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The Analysis Of Language Teaching Materials

The analysis of the article "The Analysis of Language Teaching Materials" by Andrew Littlejohn




The analysis of language teaching materials: inside the Trojan Horse by Andrew by  Andrew Littlejohn PREPARED BY: DECLAN PAUL JOHNNY BT12110030 ELUCIA YONG SIEW LEAN BT12110033 GLENN ANDREW HILARION BT12110047 LOH CHIA YEE BT12110073 STENNIA MIGA AK RADIM BT12110180 Materials design has become characterised characteris ed by 2 important developments:   Use of published materials is widespread  presence of UK publisher   Eg. Oxford, Pearson Materials evolved much more complex objects  Comes with complete “packages” for language learning and teaching  Eg. Textbook has questions to be answered by students, enable teacher-student teacher-stude nt interaction Issue proposed by Andrew Littlejohn…  Development of materials will be more effective if we are able to examine implications of the material use in classroom  Need to test out the claims being made for  materials:   Help develop autonomy?  Involve problem-solving?  Learner centered? *looking inside like Trojan Horse* Analysing materials His concern was to..  Enable a close analysis materials themselves. (as support to design material)  Enable it to be a preliminary step to materials evaluation evaluation and classroom research This is where the framework comes in... Sources for guidance in analysing materials  Frameworks depicted by other researchers E.g : Harmer, 1991; Williams 1983; Cunningswort Cunningsworth, h, 1984 However...  Although useful, they only made general impressionistic judgements judgements on the materials  Contain assumptions about what „desirable‟ materials should look like.  E.g : William Williamss 1983; Schemes of evaluation , up-to-date methodology Hence...  A framework is required to guide teacher-analyst teacher- analyst to have an „in„in-depth‟ evaluation of a material. We need to consider...  What are the aspects of materials we should examine?  How to examine?  How can we relate the findings to our own teaching context? Frameworks that Littlejohn proposed… • Publication • Physical aspects of the materials and how they appear  as a complete set or book  The actual form of the material Framework  • • Design Relates to the thinking underlying the material Considers how tasks, language and content in materials are selected   Aspects of  of  analysis of  language teaching materials   Aspects of  of  analysis of  language teaching materials Analysis of materials  Need to focus on what learner are asked to do  How it relates to “process competence” Knowledge Process competence Ability Affects How do we examine the materials? On its own, the framework has very limited use  Therefore, Teacher-analyst Teacheranalyst need to examine different “levels” of analysis  Levels of analysis of language teaching materials This figure outlines  What is there? • Statements of description • Physical aspects of the materials • Main steps in instructional i nstructional sections What is required of users ? levels from the most objective through deductions to conclusions about the underlying principles of materials. • Subdivision into constituent tasks • An analysis of tasks: What is the learner  expected to do? With whom? With what content? Who determines these things? What is implied? • Deducing aims, principles of selection and sequence • Deducing teacher and learner  roles Deducing demands demands on learners‟ Level 1: What is there?  Explicit nature of the materials –  materials  – what what is clear and can be understood and seen easily  Statements found within the materials  Example:   Publication date  Intended audience  Type of materials Physical aspects of the materials  Number of pages  Use of colour   Total number of components in a complete set  We are able to see:  How a material is divided into sections  The means of access into the materials provided  How both of the above are distributed between teacher and learner   Categories of information recorded depend on the particular materials being analysed  The length of materials make it impractical to analyse all the contents  Proportion of materials examined and main sequence of activity is recorded (Part B)  Littlejohn found it useful to analyse about 10%-15% of the material  A schedule for  recording the explicit nature of a set of materials A schedule for recording the explicit nature of a set of materials  A schedule for  recording the explicit nature of a set of materials Level 2: What is required of users?  Most important aspect of materials  Draw deductions about what exactly teachers t eachers and learners who are using the materials have to do  Materials need to be divided into tasks where each task is analysed analysed..  Two definitions: 1. Task is meaning-focused work, such as projects, problem-solving Task is and simulations. 2. “Task refers to any proposal contained within the materials for  action to be undertaken by the learners, which has the direct aim of bringing about the learning of the foreign language” (Littlejohn, 1998).  Definition 1  –   – too too narrow to analyse any set language learning materials  – not  –  not meaning focused  Definition 2  –   – alternative alternative broader definition  From definition 2, there are three aspects of tasks  A process through which learners and teachers are to go  Classroom participation concerning with whom the learners are to work   Content that the learners are to focus on Process Participation Content  Process Turn-take Focus Operation Relates to the role in classroom discourse learners are expected to take. Meaning of language? Refers to the mental process required. Are they: • Responding to direct questions? • Using language supplied/not supplied by material? • Asked to initiate? • Not required to take any direct role at all? Form of language? Both? Eg: • Repetition • Deducing language rules   Participation  „With whom?‟  Work alone? Pairs/groups? Whole class? Content  Is it written or spoken?  Individual word or sentences or extended discourse?  Where does the material come from?   Teachers or learner themselves? What is the nature?  Grammar explanations?  Personal information?  Fiction?  General knowledge? With this detailed analysis…  The assumptions about the best route to classroom language learning will become clear   Teacher and learner roles become defined  Analysis of tasks → effectively test out the various claims made for  the materials. Level 3: What is implied?  Draws on findings at Level 1 and 2  Come to some general conclusions about the principles of materials  Make statements on the overall aims of the materials and how the tasks and content are selected and sequenced.  Produce general statements on the demands placed upon learners in relation to „process competence‟.  Come to conclusion on the  Roles proposed for teachers and learners  Roles of materials as a whole in facilitating language learning and teaching. How can we relate the findings to our  own teaching contexts?  A preliminary framework for  materials analysis, evaluation and action