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Scaffolding Safety Offshore




Taking the Lead and Challenging the Future Together Guidance Notes of Good Contracting Practice Scoffolding Offshore Contractors’ Association 58 Queens Road Aberdeen AB15 4YE Telephone: 01224 326070 email: [email protected]  INDEX 1. 2. 3. Int rodu ction ……………………………………..……… ……………………………………..………... ... 3 Resp onsi biliti es …………………………………………… …………………………………………….. 4 2.1 Init iator of access requirem ent .……………...… .……………...……..4 …..4 2.2 Scaffolding Forem an ……………………….……….. ……………………….……….. 4 2.3 Scaffold / Access Access plat form user …………….……….5 …………….……….5 2.4 Project Support (onshore & offshore) …..………….. …..…………..5 Risk Assessm ent ………………………… ………………………………………… ……………… 3.1 4. 5. COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 7 In trod ucti on … ……………………………………… ………………………………………7 3.2 Man ual H and ling ……………………………………. …………………………………….9 3.3 Raising and Lowering of Materials …………………1 …………………10 Fall Arrest Eq uip men t ………………………………...….. ………………………………...….. 12 4.1 Insp ection and use of Fall Arrest Arrest Equ ipment ……... ……... 12 4.2 Working at H eigh t ………………………………….. ………………………………….. 13 4.3 N ASC Guid ance N ote SG4:00 ……………………… ……………………… 15 4.4 Rescu e Plan ……………………………… ……………………………………….….1 ……….….16 6 Conven tion al Scaffolding ……………………….…………. ……………………….………….17 17 5.1 Scaffolding Tu be………………………………… be……………………………………. …. 17 5.2 Scaffold Board ………………………… ………………………………………. ……………. 18 5.3 Fit ting : Dou ble Coup ler ……………………………. …………………………….18 5.4 Fit ting : Single Coup ler ……………………………... ……………………………...19 5.5 Fit tin g : Swivel Coup ler …………………………….. …………………………….. 19 5.6 Fit ting : Sleeve Coup ler …………………………….. …………………………….. 20 5.7 Fit tin g : Base Plat e …………………….…………… …………………….…………… 20 5.8 Fit ting : Gravlock …………………………………… …………………………………… 21 5.9 Fittin g : Band & Plate …………………… ………………………...…… …...…….. 21 21 5.10 Tim ber Pole Lad der ………………………………… …………………………………22 5.11 Ligh tweigh t Plat form Stagin gs ……………………. ……………………. 22 5.12 5.12 Ladder / Un it (Lattice ) Beams …………… ……………………. ………. 23 5.13 Type s of Scaffold Struct ure ………………………… …………………………..24 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 6. 5.14 Desi gned Scaffold Struct ures ………………………. 29 5.15 Scaffolds Requiring Design En gineering Inp ut ……29 5.16 Ladd er Access ………………………………………..30 5.17 Life Du ratio n of Ere cted Scaffold …………………..36 Oth er Access Systems …………………………..………... 37 6.1 Syste m Scaffold ………………………………………37 6.2 Alumini um/ GRP Tower Systems …………………..38 6.3 Mechanical Elevated Work Platforms (mechanica l mobile plant) …………...……………...40 6.4 7. 8. 9. Rop e Access ………………………………………….40 Mater ial Storag e …………………………………..………. 41 7.1 Insp ection & Storage of Scaffold Material ………….41 7.2 Insp ection Details : Scaffold Fittin g ………………..42 7.3 In spect ion Deta ils : Scaffold Board ……...………….42 7.4 Insp ection Details : Scaffold Tub e ………………….43 7.5 Insp ection Details : Pole Ladder ……………………43 7.6 Illus trat ion of Rack Capa city ………………………..44 7.7 Tu be & Fit ting Self Weight s…………………………45 Inspect ion & Taggin g ………………………….………… 46 8.1 Insp ection / Taggin g ………………………………..46 8.2 In spect ion Tag s ...…………………………...……….48 Oversid e Working ……………………………..…………. 49 9.1 Rest rictio ns …………………………………………..49 9.2 Man nin g …………………………………….………..49 10. Comp eten ce & Trai nin g ………………………………….. 50 11. Legisla tion and Referen ces ………………………………. 51 12. Cont ribu tors ………………………………………………. 54 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 1. Bill Abbott The Rigblast Group Lt d  Steve Black  Salamis (Marine & Industrial) L td  INTRODUCTION Member companies of the Offshore Contractors Association (OCA) provide scaffolding access services to the Offshore Oil and Gas industry. Over the years various means of access have been introduced into the offshore oil and gas industry, including system scaffolding, aluminium scaffolding and roped access. This document is intended as guidance for member companies, their clients and contractors as to the various types of  access available. Advice as to the appropriateness of particular access systems should be sought from those member companies of OCA, which provide access services. Scope This guidance is intended for the users and providers of temporary access systems on oil and gas installations operating on the United Kingdom Contin ental Shelf. Additional risk assessment may be required for floating installations. Keith McMillan Cape Industrial Services L td  Objectives Graham Morrison H ealth and Safety E xecutive Joe Bogan SGB Powerchem To provide guidance on types of temporary access available to companies requiring access to work faces, which do not have permanent access. To provide guidance on health and safety issues arising from the provision and use of temporary access systems, such as risk assessment, manual handling and overside working. To list relevant legislation and other sources of information. Robin McKenzie The Rigblast Group L td  Doug Sheal Salamis (Marine & Industrial) L td  Gail Amey Offshore Contractors A ssociation COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 2. RESPONSIBILITIES This recent Directive is expected to be incorporated into UK law by 2004 by amending the regulations to describe a preferred hierarchy The following is a broad set of responsibilities for the key positions in any scaffolding / access environment . It is recommended that they be used as the basis for the development of local rules that more specifically define the key interfaces and responsibilities at a specific location. of access systems as between scaffolding, ladders and rope access and the arrangements for their use. Compliance with the minimum requirements is designed to ensure a better standard of health and safety for workers in the use of work equipment provided for 2.1 Initiator of access requirement temporary work at a height. For every scaffold / access platfor m erected there will be an initiator , who will request the scaffold in order to comp lete a scope of work or service. T he initiator therefore has a number of responsibilities to fulfil to assist in the safe and efficient erection of any access structure: • • • 10. Oth er Applicable Regulation s include: ⇒ Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994 (COSHH ). Formally notify the Scaffolding Foreman of access requirement. Accurately define the scope of the access requirements, to assist the scaffolding contractor in ensuring that the structure is ‘fit for purpose’ on erection. Ensure that reasonable timescales are provided to allow sufficient pre task planning and risk assessment to be carried out by the Scaffolding Foreman. These require employers to protect workers’ hearing form exposure to noise at work. ⇒ Noise at Work Regulations 1989 (NAWR). These require employers to protect workers’ hearing from exposure to noise at work. ⇒ Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 (EAWR). These require employers, employees and self-employed workers to 2.2 Scaffolding Foreman prevent risks of injury from electrical equipment and systems. The Scaffolding Foreman / Chargehand will be the central focus for all access activities. This ensures that one central point is utilised to co-or dinate all aspects of access management, redu cing risk and in creasing efficiency. The following responsibilities ensue: 11. Step Change in Safety Task Risk Assessment Guide. This document gives comprehensive guidelines of the completion of  ⇒ Arrange appropriate Permit to Work compliance at all times. ⇒ Co-ordinate the completion of task risk assessments and toolbox talks to relay information and instructions to the working party. ⇒ Ensure that any potential conflicts of activities are addressed during the pre job planning. ⇒ Request Design Engineer assistance if access requirements are not within the parameters of BS5973 or the company’s Technical Manual. ⇒ Ensure that sufficient materials are readily available to complete workscopes. ⇒ Allocate personnel to the task ensuring competencies and numbers are sufficient to complete tasks safely. ⇒ Handover completed scaffold structure to initiator / end user. ⇒ Ensure that a competent person is available to conduct statutory 7day inspections and to maintain the inspection tags and scaffold COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA task risk assessment. 