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The Greek World Hsc Notes

For Ancient History in the HSC course




HSC 2016 PART IV: HISTORICAL PERIODS THE GREEK WORLD Option H Greece: The Greek world 500 – 440 BC Principal Focus: Through an investigation of the archaeological and written sources for the Greek world 500 – 440 BC, students learn about significant developments, forces and relevant historiographical issues that shaped the historical period. Students learn about: 1. Persian Wars ! Origins: Persian imperialism, Ionian Revolt ! Invasion of 490 BC: Battle of Marathon, role of Miltiades ! Inter-war period: preparation and developments in Persia and Greece ! Invasion of 480-479 BC: Battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea and Mycale ! Role and contribution of Themistocles, Leonidas, Pausanias, Eurybiades ! Reasons for Greek victory and Persian defeat 2. Development of Athens and the Athenian Empire ! Delian League: origins, aims, organisation and activities to the Battle of the Eurymedon River; role and contribution of Cimon and Aristides the Just ! Transformation of the Delian League into the Athenian empire !  Nature of Athenian imperialism; changing relations with allies ! Key democratic developments: influence of the thetes, ostracism, citizenship law 3. Athens and Sparta ! ! Impact of Persian Wars  Nature, composition and activities of the Peloponnesian League: Spartan responses to Athenian imperialism 1: Persian Wars Origins: Persian Imperialism, Ionian Revolt ! Much of what we know of western civilisation today is due to the advancements of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Much of our architecture, law, education, language, literature, and sciences are as advanced as they are due to these two ancient civilisations ! This should be noted when studying The Persian Wars and Greece’s success. ! Even though Persia was defeated it was but a small bump in their otherwise successful empire. ! “Truth loving Persians do not dwell upon the trivial skirmish fought near marathon.” (Graves, Robert, Poems selected by himself) ! Many of the sources are written by Greek historians so bias can be considered as a playing part in the representation of Greece’s success. ! Herodotus is one of the BEST sources for The Greek World, in his work, The Histories ! The Greek historian Thucydides is also a great source with his writing,  History of the  Peloponnesian War ! The Persians mostly expanded during the 6th century BCE. The Medes and Persians were IndoEuropean tribes who originally settled where we now know as Iran, but back then naming their sides Media and Persia (thus what we know their communities as) ! Cyrus (the great) was the key figure in the rise of Persia during the 6th century. After taking the throne of a small area known as Persis; when Lydia’s king took attack on Cappadocia after being told by the delphic oracle that crossing the river would result in him ‘destroying an empire’, only to  be fought and beaten by Cyrus. Cyrus then took over the Asian minor Ionian cities fell under Persia’s control. ! These Ionian cities were Greek, and some of them fled. In 539, Babylon was also taken over by Persia. ! Cyrus’ rule was eventually taken by Darius, whom at the time of his rule was dealing with revolts from smaller cities such as Babylon, Media, and Elam, whom disagreed with Persian rule. ! IONIAN REVOLT - MINOR GREEK CITIES IN THE ASIA MINOR REBELLING AGAINST THE OVERLORD AKA PERSIA. ! The Ionian revolt is considered as the ‘spark’ that ignited Darius’ decision to invade Greece. However Darius had always shown interest in invading mainland Europe to further expand the Persian Empire. ! There are a few reasons for the breakout of the Ionian revolt: ! Persia ruled it’s city states with tyrannical power, a popular form of government in the 6th century BC ! There was also hope for support from Athens and Sparta, two of the strongest greek city states. ! The Ionians also clearly wanted independance as they were not satisfied with being subjects of a  bigger and more controlling state. ! The large island of Naxos was led by Aristagoras who was pro-Persia and convinced the satrap of western asia, Artaphernes, to overtake Naxos so that it would technically fall under Persian rule. However a persian by the name of Megabates betrayed Aristagoras after a fight by warning the  people of Naxos to allow them to protect themselves ! Because of his failure to give Artaphernes Naxos, he lived fearing an attack placed upon them from Persia or any of its states. His