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Xerox India Ltd 0000 Multifunction Devices In Office Environment





MULTIFUNCTION DEVICES IN OFFICE ENVIRONMENT AT XEROX INDIA LTD. PROJECT REPORT (2008) Submitted for the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award  Of  Post Graduate Diploma In Management SUBMITTED BY: VIJAYENDRA PRATE SINGH Under the supervision of  External: Mr. Rajeev Mehra Internal: Ms. Gnajan Aggrawal Department of Management INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT EDUCATION, SAHIBABAD DECLARATION I here hereby by decl declar aree that that the the proj projec ectt repo repott entit entitle led d “MULTIFUNCT MULTIFUNCTION ION DEVICES DEVICES IN OFFICE ENVIRONMENT” Submitted for the post Graduate Diploma in management is my original work and the  project report has not formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma, associateship, or other similar titles. 2 DECLARATION I here hereby by decl declar aree that that the the proj projec ectt repo repott entit entitle led d “MULTIFUNCT MULTIFUNCTION ION DEVICES DEVICES IN OFFICE ENVIRONMENT” Submitted for the post Graduate Diploma in management is my original work and the  project report has not formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma, associateship, or other similar titles. 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT With deep sense of pleasure and satisfaction we complete this project on “Multifunctional Devices in the Office Environment ” and take this opportunity to thank  Mr.Rajeev Mehra, Operations Manager, Xerox India Ltd ., whose inestimable support rendered it possible. We also also expr expres esss my deep deep sens sensee of grat gratit itud udee to my guid guidee Mr. Nawajis Nawajish h Ali, Ter Territo ritory ry Manager, Xerox India Limited , under whose guidance we have been able to complete this study. We also wish to thank all the Executives and the team members of Documentations “Xerox India Ltd”, in particular to Mr. Ajit Chaudhary, Mr.Saurabh Bhargawa, Mr. Waqar , who were immensely co-operative through out our tenure with them. We would like to extend my heart felt thanks to Dr. H. P. Gupta, Executive Director, Ms. Gunjan Gun jan Aggraw Aggrawal, al, Faculty Faculty,, OF Institut Institutee of Managem Management ent Educ Educatio ation, n, Sahibab Sahibabad ad whose invaluable guidance became a tremendous source of inspiration and helped us in completing the  project study. Last but not the least, we would like to thank my parents whose blessings, cooperation and guidance inspired me to complete this task easily. (VIJAYENDRA PRATE SINGH) Management Executive Trainee Institute of Management Education Sahibabad 3 ABSTRACT In the current era each company want to increase its market share as a result there is a huge competition between the companies. Companies are applying different marketing strategies to gain profit & to sustain into the market for long run. We have done our summer training in XEROX. It’s a US based multinational company which manufactures and sells a wide variety of  office and production equipment including photo copiers, Xerox Phaser printers, multifunction  printer .The company name is so much famous that it is generlies among the people in INDIA like SURF & DALDA. As a multinational company XEROX want to increase its marketshare in INDIA. To acomplish this task XEROX has provided a project title which named as “MULTIFUNCTION DEVICES IN OFFICE ENVIRONMENT ”. With this topic I have to conduct a marketing reseach in NOIDA region. Under the guideline given by company I have  prepared a questionnaire for the corporate and another questionnaire for the resellers. The corporate questionnaire gives the information about the future requierment of the companies. It also give the idea about how many companies know about xerox product range and its functions. The reseller questionnaire gives the information that what should company do to increase number of resellers and how to maintain its distrbution channel. because if a compny want to increase its marketshare then company should maintain proper channel network to easly reach end customer. 