12. CONTRIBUTORS COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 5. The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDO R) These require employers to notify certain injuries, diseases and dangerous events. 6. ⇒ Make adequate provisions available (labour) for the safe dismantle of  access structures. ⇒ Follow local rules relating to ‘adverse weather’ policy. Dangerou s 2.3 Scaffold / Access platform user To ensure that th e scaffolding / access platform is maintained to as safe a standard as practical, the user has these key responsibilities: The Manual H andling Operation s Regulations 1992 ⇒ Conduct a task risk assessment (TRA) for the activities to be carried out o n th e scaffolding structure. ⇒ Identify and manage any conflicting activities that occur when using the scaffolding / access structure. ⇒ Ensure that t he scaffold is ‘fit for purp ose’ for the intended workscope. Any alterations to t he structure should b e requested to t he scaffolding foreman. ⇒ Notify the scaffolding foreman of any changes to the scaffold due to weather, damage or collision. (LOLER) ⇒ Maintain a high level of housekeeping / tidiness whilst working on th e access platform and when leaving the worksite unattended. LOLER require that where the scaffolding is erected using lifting ⇒ Formally notify the scaffold foreman when work on scaffold has ceased, ensuring the access platform is left in an acceptable condition. These require employers to assess and control the risks to their employees from manual handling. The employer should avoid the need for hazardous manual handling, assess the risks of injury from manual handling that can not be avoided and reduce the risks of  injury, as far as reasonable practicable. 7. Lifting Operations and Lifting Equ ipment Regulations 1998 equipment the equipment is strong and stable enough for the particular use and marked to indicate safe working loads, positioned and installed to minimise any risks, used safely ie the work is 2.4 Project Support (onshore & offshore) planned, organised and performed by competent people and subject to ongoing thorough examination and inspection by competent people. 8. Offshore Installations (Safety Case) Regulations 1992 The primary purpose of these Regulations is to reduce risks to the Project support function provides technical support to the scaffolding foreman to carry out their duties. Responsibilities include: ⇒ Providing a Safe System of Work, in conjunction with the client. ⇒ Ensuring that the quality of the equipment supplied for erecting the scaffold / access structur es meets the relevant standards. ⇒ Providing the Scaffold Foreman with suitably trained and competent personnel to complete the workscopes safely. ⇒ Providing access to competent design engineers. offshor e workfor ce from major accident hazards, It also requires arrangements to be in place for the verification of safety critical elements and to show that risks are as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP). Where scaffolding offshore is left in place for any length of time, for example, the effects of increased congestion in increasing blast overpressures may need to be considered. 9. Temp orary Work Act H eight Directive 2001 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA OCA Revision of Offshore Scaffold Guidance Regulations Flowchart of Key Responsibilities. 1. H ealth and Safety at Work etc. Act 1974 (H SW Act) Initiator Requests Scaffold access This act covers nearly all the safety regulations in Great Britain both onsh ore and offshor e (see below). The Act places general duties on employers to ensure, so far as is reasonable practicable, the health Scaffold foreman and safety of their employees and others who may be affected by Surveys workscope their und ertaking (HSW Act sections 2 and 3). Th ese general duties are supported by the specific requirements of the supporting Regulations. Does scaffold require a design? (I.e. outwith the parameters of BS5973 or Technical Manual) No Requisition Materials Yes Request design drawing from Design Engineer 2. Application Outs ide Great Britain Order 2001 (AOGBO) This order is an amendment of the earlier Order that applies most of  the regulations made under the HSW Act to offshore installations, Develop a design drawing pipeline works and connected activities in the territorial waters outside the mainland of Great Britain. As well as these general regulations, there are also some offshore-specific regulations made under the Act. Erect Scaffold 3. Scaffold inspected by a competent person Scaffold Register & Inspection Tag maintained Management of H ealth and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (MH SWR) These contain general duties to carry out risk assessment, undertake appropriate health surveillance and arrange appropriate information and training for employees. Handover to end user 4. Provision and Use of Work Equ ipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER) Statutory Inspection PUWER contains general duties covering the selection of suitable work equipment and its maintenance and information, training and Job complete, scaffold foreman notified to dismantle scaffold instruct ion for workers. The equipment to which PUWER applies is wide, covering mobile equipment such as scaffolding as well as fixed plant. PUWER also cover the contr ol of hazards such as instability and contact with dangerous parts of machinery and hot and cold surfaces. COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA requisite skills, knowledge and understanding to enable them to perform their work tasks to an appropriate standard, and also ensures that those skills are maintained and enhanced. A competency process ensures that: ♦ Competent persons are employed ♦ Evidence of competency can be provided to the client ♦ Evidence of competency can be provided to the regulatory authorities ♦ Training needs are identified and appropriate training programmes implemented It is acknowledged that, whilst training imparts knowledge, the employee must be given the opportunity to put this knowledge into practice, in order to develop the requisite skills and achieve the standard required in the work  place. Failure by management to provide a safe system of work, and failure by employees to adhere to procedure, may result in serious injury. 3. RI SK ASSESSME N T 3.1 Introduction A scaffolding activity risk assessment together with a task based risk  assessment must be carried out prior to the erection or dismantling of a scaffold and must involve the persons carrying out the task. (See Risk  Assessment Flow Chart). The control room via the permit to work system must ensure that all hazards in the area of the task location are clearly identified and communicated to the persons carrying out the t ask. The success of a Task Risk Assessment will depend on the method of  communication to the workforce. Those carrying out the task must be fully aware and thoroughly understand, the hazards and the precautions put in place. Open two-way dialogue should take place at a meeting prior to starting the task, these meetings are referred to as toolbox talks. The toolbox talk should fulfil four functions: 1. It is recommended that employers have in place procedures for the erection and dismantling of scaffold structures. Section 11 of this guidance contains further references to legislation, standards and codes of practice relating to access. It is recommended that scaffolders hold a recognised qualification, which demonstrates the level of skills and competence attained, through training and examination. The Construction Industry Training Board, CITB, is the lead body in the provision of scaffold training. The Engineering Construction Industry Training Board (ECITB) is also a recognised body, which provide scaffolding qualifications based on continuous assessment and competency. It is further recommended that employers have in place a programme of continuous assessment, in order to demonstrate t hat skills are maintained and training needs identified. Give everyone involved in the task a thor ough understand ing of the activity details involved in the task, both their own and that of  others. The potential hazards should be identified for each stage of  the task. The control measures to be put in place to mitigate the hazards and the individual actions and responsibilities at various stages of the task should be established for each specific project. 