rules which they help from it. When some people divide their jobs and responsibilities for Doing organizational missions, they should organize themselves and interact with themselves and environment according a series of rules. Knowledge deployment: Nowadays, more than before the organization, success or failure is effective use of knowledge, data, appropriate momentary decisions, judgment, wisdom and common feeling of the  person’s qualification orientation. The ability to create, transfer, organize, sharing and know ledge deployment in the organization’s complex environments has changed to an aspect of fundamental competitions. Knowledge deployment is a capacity which the present organization’s culture and atmosphere makes for using worthwhile mental and informative sources. Performance pressure: the managers and specialists should not only devote themselves with their tasks. In an intelligent organization everybody try his best to do his tasks because they believe credibility of his goals and balance is made rationally between the individual and organizational expectations. 2.2. The Importance of Organizational Intelligence in Organizations It can be certainly claimed that applying organizational intelligence can increase the competition power of an organization and differentiate it from other organizations. It gives this possibility to the organization to  benefit from competition advantages by applying the present data and makes easy the possibility of understanding the customers’ demands and the way of communicating w ith them. Besides, it gives the organization this possibility to supervise the negative or positive changes. Other advantages of organizational intelligence are: 1-   Helping the managers to assess the qualification of the whole organizational system 2-   Understanding the dependency models between organization and external environment 3-   Recognizing the organizational and judgmental weak and strong point for improving the communication between the subsystems 4-   Improving the subsystems for making changes, innovation and commitment to effort for organizational change, powerful leadership and higher beneficiary (quoted by Siadat, et al. 2010). Albrecht (2003) states that: nowadays it can certainly be claimed that recognition and applying organizational intelligence can increase the competition power of an organization and differentiate it from other organizations. Organizational intelligence gives the organization the control power of positive and negative changes, and in order to succeed in business three factors are necessary: smart peoples, smart teams and smart organizations. (Quoted by Kohansal, 2010). 3. Customer Relationship Management (CRM) The credit of a successful organization is based on the long-time relationship with customers, and the customer is the key success to the organization and any commercial, economic and servicing activity. The belief and action towards customer- oriented principals, attracting the customers’ satisfaction, attracting new customers and keeping  previous customers are accounted the most important factors in organization’s success. Customer relationship management defines all the services and possibilities clearly and results many benefits like: giving continuous and 24 hours information and services, decreasing the costs and increasing satisfaction. (Hariri and Shahvar, 2008). Customer relationship management is a strategic necessity in all organizations, which its effective execution follows increasing the customer’s satisfaction, faithfulness and attracting them, more sales and buying repetition (Motameni, Jaffari, 2008). CRM is made up of three main parts: customer, relationship and management. Customer means final user, which has a supportive role in worthwhile relationships. Relationship means making more loyal and beneficent customers through an instructive relationship and management means, creating and directing a customer oriented   Reef Resources Assessment and Management Technical Paper/ Vol. 38(2), 2013, 5, pp. 484-495 487  business process and putting the customer in the center of the organization’s processes and experiences (Abbasi, Toorkamani, 2010). CRM is the comprehensive strategy of marketing and business, which unitize the technology of  processes and all business activities surrounding the customer (Feinberg and Romano, 2003).Armstrong in 2004 defines CRM as: “General process of making and keeping communication with  beneficent customers through suggesting higher value to the customers and attracting their satisfaction more”. Suifder  2  in 2001 has defined CRM as organizational approach for customer’s understanding and effect in relation with organization in attracting, keeping, loyalty, beneficiary and sharing with optional customers. Sackir and Adda in 2008 has defined CRM as “Comprehensive strategy and attraction process, keeping and sharing with optional customers for making higher value for organization and customer, which includes the unity of marketing, purchasing, customer services and the chain of organization provision for access for higher and more efficient beneficent in offering the value to the customer” (Mehrabi, et al. 2008).   