4 Introduction Need of study  No one can be a competent person in the absence of particular exposure, irrespective of  how many books, theories he has gone through. In order to become a perfect manager in near future I was also required to apply of my learning in actual practice. The most important of all activities is keeping an eye on the market and how company can increase its market share. Earlier XEROX was dealing only with heavy duty machine like photocopier and printer. Company was more focused on corporate sector and in photocopier they are the market leader. Now they have entered into the small office and home segment product like small  printer and multifunction devices and right now company have 10% market share in INDIA. The company is facing the cut through competition with the HP and other  companies like CANON, SAMSUNG EPSON etc. These companies providing lowest range product & companies are producing both LASER & INKJET printers which are available in market at the cheapest rate. XEROX has categorized its products & they produce only LASER printers it has to compete with both inkjet, laser printer into the market. As I mention above that XEROX deal with only LASER equipment and in the market there are many companies available who are doing there business and among them HP is a big player in the small scale  printer. So it is big challenge for the XEROX that how company can penetrate the market share of HP. Except that LASER technology introduced by XEROX. Now company is trying to setup a strategy for these products and increase its sells.  Noida which is big industrial place and there are so many corporate houses most of the corporate office deal with the IT industry and other industries like export, manufacturing industries etc. these all office are computerized so there could be the huge demand for the IT product like S/W, printer, copier, multifunction devices, scanner etc. 1 After considering all these factors XEROX decided that there is need for market research in the NOIDA electronic city. To find out that what could be the future requirement of  the companies for these products and what improvements they want in these products. XEROX is trying to know that what factors companies consider when they buy these  products. 2 Background Xerox deal with only Laser printer. Technology wise if we see than Laser printers are  better than the Inkjet printer but price of the Inkjet printer is very cheap so for a personal uses customer always preferred Inkjet printers. That’s where Xerox is facing problem  because right now customers don’t know about the benefits that they can get from a Laser   printer. As we know that Xerox introduced laser technology so if there is any development will be made it will help customer only. In is part of chapter we will discuss about the photocopier and printers and what is difference between Inkjet and Laser  technology and how Laser tech. is better than Inkjet tech. COMPARISON BETWEEN INKJET AND LASER PRINTER  Characteristics Avg. Life of Printer Speed Ink  Print Quality Running Cost Inkjet Laser 1.5 to 2 year 3 to 3.5 year   Slow (PPM) Faster (PPM) In a liquid form which can Powder form remains same dry. If u are not using. for a long period of time  Normal Best Higher Lower   Basic Xerography (1) a photoconductive surface is given a positive electrical charge (+). (2) The image of a document is exposed on the surface. This causes the charge to drain away from the surface in all but the image area, which remains unexposed and charged. (3) Negatively charged powder is cascaded over the surface. It electrostatically adheres to the positively charged image area making a visible image. (4) A piece of plain paper is placed over the surface and given a positive charge. (5) The negatively charged powder image on the surface is electrostatically attracted to the positively charged paper. (6) The powder image is fused to the paper by heat. After the photoconductive surface is cleaned, the process can be repeated. 3 About Printer A computer printer is a device that produces human readable text or graphics in electronic form. A computer printer is a device that produces human readable text or  graphics in electronic form. The following printer technologies are found in modern  printers • Toner based printers: Toner based printers are very similar to photocopiers. They refer to the method used to adhere to the media. They are known for high quality prints, high print speed and low cost per copy. The most common example of toner based  printers is laser printers. Their cost effective benefit has made them dominant for home and office applications. Another fine example of toner based printer would be LED  printer which uses an array of LED’s instead of a laser to cause toner adhesion. • Inkjet Printers: Inkjet printers are cheaper than laser printers but they are expensive to run as their cartridges need to be frequently replaced. Inkjet printers are widely used at homes and by small business users. They have an excellent all round printing capabilities from black and white to color prints. Inkjet printers ensure high resolution photo prints offering high quality photographs. Inkjet printers are comparatively much slower than laser printers. Another disadvantage of inkjet printer is that the pages take a long time to dry before they can be actually handled. • Impact Printers: Impact printers rely on a forcible ink to transfer ink to the media. They are similar to typewriters and have a limited capacity for reproducing text. A daisy wheel printer is a specific type of printer where the type is molded around the edge of a wheel. Impact printers are basically of two types’ letter quality printers and dot matrix  printers. • Line Printers: Line printers print an entire line of text at a time. These printers were the fastest in impact printers and were used for bulk printing in large computer centers. They were never used with personal computers due to their operating system. They have now been replaced by high speed laser printers. 