2. Provide the opportunity for those involved in the task to identify any further hazards and control measures which may have been overlooked in the initial assessment. 3. Reach agreement of the whole work team on whether or not to proceed with the task. If agreement cannot be reached, THE JOB SHOULD NOT BE STARTED. 4. Make clear to all involved that should conditions or personnel change or assumptions made when planning the job prove false, they should re-assess the situation and, if in any doubt, THE JOB SHOULD BE STOPPED. Recommended Training 11. LEGISLATION & REFE REN CES Scaffolder (CITB) Basic & Advanced Inspector (CITB) Advance or Inspector s Scaffolder Helper (In-h ouse) Scaffold Awareness, Compon ent Ident ification Manual Handling, Material Quality, etc. COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA For these reasons a toolbox talk should be held at or near the worksite, and should include all people involved in the work and those who may be affected by it. COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA When new team members join the team, the same communication should be given to them. The guidance below has been developed to act as a checklist of activities that require to be considered and/ or actioned when working overside:- Once the team is satisfied that all hazards have been identified and that suitable controls have been put in place to reduce the risk to an acceptable level, they can then undertake the task. • Risk Assessment Flow Chart • • • • Break tasks into component parts to identify activities to be assessed • Identify any hazards • Identify who hazards could affect Using risk ratings – determine level of risk  yes • Overside working during the hours of darkness will only be undertaken in E X T R E M E  emergency situations and with a suitable & sufficient task risk  assessment in place. no Is risk significant? Valid Permit to work is available for the task in hand Task specific risk assessments are conducted for each individual overside job. “Take 5 principles” are encouraged as the mechanism to address any changes to the workscope. Stand-by vessel is available at all times when working overside. Radio contact is maintained with the stand-by vessel at all times. Fall arrest system is in place including training to the scaffolding operatives, rescue arrangements for working overside to be detailed on a rescue plan. Twin chamber, self-inflating lifejackets are worn at all times when working overside. Any overside scaffold that is outwith the parameters of BS 5973 and/ or company technical manuals, is designed by a competent design engineer. Weather restrictions are advised by the standby vessel captain. Identify and evaluate current control measures Is Issignificant significantrisk riskalready already yes 9.2 no adequate ly controlled? adequately controlled? Recommended minimum manning for overside scaffolding works:- Review/ revise existing control m easures or identify/ implement new preventative and protective measures Evaluate controls yes Is Isrisk risknow nowacceptable? acceptable? Manning no Two competent scaffolders overside One competent scaffolder providing materials for overside workers. One competent radio operator. (Must have valid training on the radio • communication equipment on board) COMPETE NCE & TRAININ G • • 10. A competency and training process ensures that employees have the Implement controls Record findings of risk assessment and set d ate for review Monitor and review COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 9.1 Restrictions 3.2 Manual Handling The manual handling of scaffold components on offshore oil and gas installations is commonplace because of restricted access for mechanical handling aids. In practice, this results in scaffold components being manhandled from storage racks to worksites, often at different levels on the installation and often, at outside locations, in inclement weather e.g. high winds. Manual Handling risks can be reduced by the use of lightweight system scaffold, where feasible (see section 6). The manual handling operations regulations apply to all employers in respect of their employees at work and others who may be affected. Manual handling operations are defined as the transporting or supporting of any load, including the lifting, putting down, pushing, pulling, carrying or moving by hand or bodily force. The scaffolding service provider shall, so far as is reasonably practical, avoid the need for his employees to undertake any manual handling operations at work, which involve a risk of personal injury. Risk assessment shall identify whether mechanical handling aids (e.g. crane) can be used. Where mechanical handling aids cannot be used, th e employer shall: a) b) c) Make a suitable and sufficient assessment of the manual handling operations to be un dertaken Take approp riate steps to reduce the risk of injury to those employees arising out of manual handling operations Take appro priate steps to provide tho se employees who are undertaking any manual handling operations general indications, and, where it is reasonably practical to do so, precise information on: • • The task to be carried out The weight of each load/ component Attention to the ergonomic design of th e workplace is an important factor in controlling the risks associated with manual handling. Appropriate manual handling training should be provided for all personnel involved in the erection/ dismantling of scaffold struct ures. The training should address: 4 4 4 4 COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA How to recognise harmful manual handling Appropriate systems of work  Use of mechanical aids Good handling techniques COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA Each person should be assessed with particular consideration given to their individual capability. When assessing the capability of personnel the following should be taken into consideration: Age Healt h Fitness shall record all such inspections in the contract scaffold register, to certify that, at the time of inspection, the scaffold structure is in good working order and fit for it’s intended purpose. Any scaffold requiring modification will be considered in relationship with the initial request. All subsequent modifications will be recorded in the contract scaffold register. Strengt h Height Consideration must also be given to the possible need for special training to perform the task, especially if mechanical handling aids are employed. 3.3 Raising and Lowering of Materials Lifting equipment is defined as follows: Any device which is used or designed to be used directly or indirectly to connect a load to a lifting appliance and which does not form part of the load e.g. rope, sling, chain, hook, plate clamp, scissor clamp, shackle, eyebolt, lifting beam, lifting device etc. Prior to any scaffold being dismantled the details regarding dismantling authorisation, authorisation date and date dismantled will be entered in the contract scaffold register. As soon as instructions have been received to dismantle the scaffold, the Scaffold Identification & Inspection Record inserts should be removed from all structures, exposing the prohibition notice, thereby removing authorisation. 