Abstract: India is the land of villages. This being said the major occupation of people in India is agricu agricultu lture re.. The proj project ect deals deals with with develop developmen mentt of solar solar agricu agricultu ltural ral sprayer sprayer.. The problems faced by Indian farmers today are solved by developing a solar powered agriculture sprayer machine. This machine is platform mounted with pesticide tank on the platform. The machine is operated electrically using solar energy from the PV panel mounted on the machine.
Keywords: Platform Platform !armers "olar "olar "prayer etc etc
India is the land of villages. This being said the major occupation of majority of villages in Indi Indiaa is agri agricu cult ltur ure. e. Near Near about about 70% 70% peopl peoplee are are depe depende ndent nt upon upon agric agricult ultur ure. e. Agriculture has been the backbone of the Indian economy and it ill continue to remain so for a long time. It has to support almost !7 per cent of orld population from ".# per cent of orld orld geogra geographi phical cal area area and $." per cent of orld orldss ater ater resour resources ces.. The economic reforms& initiated in the country during the early !''0s& have put the economy on a higher groth trajectory. Annual groth rate in ()* has accelerated from belo + percent during the initial years of reforms to more than , percent in recent years. This happened mainly due to rapid groth in non-agriculture sector. The orkforce engaged in agriculture beteen !',0-,! and "00+-07 itnessed a very small decline from +0./ percent to /" percent. Indian Indian agricul agricultur turee is charact characteri eried ed by agro-e agro-ecol cologi ogical cal divers diversiti ities es in soil& soil& rainfal rainfall& l& temperature& temperature& and cropping cropping system. system. 1esides 1esides favorable favorable solar energy& energy& the country receives about # trillion m # of rainater& !$ major& $$ medium and // minor rivers share about ,# per cent of the drainage basin. About "!0 billion m# ater is estimated to be available as ground ater. Irrigation ater is becoming a scarce commodity. Thus proper harvesting and efficient utiliation of ater is of great importance. The The nati nation on is stri strivi ving ng to find find ays ays and and mean meanss to keep keep its its burg burgeo eoni ning ng popul populat atio ion n ade2uately fed. 3n the one hand it is facing the problem of declining productivity and on the other& challenges posed by liberaliation. In such a scenario& leveraging the available natural resources and e4isting infrastructure is the only ay to make the ends meet. 5anagement of the already built infrastructure in harmony ith natural systems is the clarion call of the day. 6noledge of the e4tent of e4isting infrastructure and natural resources is one of the most basic pre-re2uisites to utilie them effectively and in a sustainable sustainable manner. The discipline discipline of agricultur agricultural al engineering engineering endeavors to develop develop technologies for enhancing productivity and
igure ! )istrict 8ise Average 9ainfall in India
As compared to other fields globaliation in agriculture system is less. 1ut& ith recent advancements in engineering and technology& there also have been changes in agricultural technology and practices.
Though there are advancements people still follo old
practices due to the lack of money and high cost of technically advanced agricultural e2uipments. igure supplied by national income committee and central statistical sho clearly that agricultural contributed /7% of the national income means agriculture field takes lions shares in national income. :omparison can made beteen the positions of agricultural in India ith that in other country as regards shares of agriculture in India ith that in other country as regards shares of agriculture in national income. The more developed a country the smaller is share of agriculture in national input. India& having not yet reached the stage of advanced economy& has an agricultural sector hich is skill the dominant one in the country.
According to a study made by I;A<& it is found that hoes& pangas& a4es and shovels are the main farm tools used by the farmers in India for agricultural operation. These tools are conventional& time immemorial and no improvement in agricultural practice is adopted. =ence& it is necessary to develop a system hich results in drudgery reduction and is user friendly to agricultural community in India. The productivity of farms depends greatly on the availability and judicious use of farm poer by the farmers. Agricultural implements and machines enable the farmers to employ the poer judiciously for production purposes. Agricultural machines increase productivity of land and labour by meeting timeliness of farm operations and increase ork out-put per unit time. 1esides its paramount contribution to the multiple cropping and diversification of agriculture& mechaniation also enables efficient utilisation of inputs such as seeds& fertilisers and irrigation ater.
arm 5echaniation in Indian agriculture started ith the establishment of the :entral Tractor 3rganisation >:T3? mainly for land reclamation and development& mechanical cultivation and reduction of sanccharum spontanium.
igure " Tractor orking in a farm
arm mechaniation saves time and labour& cuts don crop production costs in the long run& reduces post-harvest losses and boosts crop output and farm income. ;teady groth is observed in manually operated tools& animal operated implements& and e2uipment operated by mechanical and electrical poer sources in India. In manually operated e2uipment& the number of sprayers has almost doubled. After liberaliation and ith development of prototypes of machines& manufacturing got a big boost particularly in =aryana& *unjab& 9ajasthan& 5adhya *radesh and @ttar *radesh states of India.