4 History of the Laser Printer 1969 - Gary Starkweather, at Xerox's research facility in Webster, New York, demonstrates using a laser beam with the xerography process to create a laser printer. 1979 - IBM introduces the IBM 3800 laser printer, capable of printing 20,000 lines per  minute. 1981 May - Xerox unveils the Star 8010, at the National Computer Conference. Many features that were developed on the Alto are incorported. It includes a bitmapped screen, WYSIWYG word processor, mouse, laser printer, Smalltalk language, Ethernet, and software for combining text and graphics in the same document. At a starting price of  US$16-17,000, the computer is not a commercial success. During its lifetime, 100,000 units are produced. 1984 - Apple Computer gives LaserWriter printer prototypes to Lotus Development, Microsoft, and Aldus, in hopes of their developing application support for it. 1984 - Hewlett-Packard introduces the LaserJet laser printer, featuring 300dpi resolution, for US$3,600. 1985 - Apple Computer releases the Apple LaserWriter laser printer. 1986 Jan - Apple Computer introduces the LaserWriter Plus printer. 1990 - Hewlett-Packard's introduction of the LaserJet IIP breaks the US$1000 street price  barrier. 1992 – Fall Hewlett-Packard introduces the HP LaserJet 4 laser printer. 1993 June - Hewlett-Packard introduces the LaserJet 4ML laser printer. 1993 - QMS introduces the ColorScript Laser 1000 color laser printer, for US$12,499. 1995 June - Apple Computer introduces its first color laser printer, the Color Laser  Printer 12/600PS. The 600x600 dpi printer comes with 12 MB of RAM, uses a Canon based engine, and costs about US$7,000. 1996 April - Hewlett-Packard begins shipping the HP LaserJet 5 line of laser printers. 5 Company Profile Type Public ( NYSE: XRX) Founded Rochester, New York , USA (1906) Headquarters Stamford, Connecticut, USA Offices in Rochester, New York  Key people Anne M. Mulccahy, Chairman & CEO Ursula Burns, President Larry Zimmerman, CFO Industry Document Services Computer Peripherals Products Digital Imaging Printers Revenue Employees $15.9 billion USD (2006) ~53,700 (2006) Xerox Corporation (NYSE:XRX) is the world's leading document management technology and services enterprise. A $16 billion company, Xerox provides the document industry's broadest portfolio of offerings. Digital systems include color and black-andwhite printing and publishing systems, digital presses and "book factories," multifunction devices, laser and solid ink network printers, copiers and fax machines. Xerox's services expertise is unmatched and includes helping businesses develop online document archives, analyzing how employees can most efficiently share documents and knowledge in the office, operating in-house print shops or mailrooms, and building Web-based  processes for personalizing direct mail, invoices, brochures and more. Xerox also offers associated software, support and supplies such as toner, paper and ink. The company's operations are guided by customer-focused and employee-centered core values -- such as social responsibility, diversity and quality -- augmented by a passion for  innovation, speed and adaptability. Company Mission System Company strategic intent is to help people find better ways to do great work -- by constantly leading in document technologies, products and services that improve our  customers' work processes and business results. 6 XEROX Values Since company inception, company has operated under the guidance of six core values: • • • • • • We succeed through satisfied customers. We deliver quality and excellence in all we do. We require premium return on assets. We use technology to develop market leadership. We value and empower our employees. We behave responsibly as a corporate citizen. Business Xerox Corporation is the world's leading document management technology and services enterprise. It provides the document industry's broadest portfolio of offerings. Digital systems include color and black-and-white printing and publishing systems, digital  presses and "book factories," multifunction devices, laser and solid ink network printers, copiers and fax machines. Xerox's services expertise is unmatched and includes helping  businesses develop online document