8.2 Inspection Tags 9. OVERSIDE WORKING All lifting equipment should be of adequate strength, of sound material, and of good construction for the duty it is to perform. It should be tested to appropriate testing standards, in accordance with LOLER and a test certificate should be obtained and identified with the equipment before it is used. The certificate is an important legal document. Good practice requires that any lifting equipment shall have an adequate factor of safety incorporated into its design. Where appropriate in each of  the separate equipment types, a minimum factor of safety for the specific item is recommended and this should not be reduced. The methods used to raise and lower scaffolding materials will be determined by the extent and type of scaffolding being built and the equipment available. When hand balling (lifting or lowering from hand to hand) materials up and down the scaffolding structure the scaffolder must either: a) constru ct a safe handling platform, fully boarded with approp riate guardrails, or b) be clipped (attached with harness to a suitable anchorage at all times) Scaffolders do not need to be clipped on when working within a finished working platform, but as soon as an opening is formed, scaffolders must be clipped on to a suitable anchorage point. COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA The methods available will generally fall into one of the following categories: 8.1 Inspection / T agging Upon completion of the scaffold structure, the inspector ( competent person ) shall satisfy himself that the construction conforms to the initial request information. The scaffold will be unsatisfactory and require amendments if any of the following faults are found :Footing :- Soft & uneven, No base plates, No sole boards, Undermined Standards :- Not plumb, Joined at same height, Wrong spacing, Damaged Ledgers :- Not level, Jointed in the same bays, Loose, Damaged Transoms :- Wrongly spaced, Loose, Wrongly supported Coupling :- Wrong fitted, loose, Damaged, No check couplers Ties :- Missing, Loose, Wrong coupler being used Boarding :- Incomplete, Insufficient supports, Insecurely fastened, Damaged boards Guard Rails / Toe Boards :- Wrong height, Loose, Missing, Ladders :- Damaged, Insufficient length, Insufficient tying The scaffold shall not be used until all defects noted during the inspection have been rectified. When the inspector is satisfied that a scaffold structure is in good order, the Inspection Tag, Side 1 (green), ( See sketch details, noting colour coding to suit specified loads, i.e. 0.75 Kn/ M2 : white, 2 Kn/ M2 : orange, Special duty : brown, etc. ), must be completed and inserted into the holder, signifying that it is fit for use at the time of inspection. The inspector shall record the initial inspection in the contract scaffold register, to certify that, at the time of inspection, the scaffold structure is in good working order and fit fo r it’s intended purpose. ⇒ Hand balling ⇒ Light line/ hand line ⇒ Gin wheel and rope Prior to raising and lowering scaffolding materials , a risk assessment must be performed to identify hazards, which pose a risk to personnel, to the environment or to equipment. The information gathered, along with the risks identified may be the basis for generating a safe and efficient lifting operations plan. The extent of the risk assessment and the approach taken must be consistent with the type of lift that is being performed. The suitability of rope equipment should be established for specific tasks. Once the equipment has been selected, it must be subject to a ‘pre-use’ examination. Should any item fail this visual examination, it must be withdrawn from service immediately. A waterproof container / store, should be used as a permanent storeroom for ropes and gin wheels to prevent deterioration of condition as a result of  exposure to adverse weather, chemicals etc. Any person using rope lifting equipment must be trained to operate that equipment, including the use of knots and hitches common to scaffolding. That person must also have a working knowledge of its properties and the defects likely to arise in service. This knowledge will be of value when carrying out the pre-use examinations. Inspect Monitor & Maintain Scaffold On a regular basis, at intervals not exceeding 7 days, or subsequent to any high winds or severe weather conditions, which may have effect upon the integrity of the structure, the inspector will ensure that all erected scaffolds are inspected. In instances where scaffolding personnel are de-mobilised from site and scaffold structures are to remain erected, and scaffold inspections cannot take place within the 7 days period, all the Scaffold Identification & Inspection Record inserts should be removed from all structures, exposing the prohibition notice, thereby withdrawing authorisation for the scaffold to be used. Inserts shall only be replaced following the remobilisation of  scaffolding personnel and a satisfactory inspection of each structure. All inspections of scaffolding structures, must be recorded on the Scaffold COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 4. FALL ARREST EQUIPME NT WORKING AT HE IGHT 4.1 Inspectio n and Use of Fall Arrest Equipmen t TUBING All equipment should comply with the requirements of statutory provisions, such as The Personal Protective Equipment Regulations. The legislation for ensuring the health and safety of the workers must be adhered to. A fall arrest system should include a full body harness, a shock absorbing system, (i.e. a lanyard or a block) and a 55mm opening scaffold hook. These must be EN approved and visually marked to confirm this standard. Under the legislation on PPE, product information must be supplied by the manufacturer. This information should be read and understood by the user before using the equipment. Fall arrest equipment should be thoroughly examined by a competent person at intervals determined by the manufacturers recommendations, but at least every six months. Also all fall arrest equipment must be given a visual and physical inspection before each use to ensure that it is in a safe condition and operates correctly. Employers should ensure that information and training is provided on how to complete these inspections and on how to put on the harness. Items showing defects should be withdrawn from service immediately. Employers should record details of thorough examinations and any maintenance carried out. Information on use, care and maintenance should be provided by the manufacturer and should be strictly complied with. In particular:: • • • Webbing should be carefully checked before being stored and before being used, by being run through the hands to combine a visual and physical examination. Harnesses and webbing should be checked for cuts, abrasions, broken stitches and un due stretching. Items showing defects should be taken out of service. Metal items such as rings, buckles on harnesses, Karibiners and connectors etc., must be inspected to ensure that they work smoothly, that bolts and rivets are tight and that there are no signs of wear, cracks, deformation or other damage. Any items showing defects should be taken out of service. Self Wt. 4.37Kg/ M BOARDS As B.S. 5973:1993 Self Wt. 2.94lbs/ ft Length Ft 2 Self  Wt.Lb 5.9 ( Section 6, Page 80 ) Qty/  Self Wt. Qty/  Length Ton Kg Tonne Ft 381 2.7 375 3 LADDERS 6.00Kg/ M As B.S. 5973:1993 Self Wt. 8.0Kg/ M As B.S. 5973:1993 4.03lbs/ ft Self  Wt.Lb 12.1 ( Section 6, Page 5.38lbs/ ft ( Section 6, Page 80 ) 81 ) Qty/  Self Wt. Qty/  Length Self  Qty/  Self Wt. Qty/  Ton Kg Tonne Ft Wt.Lb Ton Kg Tonne 