3.1. Effective Factors on CRM The credit of a successful organization is based on the longtime relationship with customers and the customer is the key success to the organization and any commercial, economic and servicing activity. The belief and action towards customer- oriented princip als, attracting the customers’ satisfaction, attracting new customers and keeping  previous customers are accounted the most important factors in organization’s success. Making effective, intimate and easy relationship is the golden key of access to the worthwhile information which the fundamental and appropriate use of them guaranties the organization’s success. One of the main fundamental success is making useful and appropriate and qualified relationship with customers.This effective and important relationship should be executed and programmed with effective methods and according to a principled and qualified relationship with the goals, facilities, and organization’s policies (Hariri and Shahvar, 2008). Some organizations have problems in executing CRM, because their attitude to this issue is technological. It means that they unitize the strategies of CRM with CRM technology, while CRM is not a technological issue but it is a working issue which technology tools should be allocated, designed and harmonized with working activities and strategies. Adam Lindgreen, et al. (2006) says that 9 factors are necessary for CRM success which are presented in figure 2: (Mehrabi, et al. 2008) Figure 2: Successful factors on CRM in the organization The goals of CRM can be defined as recognizing the customer, interaction with the customer, the value of the customer and customer satisfaction (Keramati, Nikzad shahrivar, 2007). 3.2. The Model of Organization Readiness for Executing CRM Ocker and Mudambi defined a theoretical model to assess the organization’s readiness for executing CRM which are made up of 3 mental, social and technological aspects in 9 groups. In this model, mental aspect includes strategy groups, structure and programming, social aspect includes culture groups, beneficent interacts and the knowledge of working territory and finally technological aspect includes CRM applicable program groups, IT abilities and knowledge management (figure 3). These researchers point to common factors called readiness factors, which they are applied for assessing the level of organization’s readiness in each one of the nine groups (Dehdasht, Babai Nejad Pirooz 2008). Process People Organizational structure Customer strategy   The strategy of making value Information   technology The strategy of customer interaction Culture Knowledge management   Reef Resources Assessment and Management Technical Paper/ Vol. 38(2), 2013, 5, pp. 484-495 488 Figure 3 : the model of organization’ s readiness for executing CRM (Ocker and Mudambi (2002) (quoted by Dehdashti, Babaie Nejad Pirooz) 4. Review of Literature Some research are done related with the topic, which some of them are pointed here. (Kohansal, 2010) in a study under the name of investigating the validity and reliability of organizational intelligence in Shiraz communication organization” and he resulted that organizational intelligence measure and its components (49 Ithemi Albrecht)  benefits from required validity and reliability. Beikzadeh, et al (2010) in a research under the name of “Investigating the relationship between the managers’ organizational intelligence and their performance in governmental organizations of eastern Azerbaijan” and the results showed that there is a sig nificant relationship between the manager’s organizational intelligence and their performance in governmental and governmental systems of Tabriz city. Erfani Khanghahi and Jaffari (2010) did a research named “Investigating the direct and indirect of evolut ion leadership style, education culture and organizational education of organizational intelligence in Islamic Azad University (the region 8). According to the results of structural equation model, the hidden variances of evolutional leadership style, organizational education and educational culture affect the organizational intelligence directly or indirectly. If leadership style traits have higher changing orientation and there is a useful atmosphere for education, the probability of organizational intelligence increases. The assessed model benefits from higher worthwhile indexes. Regarding the results, paying attention to these three effective variances may have an important role in improving the universities organizational intelligences, and these factors should be considered in programs for making the universities intelligent. Molaian and Isamieh (2010) did a research named “Investigating the relationship  between the level Saipa Yadak Company beneficent from instructed organization traits and the level of organizational intelligence in this company”. The general results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between the levels of instructed organization components beneficiary and the managers’ organizational intelligence components in Saipa Yadak Company. Siadat et al. 2010 in a research under the name of “Contrastive study of relationship between organizational intelligence and team leadership among the scientific board of governmental universities in Isfahan” the results showed that: A) There is a significant relationship between organizational intelligence components and team leadership B) there is a significant difference between the score means of organizational intelligence based on the university, faculty and educational groups C) there is a significant difference between the score means of team leadership of scientific board based on the age, the experience of scientific nobilities and services. A research was done by Lefter, Prejmerean and Vasilach (2008) under the name of “The  aspects of Organizational intelligence in Romanian companies, an outlook of human force” which the main purpose the mentioned research is offering a general view of the employees position in Romanian companies regarding the seven aspects of Albrecht organizational intelligence. This research also investigated the present differences among the present organizations with more than 150 employees and small companies. Human force and the present differences of organizational intelligence and leading between two regions may have a significant effect on the method of understanding of organizational intelligence aspects and their performance. The results showed that only 13 percent of the big and medium companies were familiar with the concept of organizational intelligence and employees of the small Mental asect Social aspect Technological asect Strategy Culture structure Programing Interact with subordin