archives, analyzing how employees can most efficiently share documents and knowledge in the office, operating in-house print shops or mailrooms, and building Web-based processes for personalizing direct mail, invoices,  brochures and more. Xerox also offers associated software, support and supplies such as toner, paper and ink. 7 Scope of Study This project will give the idea to XEROX that what strategies should be needed to  promote its products. It also provides the current market share of the company in  NOIDA. This final report gives the idea that how XEROX can increase its distribution network. Actually in the current business environment there huge demand for the IT  products like printer, multifunction devices etc. so over job is to find out those company those who have future requirement for these product and what quantity is required. So through questionnaire I tried create the lead for the company that what kind of products companies needs. On the other hand I meet with the reseller and what problem they are facing by selling the XEROX product. It will provide an intense idea to company how to make it self most demanded product by the resellers through solving the all the problems what reseller are facing in today’s competitive market. 8 Review of Literature In this section the project will show the Xerox organization structure its sales and distribution channel, articles, other major player in this field and the comparative analysis with the Xerox product. Success Ladder of XEROX 1906 The Haloid Company is founded in Rochester, N.Y., to manufacture and sell  photographic paper. Chester Carlson, inventor of xerography, is born in Seattle, Feb. 8. 1938 Chester Carlson makes first xerographic image in his lab in Astoria, Queens, in New York City Oct. 22. 1942 Carlson receives U.S. patent No. 2,297,691 on Oct. 6 for electro photography, later called xerography, the technology that revolutionized the world of imaging. 1947 Haloid acquires license to Chester Carlson's basic xerographic patents from Battelle Development Corp. of Columbus, Ohio, a subsidiary of Battelle Memorial Institute. 1948 Haloid and Battelle announce development of xerography. The word "Xerox" is trademarked. 1949 The first xerographic copier, the Model A, is introduced. 1958 The Haloid Company changes name to Haloid Xerox Inc. 1959 The Xerox 914, the first automatic, plain-paper office copier, is announced. Haloid  purchases all worldwide patents on xerography from Battelle Memorial Institute. 1960 Research and Engineering Center is established in Webster, N.Y. 1961 Haloid Xerox Inc. changes name to Xerox Corporation. 9 1969 Xerox moves its corporate headquarters from Rochester, N.Y., to Stamford, Conn. 1970 Xerox Palo Alto Research Center opens in Palo Alto, Calif. Electrostatic printing is introduced. 1973 Xerox PARC invents prototype of the world's first personal computer, the Alto, with innovations including the first what-you-see-is-what-youget editor, first commercial use of a mouse, graphical user interface, and bit-mapped display. Its commercial descendant was the 8010 Star. 1974 Xerox Research Centre of Canada in Mississauga, Ontario, opens. 1975 Xerox agrees to license existing xerographic patents. 1976 Last Xerox 914 order is taken; field service on the machine is to continue. 1977 The industry's first laser printer, the Xerox 9700 (code-named Dover) is announced. 1982 Inaugurated the 10 Series copiers; the industry's first to use built-in microcomputers with a low bandwidth Ethernet as the communications interface. 1983 Large-format digital color printing is introduced. 1986 Xerox Research Centre Europe (formerly Rank Xerox EuroPARC) opens laboratory in Cambridge, U.K. 1988 Two-millionth Xerox copier is produced. The Xerox 50 Series of copiers is launched to recognize 50th anniversary of xerography. 1990 DocuTech Production publisher first digital copier/printer, invented printon- demand market. 10 1991 5775 color copier printer - first digital Xerox color system 4850 highlight color printer  launched delivering black + one color printing for the cost of monochrome with TriLevel Xerography. 1993 Rank Xerox Research Centre (now Xerox Research Centre Europe) established in Grenoble, France 1995 Xerox ColorgrafX Systems formed; leads Xerox into the graphic arts industry. 1996 Xerox creates dpiX as a wholly owned subsidiary to manufacture and market highresolution, flat panel display screens developed at PARC. Document Sciences Corp., a Xerox technology spinoff company, goes public 1998 XLConnect Solutions Inc., an information technology services company, is acquired for  $415 million, renamed Xerox Connect. The biggest anechoic chamber in t he Western Hemisphere opens in the Xerox Webster, N.Y., manufacturing facility. 