185 5.5 182 6 32.3 69 14.6 68 3 8.8 254 4.0 250 4 16.1 138 7.3 136 7 37.6 59 17.1 58 4 11.7 190 5.3 187 5 20.2 111 9.1 109 8 43.0 52 19.5 51 5 14.7 152 6.7 150 6 24.2 92 11.0 91 9 48.4 46 21.9 45 6 17.6 127 8.0 125 7 28.2 79 12.8 78 10 53.8 41 24.4 41 7 20.6 108 9.3 107 8 32.3 69 14.6 68 11 59.1 37 26.8 37 8 23.5 95 10.7 93 9 36.3 61 16.5 60 12 64.5 34 29.3 34 9 26.4 84 12.0 83 10 40.3 55 18.3 54 13 69.9 32 31.7 31 10 29.4 76 13.3 75 11 44.4 50 20.1 49 14 75.3 29 34.1 29 11 32.3 69 14.7 68 12 48.4 46 21.9 45 15 80.6 27 36.6 27 12 35.2 63 16.0 62 13 52.4 42 23.8 42 16 86.0 26 39.0 13 38.2 58 17.3 57 91.4 24 41.5 24 18 96.8 23 43.9 22 19 102.1 21 46.3 21 LADDER BEAMS 20 107.5 20 48.8 20 11.90K g/ M 21 112.9 19 51.2 19 22 118.3 18 53.6 18 23 123.6 18 56.1 17 24 129.0 17 58.5 17 14 41.1 54 18.6 53 15 44.0 50 20.0 50 16 47.0 47 21.3 46 17 49.9 44 22.6 44 18 52.9 42 24.0 41 19 55.8 40 25.3 39 20 58.7 38 26.6 37 21 61.7 36 28.0 35 TOTAL FOOTAGE PER METRIC TONNE = 750 Ft 9 Inches TOTAL FOOTAGE PER IMP. TON = 762 Ft 6 Inches FITTINGS Type Self Wt. Lb Dou ble 2.01 As Manu facturers Spec. Qty/  Ton 1116 Self Wt. Qty/  Kg Tonne 0.91 1098 TOTAL FOOT AGE PER METRI C TONN E = 546 Ft 9 Inches TOTAL FOOTAGE PER IMP . TON = 555 Ft 6 Inches Self Wt. As Manufacturers Spec. 8.00lbs/ ft Length Ft 6 Self  Wt.Lb 48 Qty/  Ton 46 Self Wt. Kg 21.8 Qty/  Tonne 45 56 40 25.4 39 25 134.4 16 61.0 16 8 64 35 29.0 34 26 139.8 16 63.4 15 9 72 31 32.7 30 27 145.2 15 65.8 15 10 80 28 36.3 27 28 150.5 14 68.3 14 11 88 25 39.9 25 29 155.9 14 70.7 14 12 96 23 43.5 22 30 161.3 13 73.2 13 13 104 21 47.2 21 14 112 20 50.8 19 TOTAL FOOTAGE PER METRI C TONNE = 410 Ft 0 Inches TOTAL FOOTAGE PER IMP. TON = 416 Ft 6 Inches 15 120 18 54.4 18 16 128 17 58. 1 17 2.25 996 1.02 980 17 136 16 61.7 16 Sleeve 2.49 899 1.13 884 18 144 15 65.3 15 Single 1.70 1319 0.77 1298 19 152 14 68.9 Joint Pin Band & Pt Gravloc k  Basepla te 1.87 1195 0.85 1176 20 160 14 72 .6 13 4.41 508 2.00 500 21 168 13 76.2 13 691 1.47 680 2.45 915 1.11 900 25 7 Swivel 3.24 17 14 TOTAL FOOTAGE PER METRIC TONNE = 275 Ft 9 Inches TOTAL FOOTAGE PER IMP. TON = 280 Ft 0 Inches NOTE : IT HAS TO BE ACKNOWLEDGED THAT T HE TIMBER SCAFFOLD BOARDS INCLUDE AMOISTURE CONTENT OF 27.0% (B.S. 2482), THE REFO RE THE ABOVE SELF WEIGHT OF A BOARD COULD BE LESS TH AN SHOWN, DUE TO EXPOSED WEATHERING. THE SAME WOULD APPLY, TO A LESSER EXTENT, REGARDING THE TIMBER LADDERS. Equipment should be stored unpacked in a cool, dry, dark place in a chemically neutral environment away from excessive heat or heat sources, high humidity, sharp edges, corrosive or other possible causes of damage. COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA The following Scaffolding details will support :- in each "Pigeon Hole" a. 116 Off Scaffold Tubes OR b. 68 Off Scaffold Boards OR c. 22 Off Scaffold Pole Ladders suspect equipment, which has been withdrawn from service, does is not used again without the inspection and approval of a competent person. After arresting a fall, fall arrest equipment must be immediately withdrawn from use, and replaced as necessary. A. B. C. D. E. F. On no account should harnesses or lanyards be altered or adapted in any way, as this may adversely affect their operation and render them unsafe. Any repair to a harness, lanyard or inertial reel should be carried out by the manufacturer or an approved service agent. Max. bay between standards, at fron t storage entrance @ 1.0M. Max. bay between standards, along length of rack @ 1.0M Max. "lift" height @ 1.0M Check fitting under all transom/ standard positions Max. number of lifts :- 2 Off ( As these illustrated details ) Fully braced throughout Note :- The foundation steelwork/ deck must be suitable to suppo rt th e rack  and stored material. 7.7 Tube & Fittings Self Weights 8. IN SPECTION & TAGGING It is a requirement, when using an inertia reel, that it is not used in conjunction with a lanyard which incorporates a shock absorbing system. The inertia reel should be connected to the harness ‘D’ ring or a 400mm webbing strop. 4.2 Working at Height Work at height may expose workers to severe risks to their health and safety, notably to the risk of falls from a height and other serious occupational accidents, which account for a large proportion of all accidents. Check Fitting Req'd Under All Transom: Standard Positions Max. Lift Ht 1.0 M Max. No.Lifts 2 Max. Std Centres 1.0 M Max. Std Centres 1.0 M Capacity Per "Pigeon Hole" a) 116 off Scaffold Tubes OR b) 68 off Scaffold Boards OR c) 22 off Scaffold Ladders Any employer who intends to have scaffolding work carried out at height must use working methods and equipment, which afford adequate protection against the risks of falls from height. Scaffolding, ladders and ropes are the equipment most commonly used in performing temporary work at height and the safety and health of workers engaged in this type of work therefore depend to a significant extent on their correct use; the manner in which such equipment can most safely be used by workers must therefo re be specified; adequate specific training of workers is required. The Health and Safety at Work Act requires employers to ensure that all employees enjoy a safe place of work and that there is a safe means of access and egress from that place of work. It also requires that other persons are not put at risk by any work activity. These general provisions apply to all work situations, including those where people are required to work at height. Other duties under the Management of Health and Safety at Work  Regulations, which have particular relevance when work is to be undertaken at height include: ALL RACKS TO BE DESIGNED : SEE PREVIOUS SECTION ⇒ COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA The provision of comprehensible and relevant information about risks to employees, including protective and preventative measures identified by the risk assessment as being necessary. COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA ⇒ ⇒ Taking of individual capabilities into account when selecting persons to carry out such work. The provision of adequate training Circular profile, uniform & not ovalled Straight to the eye Tube ends cut cleanly & square with axis of tube Regulations require suitable and effective safeguards to be provided, so far as is reasonably practicable, to protect persons from falling a distance or being struck by a falling object, which in either case is likely to cause personal injury. Areas where these hazards may occur must be clearly indicated. Risk Assessment for working at height Central to the development of a safe system of work at height is the assessment of the risks involved and the implementation of precautions to eliminate or contr ol them. The assessment of risks will generally include an evaluation of the extent to which risk is being controlled, taking into account the control measures provided, or to be provided. In many situations where work at height is involved, specific risk assessments must be completed prior to the commencement of the work. In some circumstances, this may be a complex task depending on the nature of the work involved and the environment in which it is to be completed. In ot hers, it may be a simple process involving the application of the generic risk  assessment information to the particular circumstances. In either case, those assessments made in relation to the work activities must be subject to review to ensure they remain valid. Planning is required to anticipate potential problems and implement safe procedures. Emergency procedures should not be neglected in relation to working at height. Plans for evacuation from height in the event of an incident and any special first aid requirements should be in place. Equipment and Materials Free from excessive distortion, cracks, paint (except for identification purposes), corrosion, splits, lamination & surface flaws 7.5 Insp ection Details : Pole Ladder Ladder showing no signs of rot or insect attacks Free from excessive oil, grease, paint (except for identification purposes), solvent, cracks, splits, knots and distortion Tie-rods under everyrung All stile ends to be square & even Providing a safe place of work at height and safe access and egress involves, the provision of all necessary equipment. This may include the selection, installation, use and maintenance of temporary access equipment as well as the provision of adequate edge protection, the use of safety nets or other specialist access equipment. Consideration should extend to the training and experience of those required to install or use the equipment and any COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 7.3 Inspect ion Details : Scaffold Board Free from excessive corrosion, distortion & paint (except for identification purposes) Slot jaws allow bolt access Other aspects to consider when working at height include: Nuts should turn without undue force Free from worn threads, damaged bolts & nuts 7.4 Suitable work equipment may include the use of lifting equipment as well as the provision of suitable plant, tools and equipment to enable the work to be completed and materials to be safely lifted. This may involve additional considerations in relation to any further hazards posed by the use of the equipment. Free movement at joint position Inspect ion Details : Scaffold Tube Environmental hazards, for example, work over water, working in an open environment, the effects of adverse weather conditions, work at dusk, night or dawn, or work adjacent to ventilation outlets posing a risk of exposure to hazardous substances. ⇒ The protection of others not involved in the work, for example, the control of access to the work areas; the provision of barriers and warning signs at ground level: the posting of banks-man etc. 4.3 NASC Guidance Not e SG4:00 7.6 Illustration of Rack Capacity Boards to be unpainted, (Except for identification purposes) showing no signs of rot or insect attacks ⇒ SG4 guidance note applies to the erection, alteration and dismantling of  basic independent and tower type tube and fitting scaffolds only. It provides practical advice on the duties placed on employers and employees on how to carry out this work using fall arrest equipment. No board to show signs of  excessive splits, cracks, distortion, knots & pressure Board to be free from oil, grease solvents & notches Where system scaffolds or alternative materials are used, the user must contact the supplier to ensure anchoring to the scaffold structure is appropriate. All those involved in scaffolding operations must wear and use fall arrest equipment, and must have received appropriate training in the use, inspection and maintenance of such equipment. All ends to be square & fitted with end bands No nails within board, except for end bands All erection works should follow the working method as described below. Scaffolding should be completed progressively with scaffolders installing the minimum of a single guardrail on all lifts to provide protection whilst traversing and at work. Scaffolders must be clipped on at all times when installing components outside of the single guardrail. It is recommended that a single guardrail remains to ensure that scaffolders are protected when carrying out alteration work. Scaffolders should be working off a minimum of 3 boards when carrying out these operation s. All dismantling activities should be carried out progressively, reversing the To suit offshore operations, all boards to be fire retardant  COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA removing the single guardrail and then lowering the boards from that section of guardrail to the lift below. The single guardrail must not be removed from the whole elevation before lowering the boards. The SG4 guidelines apply to independent and tower scaffolds only. For all other scaffolds structures refer to existing platform procedures. N ote: Contractors procedures may exceed the requirements of SG4. 4.4 Rescue Plan It is advisable that, due to the health hazards associated with being suspended in a harness, a suitable emergency procedure be in place to ensure that scaffolders are aware of who to contact and what rescue procedures to follow. h. Once the scaffold is dismantled, all scaffold equipment should be inspected in strict accordance with the following requirements :Boards shall :1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. have square or chamfered corners be free from oil, grease, paint (Only acceptable for identification purpose) and solvents etc. be free from signs of excessive pressure be fitted with galvanised end bands be free from notches be free from splits be fire retardant, to suit offshore operations Tubes shall :- Emergency procedures should consider: a. b. c. d. e. f. g. 7.1 Inspection & Storage of Scaffold Material the location of the work  access to emergency services provision of communication equipment number and experience of scaffold teams the nature of the site the type of scaffolding struct ure any surround ing hazards, e.g. working in proximity to hot pipes, electricity cables or other construction activities. first aid provision Rescue plans should be based on the risks that potentially impact the scaffolding operation. These plans should be documented, accessible, clearly communicated and align to the clients emergency response management system. Equipment, facilities and personnel needed for emergency response should be identified, tested and available. Personnel should be trained and understand rescue plans, their roles and responsibilities. Rescue Plans at associated training should be periodically reviewed to incorporate lessens learned from incidents and exercises. COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 1. 2. 3. 4. be free from excessive corrosion be free from excessive bends be free from thin, rough or split ends uniform and not ovalled Fittings shall :1. 2. 3. 4. be free from excessive corrosion be free from distortion have all T bolts present have nuts which are not seized Ladders shall :1. 2. 3. be free from oil, grease, paint and solvents etc. be free from distortion be free from cracks or splits All equipment which conforms to the above shall be placed in the relevant racks. Any equipment which does not conform to these requirements, and can be repaired, shall be serviced. Equipmen t which is beyond repair or defective for any reason will be quarantined for disposal. 7.2 Inspect ion Details : Scaffold Fitting COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA Description Mechanical mobile plant comprises of tracked and wheeled units capable of  elevating personnel to access work areas. Mechanical mobile plant allows rapid access to work areas. Restrictions Self weight of unit • Restricted work area • Lack of flexibility in tight locations CONVENTI ONAL SCAFFOLDING Conventional Scaffolding comprises 3 basic components: Uses • 5. · · · Tubes Boards Fittings These are supplemented by the following components, dependent on the type and design of the scaffold structure: · · · · Recommendations All Operatives must have training and competency in the use of this t ype of  machine. L adder Beams Unit Beams L ightweight Platform Staging Pole L adders Examples of these various components are illustrated in this section. 6.4 Rope Access 5.1 Scaffold Tube Description Purpo se : To provide the tubular members in scaffolding structur es NO TE :- To comply with HSE Manual Handling Guidelines, Max.25kg (18ft) to be handled by 1 x person, tube wts/  lengths above (in lengths exceeding 18ft (25kg) it is recommended that the tube be handled by a minimum of 2 persons) Rope access activities are primarily used to allow Operatives to work in areas that cannot by reached by convention al means of access. The Operative would normally undertake this job task. Uses The benefits of rope access allow for rapid deployment of the Operative to the Work area. Restrictions • Are limited to the individual Operative who had access to the work  area. • The weather is another limiting factor NB. Rope access is limited to tr ained and managed Personnel only in strict accordance to recognised codes of practice. 