The Indian agricultural e2uipment market is e4periencing a rapid groth ith e4pected strong potential for future groth as ell. The demand for agricultural machinery in Asia-*acific region as more than tice than in any other region. In Asia-*acific& India has remained one of the primary nations hich fuelled the groth of the agricultural e2uipment market. The tractors& poer tillers& combine harvesters& rotavators& threshers and rice transplanters are some of the e2uipment for hich a surge in demand has been itnessed over the past fe years.
5echaniation is vieed as package of technology to
Increase land utiliation and input use efficiency
Increase labour productivity using labour saving and drudgery reducing devices besides& being cost effective and eco-friendly.
Appropriate machinery have been adapted by farmers for ensuring timely field operations and effective application of various crop production inputs utiliing human& animal and mechanical poer sources. )iverse farm mechaniation scenario prevails in the country due to sie of farm holdings and socio-economic disparities. Indian agriculture continues to be dependent upon human. =and tools and animal dran implements are e4tensively used hich involve a great amount of drudgery.
3ver the last fe years& there has been considerable progress in agriculture mechaniation. It is generally believed that the benefits of modern technology have been restricted to farmers ith large land-holdings. et the fact remains that even small farmers are adopting and utilising selected farm e2uipments for efficient farm management through custom hiring. 5echanical e2uipments for various farm operations like tillage& soing& irrigation& plant protection and threshing etc are generally being used by the farming community.
Status of Farm Mechanization in India
particularly 8estern and Tarai belt? have achieved a faster groth in mechaniation over various *lans
The sale of other implements and machines like combine harvesters& threshers and other poer-operated e2uipment have been increasing almost throughout the country
The pace of mechaniation in North-more than $00 litres Fha? ". Co volume sprayer >/ to $00 litresF hectare? #. @ltra lo volume sprayer >@CE? spray >less than / litres Fha?. The selection techni2ue depends up on type of vegetation& kind of pests and approach to the field.
U#TRA #O& %O#UM$ S'RA($R
@CE ;prayer is used to spray chemicals on ro crops like cotton& copea& groundnuts & tobacco and vegetables. It is ideally suited for home gardens. It is a handheld sprayer ith a spinning F rotating disc designed for ultra-lo volume >@CE? and controlled droplet application of insecticides& fungicides& pesticides& herbicides and all li2uids. 9otating disc technology ensures efficient li2uid atomiation to give appropriate droplet sie. @CE formulations are applied at only "./-7./ litres F ha. 3ne hectare of crop can be treated in around "./ hour )AND
This sprayer is also ideally suited for home gardens and small fields. It consists of a container of 0./ to #./!it capacity a built in air pump& pressure gauge & nole and flo cut off lever. The tank is to be filled ith G th volume. The pump is operated to build pressure in the tank of 0.!/-0.# kgFcm" . 8hen the flo cut off lever is pressed & the fluid passes through the nole and spraying is done. The application rate ranges from $/ to !00 litres Fha. )AND
It is suitable for applying chemicals for field crops and lans. ;imilar to hand atomier this sprayer also consists of a tank of !0-!" lit capacity for holding spray material & a vertical air pump & pressure gauge& filling port& spray lance & nole and a flo control lever. The chemical tank is filled 7/-,0 % volume .The pump is operated to pump air in to the tank to build pressure up to ".0 H #./ kgFcm". 8hen the flo cut off lever is pressed& the fluid passes through the nole and spraying is done. The sprayer is carried on the shoulder of the operator. The application rate ranges from $/ to !00 litres Fha. +NA'SAC+ S'RA($R ,)AND O'$RAT$D-
This sprayer is suitable for applying chemicals to several field crops. The operator carries the sprayer on his back and hence the name knapsack sprayer. It has a flat or bean-shaped tank of !0-!/ litres capacity.& a hydraulic pump fitted inside the tank& a handle to operate
the pump& agitator& filter& delivery hose& and spray gun ith nole and flo control lever. The tank is made of either brass or *E: material. The tank is filled ith chemical solution. 8hen the pump is operated& it dras the fluid through the suction hole and delivers it to the spray gun& 8hen the cut off lever is pressed spraying is don e through the nole as fine droplets. The pressure developed in these sprayers depends on the pump and varies from # to !" kgFcm" The application rate is /00 litFha. The coverage is 0./-!.0 haFday. Sa.ient
7. <98? pipe is manufactured by rolling metal and then elding it longitudinally across its length. These pipes not only provie sufficient strength in e4treme conditions of the machine but also are economical. Thus to fabricate the frame <98 steel pipes ith 0.7/ inch s2uare cross section ere chosen.