father then persuaded him to revolt against Persia. ! The Ionian Revolt began in 499BCE and began with the casting away of pro-persia tyrants in the ionian states. ! Naxos received help from Athens, whom had mixed motivations for helping them. Sympathy for their fellow Greeks in Ionia, concern towards tyrants in the persian court, and a desire for trade links across the black sea. ! The Athenians burned Sardis -ine of Persia’s ionian states- and enraged, Darius swore vengeance on Athens. “Sire, remember the Athenians!” -Herodotus ! The revolt ended with the battle of Lade in 494 BCE, when the Persians closed in around Miletus and the Ionian Greek rebels were defeated by Persia. ! Darius, however, was still angry over the small defeat at Sardis, and swore and attack on Athens who had helped the Ionians. ! Herodotus claims that one of the results of the Ionian revolt was the single minded goal of defeating Athens out of vengeance. Invasion of 490 BC: Battle of Marathon, role of Miltiades ! The Battle of Marathon took place in September 490 BC on the plain of Marathon. ! It was fought between the Athenians and the Persians. Athens was supported by a small force from the city of Platea. ! The battle was the end of the first attempt by Persia, under King Darius I, to conquer Greece. It was  part of the first Greco-Persian war. ! The Persian invasion was a response to Greek involvement in the Ionian Revolt. Then, Athens and Eretria had sent a force to support the cities of Ionia, who were trying to overthrow Persian rule. The Athenians and Eretrians succeeded in capturing and burning Sardis, but were forced to retreat with heavy losses. In response to this raid, Darius swore to burn Athens and Eretria to the ground. ! Once the Ionian revolt was crushed by the Persian victory at the Battle of Lade, Darius began  planning to conquer Greece. In 490 B C, he sent a naval task force under Datis and Artaphernes across the Aegean, to subjugate the Cyclades, the group of Greek islands in the Aegean Sea. ! The next step was to attack Athens and Eretria. After a successful campaign in the Aegean, the Persians defeated, captured and burnt Eretria. ! The Persian force then sailed for Attica. They landed on Schinias beach on the east end of Marathon bay. ! The broad field, called the plain of Marathon, was flat, level and ideal for battle. The Athenians,  joined by a small force from Plataea, marched to Marathon, and blocked the two exits from the  plain of Marathon. Stalemate ensued for five days. Then, for reasons that are not clear, the Athenians decided to attack the Persians. Despite the numerical advantage of the Persians, the Greek hoplites proved very effective against the more lightly armed Persian infantry. [b] They routed the Persian wings before turning in on the centre of the Persian line. Inter-war period: preparation and developments in Persia and Greece !  Persian Preparations during the inter-war period ! Post-father’s rule, Xerxes faced the issues of the rebellions in Egypt and Babylon that avoided him from attacking the Greek city states as early as initially planned. ! Left Greek states to frantically meet up to plan a way to defend and protect their land, Xerxes  planned that both land & sea battle was required. Needed large army: navy for support and communication, 4-year preparation. ! Herodotus explains that it took 4 years for Xerxes to assemble his troops, stores and equipment. 800 ship fleet crewed with Egyptians and Ionian Greeks. ! Assembled army of 200,000 men, from across the empire however most of them were Persians, Medes, Bactrians and Sakas. ! Built bridges across the Hellespont and Strymon River for his men to travel across, as well as take supplies over. ! “According to Herodotus, Xerxes brought an army of approximately five million to invade Greece. Modern historians have tended to divide this figure by ten.” Antiquity, page 368 ! “The army (Persian) was indeed far greater than any other in recorded history” – Herodotus, The Histories ! “As nobody has left a record, I cannot state the precise number of me nprovided by each  separate nation, but the grand total, excluding the naval contingent, turned out to be 1,700,000…” –Herodotus, Book VII, 60. ! Greek Preparations during the inter-war period ! Greek’s preparations were not as systematic as due to their success at Marathon they were not expecting a later attack. ! Hellenic League establishes meant cease of dispute for all states to win. Invites to states who weren’t yet apart of it were sent out, to gain forces to go