7. MATERIAL STORAGE COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 5.2 Scaffold Board Purpose : All operatives erecting and dismantling tower systems should undertake To provide the support surface or platform in a scaffold when supported at appropriate centres and subjected to anticipated loadings. dedicated training to identify any areas or omissions from the CITB syllabus. No structure should be build unless the assembly guide for the specific tower is available. Finish : ‘Flame retardan t’ 6.3 Mechanical Elevated Work Platforms (Mechanical Mobile Plant) Four Typical Types of Prefabricated Aluminium Alloy Towers 5.3 Fitting : Double Coupler Inclined Ladder Purpo se : Vertical Ladder Stairway or Stairladder Frame Access For connectin g two scaffold tubes crossing at right angles, especially for joining ledgers to standards. COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 5.4 Fitting : Single Coupler scaffolds may have a speciality against o ther system types. 6.2 Aluminium/ GRP Tower Systems Purpo se : For connecting transom tubes to ledger tubes. Description The tower systems can be manufactured from aluminium or glass reinforced plastic (GRP). The main structur e comprises frames, diagonals and horizo ntal braces; adjustable legs with base plates or castor wheels. Above a certain height stabilisers or outriggers will be required. Working areas at the top and intermediate level are required by platform units, around which will be guardrails and toe-b oards for safety. (Confor ms with BS1139 Part 3 1994 (HD1004). Uses Tower structures are primarily used for short duration work and are especially valuable in a quick response situation. Restrictions ⇒ Tower systems are typically restricted to maximum safe working limits. ⇒ • Aluminium 950kgs • GRP 720kgs 5.5 Fitting : Swivel Coupler Purpo se : For connectin g two scaffold tubes at any angle oth er than a right angle. Aluminium and GRP towers are more susceptible to mechanical damage. ⇒ Aluminium towers should not be used in areas where exothermic reactions may occur (incendive sparking) such as zone 1 hazardous areas. ⇒ GRP Towers are Zone 1 approved. Recommendations COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 5.6 Fitting : Sleeve Coupler Purpose : 6.1 System Scaffold For joining two scaffold tubes end to end, particularly bracing and ledger tubes. Description System scaffold is a generic term used to describe a proprietary type of  scaffold made from prefabricated components such as steel, aluminium or GRP (glass reinforced plastic) and which, when erected, forms a safe scaffold structure. The system scaffold comprises of 5 basic components: ♦ Adjustable base ♦ Standards ♦ Ledgers/ Transoms ♦ Braces ♦ Decking Uses The uses of system scaffold are wide and varied, the main benefits being: 5.7 Fitting : Base Plate Purp ose : For providin g a flat bearing surface for distribut ing the load from a standard to a foundation or supporting structure. ♦ Lighter weight reducing manual handling and lifting by crane ♦ Speed of erection, with no loose fittings (dropped objects) ♦ Low maintenance (servicing & costs) Restrictions System scaffold does not accommodate confined areas with limitations especially when used in overboard situations. ♦ Lack of flexibility in tight locations Recommendations The Operative erecting the system scaffold shall strictly adhere to the manufacturers guidelines and code of practice. Orientation should be given to the Operative as different brands of system COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 5.17 Life Duration of Erected Scaffold 5.8 Fitting : Gravlock  Within B.S. 5973:1993, there is no mention of life spans, but it should be noted that scaffolding is only a TEMPORARY structure. Purp ose : There are two main factors which determine the life of a scaffold. 1. Location : Whether exposed to sea/ salt water, such as an under-deck scaffold or within a dry module. 2. Frequency of Use : Either constant or intermittent. For coup ling of scaffold tube to a beam flange, for use in applications with flange thicknesses of up to 45mm. On this basis, after a scaffold has been erected for 12 months, a Risk  Assessment, should be conducted, by a competent person, in order to identify the condition of the materials. On th ese findings a decision should be made on the approp riate action to be taken. 5.9 Fitting : Band & Plate Purp ose : COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA For connect ing of two scaffold tubes crossing at right angles. COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA Flow Chart N o.4:- H azards associated with contamination to the ladder 5.10 Timber Pole Ladder Pole ladder, with varnished stiles, fitted with a mild steel tie rod under every stile. Rungs spaced at 250 mm (10”) centres. Are there substances in the local environment that could contaminate the rungs of the ladder (i.e. oil, drilling mud, water etc)? No Yes H a z  a r  d  P  r  e  v e  n t   i   o n Can the hazard be avoided through changing the access point to the scaffold? Yes No Can the hazards be avo ided through extending the size of  the scaffold structure? Yes No 5.11 Lightweight Platform Stagings Designed to provide a safe, strong, uninterrupted working platform 0.6M wide that will span up to 7.2M without intermediate support . This staging is reinforced with steel cable on the bottomed edge of  stiles and screwed and nutt ed tie-rods under each cross bar. H a z  a r  d  C o n t   r  o l   Carry out risk assessment and consider implementing the following control measures:1. Introducing suitable fall arrest equipment. 2. Introducing additional housekeeping measures at the base of the ladder (i.e. absorption pads, brushes, etc). Proceed to construct scaffold COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 5.12 Ladder/ Unit (Lattice) Beams Flow Chart N o.3:- H azards associated with falling from height Primarily manufactured to increase the capacity of a load-bearing scaffold or introduced to an access scaffold, to allow the required standard centres to be increased to suit conditions. Could you fall beyond the base of the ladder to another level below or overboard when ascending or descending the ladder? H a z  a r  d  P  r  e  v e  n t   i   o n No All members are conventional scaffold tubing, ( top/ bottom chords and ‘rungs’ ) forming a ladder type welded construction. The chords and ‘rungs’ are spaced at approx. 0.3M centre. Standard maximum length 6.4M, 21 Ft. No Can the hazard be avoided through changing the access point to the scaffold? Ladder Beam Scaffold Tube 48.3mm dia Yes 350 mm Overall No Can the hazard be avoided through extending the size of  the scaffold structure? Yes Max Length 21 ft ( 6.4M ) No H a z  a r  d  C o n t   r  o l   Carry out risk assessment and consider implementing the following control measures:1. Introducing suitable fall arrest equipment. 2. Erect additional handrails / barriers or install fall-arrest netting with associated warning signs. Unit Beam ( Lattice ) Top/ bottom chords and outer vertical members are conventional scaffold tubing and diagonal members are approx. 26mm Dia., constructed to form a lattice type welded construction. The chords are spaced at approx. 