!igure: "#uare $%& pipes
Se.ection of So.ar ane.:
The selection of solar panel as very imporatnt as the machine is solar poered. The solar panel selected should meet the folloing re2uirements
!? ;hould be affordable "? ;hould be able to mount in least space #? ;hould charge the 1atteyr in day long cycle :onsidering these thisng sin mind the solar panel of !0 8 as choosen Se.ection of so.ar char"e contro..er: The solar charge controller plays a major role ithout hich it is not possible to charge the battery. As the charge controller regulates the charge coming out of the solar panel and supplies it to the load the charge controller selected should meet the folloing re2uirements !? ;hould be economical "? ;hould deliver the current re2uired by the load #? ;hould regulate the solar panel voltage to battery $? ;hould have battery lo cutoff function. 6eeping folloing things in mind& and considering the load current of / A the + A charge controller as choosen. Se.ection of sra! um: ;ince the entire system is designed to handle the load of / amp the pump hich
consumes less than / A of current as chosen. The pump chosen is !" E #./ A pump. Se.ection of o2er s!stem: Though the system is poered using solar energy& it re2uires battery to store the charge.
The battery selected need to meet the oflloing re2uirements !? To give sufficinet backup for spray pump "? ;hould charge easily #? Cong battery life $? :ompact and economical 1ased on the folloing re2uirements the batteyr choosen as 7." A= !" E battery.
STANDARD COM'ON$NTS US$D IN T)IS 'RO6$CT: 4- So.ar 'ane.:
This project uses !0 att soalr panel. the folloing are the specifications of !0 8att soalr panel. ;olar panel refers to a panel designed to absorb the sunDs rays as a source of energy for generating electricity or heating. The primary component of a solar panel is the solar cells& or photovoltaic cell. This is the key component that converts sunlight into electricity. At the present time about ,0% of all solar panels are made from crystalline silicon >i.e.&monocrystalline& polycrystalline& amorphous silicon& or hybrids? solar cells. Typically the solar cells are laid out in a grid pattern H ith perhaps as many as 7" different solar cells. The other "0% consist primarily of solar cells made mostly from :admium Telluride and a small but groing amount from :I(;. The appeal of these types of cells is their lo cost resulting from the fact they can be made in large single sheets. Cots of small solar cells spread over a large area can ork together to provide enough poer to be useful. The more light that hits a cell& the more electricity it produces& so the machine is usually designed ith solar panels that can alays be pointed at the ;un even as the rest of the body of the machine moves around.
igure # ;olar *anel This project uses a !0 8att !" E solar panel as it is sufficient to charge the battery. The technical specifications of the solar panel are as shon belo.
;pecificationsB 5a4 9ated *oer >*ma4? Eoltage at 5a4 *oer >Emp? :urrent at 5a4 *oer >Imp? 3pen :ircuit Eoltage >Eoc? ;hort :ircuit :urrent >Isc? Cength 4 8idth 4 )epth >inches?
!0 8atts !7.# Eolts 0./' Amps "!., Eolts 0.+$ Amps !#., 4 !!., 4 0.',
7- Char"e contro..er: The charge controller is the device hich is used to charge the battery and take
the load using the electricity generated by solar panel. In our project as the net load ill never e4ceed / amp& / to !- amp solar charge controller should sufficient.
A charge controller is an essential part of nearly all poer systems that charge batteries& hether the poer source is *E& ind& hydro& fuel& or utility grid. Its purpose is to
The basic functions of a controller are 2uite simple. :harge controllers block reverse current and prevent battery overcharge. ;ome controllers also prevent battery over
discharge& protect from electrical overload& andFor display battery status and the flo of poer.