against Persia. ! League lacked unity initially. Small states wanted to just protect themselves; didn’t identify as ‘Greeks’ ! Themistocles convinced the state –after ostracizing Aristides- on a naval force over military forces. ! Spartan leadership on land was automatically decided, and Themistocles convinced Athens after a second council meeting to give Sparta leadership at seas too. Aristides recalled from exile. ! Oracle was interpreted by Themistocles as a reference to naval ships as wall. ! “…yet Zeus the all seeing grants to Athene’s prayer / that the wooden wall only shall not fall, but help you and your children. / But await not the host of horse and foot coming from Asia, /  Nor be still, but turn your back and withdraw from the foe / Truly a day will come when you will meet him face to face, / –Herodotus, The Histories, VII, 141 ! “…The reasons why many Greeks allied in 481BC to resist the invasion must be sought in the  particular circumstances of those cities, not in any general recognition of Persia as a national  Enemy…” Sealey, R, A History of The Greek City States, Invasion of 480–479 BC: Battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium, Salamis, Plataea and Mycale ! Thermopylae ! Herodotus: path was at its narrowest, 4m at the West Gate " Leonidas, Spartan King, advances with 7000 soldiers (300 Spartans, Peloponnesians, Phocians, Thebans, Thespians and Locrains) and held the narrow passage (around 1.5km in length). Village of Alpeni was supply base. " Leonidas was informed of another route. 1000 Phocians volunteered to hold the path. " Persians waited 4 days to attack believing that the Greeks would retreat. " First 2 days of fighting: unsuccessful and even the immortals had no success because of Greek’s strategic position. Inability to use cavalry. " Ephialtes betrayed the Greeks and guides the Persians over the mountain pass. " Phocians were caught by surprise and were passed by. " Leonidas sent most of the troops away keeping his Spartans and Thebans and Thespians who refused to leave. They moved to a narrower pass and onto a mound. Soldiers are surrounded. " Leonidas dies and there is a battle over his body. " Spartans and Thespians died fighting, Xerxes mutilates Leonidas’ body. " Persians collected Eretrian prisoners and sailed for Athens. " Greeks relied upon massed formation of troops who used the same strategy and tactics. " Hoplite phalanxes needed level ground to be most effective. Aimed at breaking the opposition’s phalanx through sheer weight/coordinated strength. Also used hand-to-hand fighting. " Typical offensive strategy was to invade an enemy’s territory. " Persians: different weaponry and style. Used to Asian terrain which was broad and flat. Success rested on cavalry and archers who had mobility and could surround a phalanx. " Land strategy of Greeks: based on the effectiveness of Persian cavalry and archery. Part of Athenian success at Marathon. Athenian hoplites and heavier defensive armour was superior to Persian infantry. " Greeks needed to choose a good battle location with a defensive position. " Greek naval strategy also based on contemporary sea battles. Tactics of 480: boarding an enemy’s ship, with or without ramming it. Fighting occurred on board. " Persians possessed more ships, superior speed and better manoeuvrability. Therefore Greeks had to fight in narrow straits where Persians numbers would be a disadvantage. More advantageous to bigger and heavier Greek ships. ! Artemisium: ! The Greek Navy in 480 BCE were defending their land from the Persian invasion, whom were trying to overtake their land, after having failed to conquer Greece during the first Persian Invasion in 492-490 BCE. ! The Greeks, officially commanded by the Spartan Eurybiades, but in fact by the Athenian Themistocles understood that they had to annihilate the Persian transport fleet; without its support, the army would be forced to return. ! The Greek’s main goal was to protect the flank of the army at Thermopylae, to strengthen their chances of winning there. ! Athenian general Themistocles proposed an alliance with other Greek states, to stop the Persian invasion at the pass of Thermopylae. ! The Persians had the advantage of more men, as well as more experienced sailors than that of the assembled army of Greece, who had newly built ships with reasonably new crew. This is perhaps why Herodotus refers to them as having “better sailing ships”, due to the experience contrasted between the two. ! The Persians had the simple plan of forcing their way through their