2000 Xerox acquires Tektronix Inc.'s Color Printing and Imaging Division for $925 million. Launch of the next-generation DocuColor 2000 Series of digital color presses. About 5,000 are sold in the next two years. 2002 Xerox incorporates Palo Alto Research Center Inc. as a wholly owned Xerox research company. Xerox continues to embed relevant PARC technology into its offerings. Digital imaging and repository services facility in Hot Springs, Ark., expands and more than quadruples its production capacity. DocuColor 2240 launched featuring chemical (EA) toner for improved cost and performance 2002 marks Xerox’s most i significant product launch year in a decade, with 17 new products and five product platforms: office color  (Phaser® printers), office black-and-white (Document Centre® digital multifunction systems), chemical toner (EA technology), production color controller (DocuSP™) and  production color (DocuColor production color (DocuColor iGen3™ Digital Production Press). 2003 Xerox Copier Assistant software launches, which makes it easier for people who are  blind or visually impaired to operate a digital copier. Xerox joins Microsoft and others as a founding sponsor of the Information Work Productivity Center at MIT; the center is to study how organizations can take advantage of technology to increase productivity. Xerox transforms its office product neup, unveils 21 new and enhanced CopyCentre 11 office copiers, WorkCentre copierprinters and WorkCentre Pro advanced multifunction devices Xerox Corporation received the 2003 IEEE Corporate Innovation Recognition award for its pioneering work that created the DocuTech product line and resulted in the $30 billion print-ondemand industry. 2004 Xerox receives "Basey Award" for Categorizer Software from XRCE Xerox Awarded First-Ever innovate in France Award 2005 Wall Street Journal' Honors Xerox Technologies 2006 Xerox EA Toner Earns CQIA Innovation Gold Prize IEEE Technology Sensor Award 2003 IEEE Corporate Innovation Award Xerox consistently builds its inventions into business by embedding them in superior  Xerox products and solutions; using them as the foundation for new businesses; or  licensing or selling them to other entities. 12 XEROX ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE Xerox Global Services Stephen Cronin Finance Larry Zimmerman Xerox North America Jim Firestone Office of the General Counsel Don Liu Chairman & CEO Anne Mulcahy Xerox Europe Armando Z. De Lima Development Marketing Operations Jean Noel Machon President Ursula Burns 13 Xerox Office Group Russell Peacock  Xerox Innovation Group Sophie Vandebroek  Human Resources Ethic Patricia Nazemetz Production System Group Quincy Allen Xerox Information Management John McDermott Marketing Operations Mike Mac Donald Global Accounts Tom Dolan Corporate Strategy/Alliances Eric Armour  Xerox Strategic Services Wim Appleo Major Locations—International Administration United Kingdom Brazil Canada India Russia Middlesex Uxbridge Rio de Janeiro Toronto Gurgaon Moscow Manufacturing, Engineering and Assembly Brazil Canada Egypt India Ireland Mexico Netherlands United Kingdom Manaus Mississauga Cairo Rampur  Dundalk   Nogales Venray Mitcheldean Salvador   Oakville Research Center Canada France United Kingdom Mississauga Grenoble Welwyn Garden City (Development Centre) Dollars in millions, except per-share data Total Revenue Net income (Loss) Diluted Earnings/(Loss) per Common Share* Common Shareholders of Record at Year-End Employees at Year-End * These values are for continuing operations 14 2006 $15,89 5 $1,210 $1.22 2005 $15,70 1 $978 $0.94 2004 $15,72 2 $859 $0.86 2003 $15,70 1 $360 $0.36 2002 $15,84 9 $91 $0.02 40,372 53,017 55,152 56,326 57,300 53,700 55,200 58,100 61,100 67,800 Rank among the Fortune 500* Year 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 Rank 423 294 227 171 145 126 109 71 60 52 40 Year 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 Rank 41 41 39 40 39 36 40 38 42 38 38 Year 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 Rank 38 38 40 32 34 22 21 22 22 21 22 Year 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 Rank   41 51 72 63 87 109 120 116 130 132 * Data above show Xerox's rank in  Fortune magazine's annual list of the 500 largest U.S. corporations, based on company revenues for the year cited. The list is published in April, reflecting revenues from the previous calendar year. How Xerox Sells: Customer Operation and Sales Channels Xerox systems and services are sold through a variety of channels, including direct sales, inside sales, resellers, agents, concessionaires, systems integrators and the Web. Xerox North America Xerox North America markets, sells and supports the entire Xerox portfolio of products, supplies and services to businesses of any size throughout the United States and Canada. The organization includes the following: U.S. Solutions Group The U.S. Solutions Group sells Xerox office and high-end products and solutions directly to customers throughout the United States. USSG primarily serves large enterprise customers through its geographic and industry-focused business units like the graphics arts industry, which includes commercial printers, quick printers and similar businesses. Xerox Capital Services LLC is a joint venture company owned by GE Vendor Financial Services, a unit of GE Commercial Finance, and Xerox Corporation. Xerox Capital Services manages order processing, lease administration, billing and collections for  Xerox customers in the United States. It was created in 2002. 