0.6M centres. The flat gusset plates and the machined spigots at the ends of the beam are to join the units end to end, thus enabling any length of beam to be achieved. Scaffold Tube 48.3mm dia Proceed to construct scaffold Tube 26mm dia 650 mm Overall Standard lengths 3.6M & 2.4M (12 & 8 Ft. ) COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 5.13 Types of Scaffold Structure Flow Chart N o.2:- H azards surrounding the access point to the scaffold There are 5 basic types of scaffold structure: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Independent  Birdcage Tower  Cantilever  H anger or Slung version of 1-4 Are there any hazards in vicinity of the access point that would increase the severity of injury if a person fell from the ladder? This section contains illustrations of these scaffold structures, describing terminology and maximum dimensions. Yes 1) Independent Scaffold Scaffold Definitions: (this diagram illustrates the location & terminology of  the material in position) WORKING PLATFORM INDEPENDENT SCAFFOLD RAILS MAX. HT. 1.0 M LIFT OVERALL HEIGHT No H a z  a r  d  P  r  e  v e  n t   i   o n Is is practicable to remove the hazards (e.g. oil drums, crates, etc.) from the access point of the scaffold to another location? No Can the hazards be avoided through changing the access point to the scaffold? Yes No Can the hazards be avo ided through extending the size of  the scaffold structure? TOE BOARDS Yes Yes No BRACER STANDARD BOARDED TRANSOMS BASE PLATE LEDGER TRANSOM OVERALL LENGTH BAY LENGTH WIDTH KEY DETAILS H a z  a r  d  C o n t   r  o l   Carry out risk assessment and consider implementing the following control measures:1. Reducing the exposure height through constructing intermediate access lifts for ladders internal to the structure. 2. Raising awareness to the increased hazard through warning signs. 3. Introducing suitable fall arrest equipment. STANDARDS :LEDGERS :- WORKING PLATFORM :TOE BOARDS :BASE PLATES :- TRANSOMS :BOARDED TRANSOMS :BRACERS :RAILS :COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA Proceed to construct scaffold COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA INDEPENDENT SCAFFOLD Guidelines for Erecting Ladder Access Flow Chart N o.1:- Pitch and p rojection of Ladder MAX. LIVE-LOAD Kn/ M2 MAX WIDTH M MAX BAY LENGTH M MAX NO BOARDING LIFTS MAX NO. WORKING LIFTS 2.0 1.20 2.1 10 10 NOTE: All other scaffolds outwith the above are subject to design & calculations Can the pitch of ladder be set an angle of 4 vertical to 1 horizontal (75% angle) and will it project a minimum of  1.05m above the top landing? LIFTHEIGHT Yes MAX 2.5M OVERALL HEIGHT M A X. 2 0 . 0 M TIED No H a z  a r  d  P  r  e  v e  n t   i   o n Can the correct ratio and projection be achieved through changing the access point for the scaffold? Yes OVERALL LENGTH No MA X B A Y L E N G T H WIDTH Can the correct ratio and projection be achieved through extending the size of the structure? Yes This diagram illustrates the Scaffold Constructual Terminology & Max Dimensions No INDEPENDENT HANGER Carry out risk assessment and consider implementing the following control measures:1. H a z  a r  d  C o n t   r  o l   Reducing the exposure height through constructing intermediate access lifts for ladders internal to the structure. 2. Introducing additional handrail supports if the ladder cannot project beyond 1.05m beyond the top landing. 3. Raising awareness to the increased hazard through warning signs. 4. MAX LIVE-LOAD Kn/ M2 MAX WIDTH M MAX BAY LENGTH M 2.0 1.20 2.4 NOTE: All other scaffolds outwith the above are subject to design & calculations OVERALL LENGTH MAX. OVERALL DROP 4.0 M MAX. LIFT HEIGHT 2.0 M Introducing suitable fall arrest equipment. Proceed to construct scaffold WIDTH COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA MAX. BAY LENGTH COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA 2) Birdcage 6. OTH ER ACCESS SYSTEMS This diagram illustrates the Scaffold Constructual Terminology & Max Dimensions BIRDCAGE SCAFFOLD MAX. LIVE-LOAD Kn/ M2 MAX WIDTH M MAX BAY LENGTH M 0.75 1.85 1.85 MAX NO. BOARDED LIFTS MAX NO. WORKING LIFTS 1 1 NOTE : All other scaffolds outwith the above are subject to design & calculations Note: Top rail identified with opening/ closing mechanism, replacing fixed rail system, type dependent on scaffold contractor OVERALL HEIGHT MAX. 20.0 M TIED LIFT HEIGHT MAX 2.5 M OVERALL WIDTH OVERALL LENGTH MAX. BAY WIDTH MAX. BAY WIDTH BIRDCAGE, HANGER MAX. LIVE-LOAD Kn/ M2 MAX WIDTH M MAX BAY LENGTH M 0.75 1.85 1.85 (The above diagram illustrates a ladder and top rail access the actual configuration is dependable on scaffold location and area conditions) NOTE : All other scaffolds outwith the above are subject to design & calculations OVERALL DROP MAX. LIFT HEIGHT MAX. BAY LENGTH MAX. OVERALL WIDTH BAY WIDTH OVERALL LENGTH COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA Providing safe access and egress is fundamental to the construction of any scaffold structure that is required for a working platform. When planning the construction of a scaffold structure consideration must t herefore be given to how such access / egress can best be provided ont o the platform based on the following goals: • • • • • • • The pitch of ladder should be set at an angle of 4 vertical to 1 horizontal, i.e. 75° angle (See Flowchart N o.1). The stiles should be securely fixed to the scaffold at both the top and bott om of t he ladder and where appropriate at a central position. The ladder should project a minimum of 1.05m above the top landing with the landing rung level or slightly above the level of the landing platform angle (See Flowchart N o.1). There should be clear unobstructed access with no potential hazards in the area that would increase the risk of injury if a person fell from the ladder (See Flowchart No.2). Personnel should not be able to fall beyond the base level of the ladder to another level or over-board from the platform (See Flowchart No.3). There should be no substances in the local environment that could potentially contaminate the rungs of the ladder, i.e. oil, drilling mud, water, etc (See Flowchart No.4). Ladders should be tied just below the rung level to prevent any obstruction to the foo t and handholds of the users. It is recognised that the temporary nature of scaffold access will make it impossible to achieve these goals for every scaffold. The flowcharts on the following pages therefore provide guidance on what is deemed ‘best practice’ if these goals cannot be achieved and are based on removing or controlling the resultant hazards. 3) Tower This diagram illustrates the scaffold Constructual Terminology & Max Dimensions. TOWER SCAFFOLD MAX LIVE=LOAD Kn-M2 MAX WIDTH M MAX BAY LENGTH M 0.75 1.85 1.85 MAX NO BOARDED LIFTS MAX NO. WORKING LIFTS 1 1 NOTE : All other scaffolds outwith the above are subject to design & calculations OVERALL HEIGHT MAX. 20.0 M TIED MAX. LIFT HEIGHT MAX 2.5M OVERALL WIDTH LENGTH TOWER, HANGER Kn/ M2 WIDTH M LENGTH M MAX LIVE-LOAD Kn/ M2 MAX WIDTH M MAX BAY LENGTH M 0.75 1.85 1.85 4) Cantilever NOTE : All other scaffolds outwith the above are subject to design & calculations OVERALL HEIGHT Maximum Ladder Height BS 5973 stipulates that the “vertical distance between two successive landing places should not exceed 9. 0m”. It should be noted, however, that scaffold ladders greater than 3m in height pose a significant risk to the user because there is no fall protection (e.g. back scratchers) that would normally be found on a fixed vertical ladder. The Scaffold Contracto r should therefor e discuss with the Installation Operator reducing this potential risk through constructing intermediate access lifts for ladders internal to the structure where practicable. These discussions may result in the introd uction of ‘local rules’ that limit the maximum vertical height of a ladder to 3m (i.e. 1 working lift). Irrespective of this, a firm grip of the ladder should always be maintained when ascending or descending ladder, which should be done in a controlled manner to minimise the risk of slipping. COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA MAX. LIFT HEIGHT OVERALL WIDTH OVERALL LENGTH COPYRIGHT © 2002 OCA You're Reading a Preview Unlock full access with a free trial. Download With Free Trial