*hotovoltaic panels ork by pumping current through your battery in one direction. At night& the panels may pass a bit of current in the reverse direction& causing a slight discharge from the battery. >3ur term JbatteryJ represents either a single battery or bank of batteries.? The potential loss is minor& but it is easy to prevent. ; ome types of ind and hydro generators also dra reverse current hen they stop >most do not e4cept under fault
In most controllers& charge current passes through a semiconductor >a transistor? hich acts like a valve to control the current. It is called a JsemiconductorJ because it passes current only in one direction. It prevents reverse current ithout any e4tra effort or cost.
In some controllers& an electromagnetic coil opens and closes a mechanical sitch. This is called a relay. >ou can hear it click on and off.? The relay sitches off at night& to block
If you are using a *E array only to trickle-charge a battery >a very small array relative to the sie of the battery?& then you may not need a charge controller. This is a rare application. An e4ample is a tiny maintenance module that prevents battery discharge in a parked vehicle but ill not support significant loads. ou can install a simple diode in that case& to block reverse current. A diode used for this purpose is called a Jblocking diode.J
8hen a battery reaches full charge& it can no longer store incoming energy. If energy continues to be applied at the full rate& the battery voltage gets too high. 8ater separates into hydrogen and o4ygen and bubbles out rapidly. >It looks like itDs boiling so e
sometimes call it that& although itDs not actually hot.? There is e4cessive loss of ater& and a chance that the gasses can ignite and cause a small e4plosion. The battery ill also degrade rapidly and may possibly overheat. <4cessive voltage can also stress your loads >lights&
*reventing overcharge is simply a matter of reducing the flo of energy to the battery hen the battery reaches a specific voltage. 8hen the voltage drops due to loer sun intensity or an increase in electrical usage& the controller again allos the ma4imum possible charge. This is called Jvoltage regulating.J It is the most essential function of all charge controllers. The controller Jlooks atJ the voltage& and regulates the battery charging
;ome controllers regulate the flo of energy to the battery by sitching the current fully on or fully off. This is called JonFoff control.J 3thers reduce the current gradually. This is called Jpulse idth modulationJ >*85?. 1oth methods ork ell hen set properly for your
A *85 controller holds the voltage more constant. If it has to-stage regulation& it ill first hold the voltage to a safe ma4imum for the battery to reach full charge. Then& it ill drop the voltage loer& to sustain a JfinishJ or JtrickleJ charge. To-stage regulating is important for a system that may e4perience many days or eeks of e4cess energy >or little use of energy?. It maintains a full charge but minimies ater loss and stress.
The voltages at hich the controller changes the charge rate are called set points. 8hen determining the ideal set points& there is some compromise beteen charging 2uickly before the sun goes don& and mildly overcharging the battery. The determination of set points depends on the anticipated patterns of usage& the type of battery& and to some e4tent& the e4perience and philosophy of the system designer or operator. ;ome controllers have adjustable set points& hile others do not.
8- 'um: The pump is used to pump the li2uid form the tank and push it ith high pressure
to the nole of the sprayer.
• • •
The specifications of the pump areB 3perating EoltageK !" E :urrent K #./ Amp )ischarge K $ to + Citres per minute
9- Batter! : The battery used in this project is !" E 7." A= sealed lead acid battery
The specifications of the battery are as follosB ;l. No ! " #
*arameter Eoltage :urrent *oer
Time re2uired for battery charging The poer of the battery K !" 4 7." K ,+.$ 8
Ealue !" E 7." Amp ,+.$ 8att
The solar panel poer inputK !0 8 The time re2uired for charging full battery K ,+.$F!0 K,.+$ hours Assuming day long cycle of , '- hours the battery can be charged completely in one day •
The poer consumed by motor is given by * K !" 4 #./ K $" 8 8e kno the poer rating of the battery is ,+.$ att Therefore the battery backup is given by ,+.$ F $" K ".0/ hours
A)EANTA(<; AN) )I;A)EANTA(<;B 4789-
Ad1anta"es: ;olar poered hence doesnt re2uired electricity in villages for charging :an be used in remote locations. )oesnt re2uire farmers to carry heavy tanks on their back :an be upgraded to higher tank capacity ith ease
Disad1ata"es: !? 9e2uires some initial investment "? 1attery maintenance is re2uired after some time