15 North American Partners Group D. Cameron Hyde Corporate Vice President President, North American Partners Group The North American Partners Group is responsible for extending the availability of  Xerox products and services through indirect channels including agents, dealers and resellers. These channels help the company reach more small and medium-sized  businesses and broaden the visibility of the Xerox brand throughout the U.S. and Canada. North American Agent Operations Operates the Authorized Sales Agent program. About 600 independent businesses act as Xerox Authorized Agencies with approximately 2,500 agency sales representatives. This channel, initiated in 1982, sells the complete line of Xerox offerings. North American Dealer Channel Markets workgroup fax and mid-range digital multifunction devices through more than 400 Xerox Authorized Dealers and independent office equipment dealers. These dealers are independent businesses -- locally owned and managed -- with showroom, office and warehouse facilities. The North American Reseller Sales group provides a range of programs designed to help independent value-added resellers and direct-response partners worldwide grow their business with Xerox color and black-and-white network printers, as well as workgroup fax and multifunction devices. Resellers are the primary sales channel for  Xerox office printers, with more than 9,000 resellers in North America carrying Xerox  products. Xerox Canada Ltd. Doug Lord President & CEO Xerox Canada was established in 1953 and has offices in most major Canadian cities. In addition to providing direct sales, marketing and service support of Xerox products and solutions throughout Canada, Xerox Canada sells through other channels such as resellers, agents, dealers and the inside sales centers. The Xerox Research Centre of Canada is in Mississauga, a Toronto suburb. The total Xerox population in Canada includes nearly 5,000 people at Xerox Canada, XRCC and the Inside Sales operations. Xerox Corporation owns 97 percent of the Canadian subsidiary; the remaining 3 percent is held by shareholders 16 North America Inside Sales Emerson U. Fullwood Corporate Vice President Chief Staff and Marketing Officer, Xerox North America  North America Inside Sales lets customers do business with Xerox over the phone (800ASK-XEROX) and on the Web. Since 1999, the channel has grown to several "contact centers" in North America, Europe and developing markets countries. Inside Sales takes inbound and outbound calls to sell products, supplies and services, often complemented  by Web-based tools and demonstrations. It also places outbound calls to generate sales leads for a variety of Xerox channels. Highly trained Inside Sales Executives deliver   proposals online, implement demonstrations or complete transactions over the phone and Web - broadening Xerox's customer contact. Xerox Services William A. Steenburgh Senior Vice President Xerox Services is responsible for the technical support of Xerox systems in customers' locations, such as installing digital products or performing product repairs, and for  managing the company's outsourcing relationships with customers like running a customer's in-house printing center or mailroom. Xerox Services includes 15,000 employees and is the first organization to receive the prestigious J.D. Power and Associates' Certified Technology Service and Support award for Outstanding Customer  Service two years in a row (2005, 2006). Xerox Europe Armando Zagalo de Lima Corporate Senior Vice President President, Xerox Europe Xerox Europe markets Xerox products, services and associated offerings across 17 countries. It is focused on three main areas: offices from small to large, production print and graphic arts environments, and services that include consulting, system design and management, and document outsourcing. Services-oriented document solutions for many corporate customers are sold directly by Xerox or through accredited business partners, as are high-end printing and publishing offerings to larger corporations and commercial printers. Small and medium-sized  businesses are primarily served by distributors, resellers and concessionaires. The concessionaire channel is an over 700-strong, Xerox-specific network across Europe with around 5,000 sales and telesales representatives. 