enemies, or to outflank them. Considering the holdup with stormy weather before the battle they needed to come up with an effectful plan of attack. ! The most common attack used in the Mediterranean at this time was called ‘ramming’ ! Another maneuver figured out by the Persians and the Greeks included something referred to as ‘diekplous’.While not many sources point out the specifics of this sea tactic it is said to have involved sailing into the gaps between enemy ships and ramming into the side of their ship/s. ! This tactic was not used by the Greeks, and this is assumed from Herodotus’ recount of their ships being “heavier and, by implication, less maneuverable.” ! The Greeks used a crescent form with their ships to surround the Persians. ! The Greeks had 271 ships, 4,065 marines, and 46,070 oarsmen ! The Persians 1,207 ships, 36,210 marines, and 205,190 oarsmen ! The two sites were connected: if Thermopylae fell, the Persian cavalry could proceed to Chalcis, cross to Euboea, and attack the Greek navy at Artemisium in the rear; at the same time, the Persian navy could sail around Euboea and attack the defenders of Thermopylae. ! The Persians, who had suffered some losses in a storm during their advance from Therma to the south, occupied Aphetae on Cape Magnesia, but their fleet was very large, which made it hard to keep them together. ! Fifteen ships lost contact with the main force, and were captured by the Greeks. Still, the greater part landed at Aphetae, although the units were situated at some distance of each other - there were simply too many Persian ships at Magnesia. ! On the first night, a storm hit the area which prevented the Persians from travelling southward. ! During the first two days of the encounter, the Greeks could attack units separately, and had some success: on the first day, they captured 30 enemy ships, and on the second day, the destroyed the flotilla of the Cilicians, who served the Persian king. ! On the third day, the Persians came out at full strength and beat the Greeks, who now had to leave Artemisium and retreat, after also hearing of the outcome of the battle at Thermopylae. ! At the same time, king Xerxes had defeated the Greek land army, commanded by the Spartan king Leonidas, at Thermopylae. ! Salamis Battle: ! The Greeks had 371 triremes and pentekonters (smaller fifty oared ships). ! The much larger Persian fleet consisted of 500 or 1207 ships (it is not sure). ! The Persians, led by Xerxes, decided to meet the Athenian fleet off the coast of Salamis Island. ! Themistocles argued in favor of fighting at Salamis; however, Eurybiades and the Spartans argued about the necessity of fighting at Salamis. They wanted to fight the battle closer to Corinth, so that they could retreat to the mainland in case of a defeat, or withdraw completely and let the Persians attack them by land. ! Themistocles sent a slave named Sicinnus to Xerxes to make the Persian king believe that the Greeks had not been able to agree on a location for battle, and would be retreating during the night. Xerxes believed Sicinnus and had his fleet blockade the western outlet of the straits, which also served to block any Greek ships who might be planning to escape. Throughout the night the Persian ships searched the gulf for the Greek retreat, while the Greeks remained on their ships, asleep. ! In the morning, the Persians sailed into the straits to attack the Greek fleet. The Corinthian ships immediately retreated, drawing the Persians further into the straits after them. This may have been due to cowardice or the Corinthians had most likely been instructed to feign a retreat  by Themistocles. !  None of the other Greek ships attacked, until a single Greek trireme quickly rammed the lead Persian ship causing the rest of the Greeks to join the attack. ! The much larger Persian fleet could not manoeuvre in the gulf, and a smaller contingent of Athenian and Aeginan triremes flanked the Persian navy. ! The Persians tried to turn back but a strong wind trapped them and those that were able to turn around were trapped by the rest of the Persian fleet that had jammed the strait. ! The Greek and Persian ships rammed each other. Both sides had marines on their ships (the Greeks with fully armed hoplites), with arrows and javelins. ! The chief Persian admiral Ariamenes rammed Themistocles' ship, but in the hand-to-hand combat that followed Ariamenes was killed by a Greek foot soldier. ! Only about 100 of the heavier Persian triremes could fit into the gulf at a time, and each successive wave