17 Xerox Europe has a customer support operation in Ireland, and Xerox products are manufactured in the United Kingdom, Ireland and the Netherlands. The Xerox Research Centre Europe is located in Grenoble, France. Xerox Europe employs nearly 16,000  people and dates from 1956, when Xerox made its first foray into international markets with Rank Xerox, a joint venture with the Rank Organisation plc. Xerox bought out Rank's interest in 1997. Marketing Operations Michael C. Mac Donald Corporate Senior Vice President President, Marketing Operations This group manages the overall Xerox customer experience and the Xerox brand, seeking to maximize the way Xerox interacts with millions of customers each year in person, through documents, on the Web, or over the phone. The organization is responsible for brand management and stewardship, corporate marketing, advertising, strategic public relations, major events and sponsorships. GAMO also provides a global Web presence through The team serves more than two dozen countries with a common platform that is customized for  different languages and requirements. The site has extensive information about Xerox  products, supplies and services and offers ways to buy Xerox products directly or through online channel partners. The site also offers extensive post-sale support tools, ranging from knowledge databases that help customers troubleshoot problems to account management applications that let customers create personalized catalogs. How Xerox Operates: Manufacturing and Business Support These groups provide critical systems, services and support to Xerox business operations and employees, whether managed locally or as centralized corporate initiatives Xerox Strategic Services Group Wim Appelo Corporate Vice President Vice President, Xerox Strategic Services Group This group is responsible for worldwide manufacturing and distribution of Xerox  products, supplies and service parts. It also manages the Xerox Supplies Business Group. The division includes all aspects of product delivery, including procurement of parts and materials, manufacturing of equipment, and delivery of finished products to customers. It maintains the company's central global purchasing function, handling purchasing for non production contracts, such as travel and office supplies, and for production materials, such as plastics, circuit boards and acquired products. The organization also designs, 18 implements and governs Xerox environmental, health and safety initiatives and programs. In addition, Xerox Strategic Services manages the company's Lean Six Sigma operations as well as real estate and general services Xerox manufacturing and distribution facilities are managed to the highest quality and environmental standards; all manufacturing factories are ISO 9000 and 14001 certified. Extensive employee training and involvement is practiced, and the use of quality tools, such as Lean Six Sigma, is pervasive. In North America, Xerox's manufacturing and warehousing workers are represented by labor  unions, including UNITE-HERE and others, which represent about 2,700 organized workers in the United States and Canada. Xerox is the only union-represented office equipment manufacturer worldwide. Manufacturing and distribution facilities are located around the world. The company's largest site is in Webster, N.Y., where among other products it makes fusers,  photoreceptors and Xerox iGen3 systems and components. Increasingly, Xerox works with partners such as Fuji Xerox, Flextronics International and others on aspects of design, manufacturing, and distribution. Suppliers and partners continue to produce Xerox equipment and components under the same high quality standards that customers rely on from Xerox. Xerox Lean Six Sigma  Nancy Rees Senior Vice President Lean Six Sigma and Corporate Deployment Officer  Since early 2003, Xerox people have been using Xerox Lean Six Sigma tools and methods in both internal projects and projects for customers. These projects focus on reducing waste and increasing effectiveness in vital business processes to bring measurable improvements in results for customers and the company. The Xerox Lean Six Sigma organization is responsible for governing and supporting the  program throughout Xerox, including managing certification standards, providing training resources and coaching, and tracking projects' financial accomplishments. By year-end 2006, more than 800 Black Belts and Master Black Belts were integrating Lean Six Sigma and Design for Lean Six Sigma methods into daily operations and into the services Xerox offers to customers. Nearly 