was disabled or destroyed by the lighter Greek triremes. ! According to Herodotus, the Persians suffered many more casualties than the Greeks because the Persians did not know how to swim. Those Persians who survived and ended up on shore were killed by the Greeks who found them. ! In the final part of the battle the Athenian general Aristides took a large number of soldiers to the island of Psyttaleia where the 400 troops of Xerxes had been left by the Persian fleet in their retreat. The 400 Persian soldiers were annihilated by the Greek troops. ! Plataea " Mardonius chose the area because it was cavalry country and Thebes was an allied city. He camped his troops along the river Asopus facing the passes by which the Greeks emerged. " Persians built a stockade to serve as protection in case of defeat. It made it possible for communication with Thebes. " Greeks descended from Cithaeron ranges and numbered 38 700. On the left with there were Athenians and Plataeans. On left centre was a miscellaneous group. Right centre were Peloponnesians. Right were Spartans and Tegeans. " " " Significant numbers of Greeks, very good military unit.  Neither wanted to attack from their good positions – Persians run out of supplies quicker. Mardonius sends the cavalry under Masistius. Fighting continues and Greek formation is not  broken. Mardonius doesn’t send reinforcements. " Greeks run out of water and move west behind Plataea behind a row of hills – closer to Asopus River and plentiful water supply. Leaves road to Athens open. " Skirmishes between Greeks and Persians. Persians running out of food, Greek water supply is  poisoned. Persians destroy Greek food wagons. " Pausanias moves the centre closer to Plataea while Spartans keep the high ground and Athenians keep the low ground. " Mardonius sees the Greeks retreat and turns on the Spartans and had not seen the Athenians. " Battle is divided in two with Megarians, non-Peloponnesians helping the Athenians. Peloponnesians closing the gap between Athenians and Spartans. " Spartans wait behind phalanx and show great courage. Pausanias charges – Mardonius is killed. His troops eventually return northward to Asia. " The stockade is taken and Persians are slaughtered. " Mycale " Greeks make chase and land in Mycale. Ionians get revenge. " Only 1/3 of the Greek fleet is formed at Aegina. " Spartan King Leotychides asked by Chios to sail to Ionia (ready to revolt). Request is refused. Greeks sail to Delos and set up a defensive position. Spartans are still in charge of the fleet and infantry. " Persian army make headquarters at Samos. ‘It never enterted their thoughts that the Greeks would undertake an expedition to Ionia’. " Samos joins the Greeks – betray Persians. Tell the Greeks that Persians are in a poor condition and the mere sight of the allied fleet off the coast would encourage the Ionians to revolt. " Council of War decide to start offensive and land at Samos to find Persians had retreated to the mainland. Persians beached at Mycale – many Persian forces loyalty is thin. Milesians sent to guard the paths leading inland. " Greeks land on shore proclaiming freedom. Athenians face the Persians while Spartans attack from inland. " Persian army and navy is destroyed – Greeks storm the stockade. " Ionians change sides and Milesians join in the slaughter and proved Persia’s bitterest enemies. nd 2  Ionian revolt from Persian domination. " Greeks burn the ships and fort and retire to Samos to debate the future of Ionia " Greeks control the Aegean sea. Mycale ended the defence of the mainland " War with Persia not over yet. " Further military and naval action takes place until 448. "  Now enters Athenian leadership – not happy with just helping Ionia. " Leadership at Sestos shows the first step towards an empire. " Marks the end of a defensive war. The revolt of the Ionians and desire to join the Hellenic League – radical change of military policy. Role and contribution of Themistocles, Leonidas, Pausanias, Eurybiades ! The Athenians had been building up a large fleet since 483 BC, ostensibly to help win them in their ongoing conflict with Aegina. However, it is probable this build up, made under the guidance of Themistocles, was also made with a future conflict with the Persians in mind ! Sparta and Athens led the joint Greek army. ! The fleet was commanded by the Spartan Eurybiades son of Euryclidas, after the other allies refused to follow an Athenian leader. The Athenian leader Themistocles, who had played a key  part in building up the Athenian fleet, commanded the Athenian contingent and played a major  part in ensuring that the fleet stood and fought. ! Athenian leader Themistocles also played a significant role in the building of the Greek’s naval fleet. ! Within the Greek side there were multiple leaders from different Greek city states, who when faced with the Persian army coming forth after ! Spartan Leader   Eurybiades led the Greek’s side, however unlike Themistocles he was not as drawn towards attacking and Themistocles was. He delayed plans on attack until he was otherwise convinced. His tactic was to defend rather than fight back, but this was not held up for the entire three days. ! general Themistocles dictating strategy, the allied Greek fleet drew the Persians into the narrow confines of the straits between Salamis and the mainland and won a resounding victory. ! Xerxes, leading the Persian fleet, ordered attacks on Greece focusing on brute force. ! Leonidas led the spartan army at Thermopylae, was defeated after he split his army from spartiates and troops/ ! Pausanias held together an army of over 100,000 men from over 24 city states in the battle of salamis. He also held together an army that was suffering with low food and even lower chances at victory. Herodotus comments that, “The finest history in all history known to me was by Pausanias.” -The Histories ! Themistocles !  Narrow patriotism for Athens ! Personal egotism ! Clever deceit ! Lack of moral principle ! Corrupt by money ! He most likely fought at the Battle of Marathon but was probably not an Athenian general ! Clear vision of the necessity for Hellenic unity ! Wise insistence on a naval policy for Athens after Marathon ! Convinced the Athenians to use the silver to build triremes ! The account of Herodotus portrays a cunning and corrupt Themistocles. He received 30 talents from the Euboians and used it to bribe commanders at Artemisium, including the Spartan general Eurybiades, but kept most of the money for himself ! Would threaten to leave the Greeks and take the triremes to Italy is they did not defend the areas he suggested ! Developing control of the grain regions of Greece ! Recognised the necessary economic relationship between democracy and imperialism for Athens ! Convinced Athens to build a wall even though the Spartans objected ! He sought by decree to secure the annual addition of 20 new triremes of a new and improved style ! Promoted commercial expansion ! He attracted foreigners to make their homes at the Piraeus, bringing their capital and skilled labour ! He ‘was always introducing sweeping reforms’ – Plutarch ! Thucydides described Themistocles as ‘a man who showed unmistakable natural genius’ ! Plutarch says that he is ‘generally regarded as the man most responsible for saving Greece’ ! His vision for Athens was to ‘unite the whole city to the sea’ and make Athens into a great naval power ! ! ! ! After 476 BC he was ostracised Leonidas ! Spartan leadership at the Battle of Thermopylae ! Spartan bravery ! Emphasise the traditional view of the Spartans ! Inspired Greeks ! Helped establish a hero cult Pausanias ! Spartan regent ! Spartan leadership at the Battle of Plataea ! Recaptured Byzantium ! Accused of treasonable negotiations with Xerses Eurybiades ! Control of Greek fleet ! Listened to the tactical advice of Themistocles at Artemisium Reasons for Greek victory and Persian defeat " Plataea – plain and spread out. " Greeks were very lucky – not clear that they were going to win. " Both sides were jockeying for the best position. " Persians held the high ground while Greeks held the plain. " Greeks pretended to retreat but turned around and the Persians were forced back " Mardonius was killed and all organization had fallen away. " Plataea was a decisive battle which ended Persian occupation. " Much of northern and eastern Greece still occupied. Greeks started offensive. " Example of Greek unity: 23 states taken oaths and fought. Was a national alliance though shortlived over approx. 3 weeks. " Discipline and prowess of Spartan hoplites shown – bore the brunt of fighting. Pausanias ‘won the most splendid victory which history records.’. " Spartan battle – rise to power of Pausanias as ‘King Regent’. " Success of Plataea brought new supporters to the alliance – Samos, Ionians and Aeolians. Asian Minor: Athens’ moral obligation to go help the Ionians, had times of kinship or empire  building. " Cultural turning point " defined Europe geographically and philosophically " Greeks maintained cultural identity  foundation of Western civilization. "