3,000 projects were under way or  completed, and about 4,500 Green Belts and 40,000 Yellow Belts had been trained. Corporate Strategy Office Eric Armour  Corporate Vice President Vice President, Corporate Strategy The Corporate Strategy Office is responsible for leading Xerox's strategic management  processes and corporate development activities. It is also responsible for Fuji Xerox relations and manages Xerox's alliances with other companies that are positioned to integrate their offerings with Xerox's portfolio of systems and services. The Corporate 19 Strategy Office works closely with the Office of the Chief Financial Officer to define and execute mergers, acquisitions and divestitures. Xerox Global Services Simplifying business processes is the key to reducing costs, improving responsiveness to the marketplace, and accelerating better decisions. Yet, we've found that many companies are frustrated with business simplification and technology efforts that fail to live up to anticipated results. Market research firm IDC says companies spend up to 10% of their  revenue on document production, management and distribution. Xerox Global Services can help you recapture some of those costs by streamlining and digitizing documentintensive business processes. This may include everyday processes - like customer communications, billing, training, and records management. Or, more complex, industry-specific processes - like new client enrollment processes for insurance companies and engineering change management for  manufacturers. Technology alone will not simplify your business. You won't find the key to solving your business problems in hardware and software. Or in the details of a carefully drawn process. Or in a single person. It is a unique combination of people, process, and technology that leads to success. We work closely with you to identify opportunities, leverage your technology investments, your people, and your business practices to streamline your We've worked with more than 6,000 clients in 60 countries to identify and cultivate the hidden opportunities that save time, money, and resources while simplifying work. 20 Xerox Partners Our teams of experienced project managers, professionals, and specialists have built a track record of solid performance. We've completed thousands of successful implementations at companies worldwide, including numerous Fortune 500 companies. A Malcolm Baldridge award winner, Xerox is recognised for superior business processes and methodologies. We bring to every project strong technical capabilities and an understanding of how  people interact with technology -- knowledge fuelled by the leadership of our research centre specialists. Here are just a few of our success stories: Documentum Documentum 4i is an internet-scale content management platform that accelerates organisations’ online presence. It enables customers to create, deliver, and  personalise content of all formats, from internal and external contributors, for business  processes that extend across and beyond the enterprise - and to all delivery channels. It  powers all types of e-Business applications, including B2E (Business to Employee), B2B (Business to Business) and B2C (Business to Consumer). Agilience The suite of Sharenet solutions from Agilience supports organizations in unleashing the  power of collaboration. They facilitate high-quality customers, business partners and investors. They enhance both core and support-process performance, as well as driving collaboration along change and transformation processes with both fixed and mobile solutions. 21 Document Sciences Document Sciences’ Autograph product suite of composition and output preparation tools is a key element in document management. It allows companies to design and masscustom customise ise documen documents ts for one-toone-to-one one commun communica icatio tions ns with with custom customers ers.. Settin Setting g new standards for business-to-customer document quality, Autograph supports high volume, full-colour electronic printing technology and media-rich Internet distribution media. Macro4 Docu Docume ment ntss in all all thei theirr elec electr tron onic ic and and pape paperr form formss are are the the prim primar ary y mean meanss of  communication between a company and its customers and partners. They are a vital source for handling customer queries and are the driver for key business processes. Columbus, Macro4's award winning software suite, is designed for organizations that use a wide variety of document production systems. Columbus captures electronically the documents that companies produce and receive, pools them centrally and assures their  delivery to multiple electronic and print destinations. 22 Recent Article on Printer Industry PC peripheral and component prices keep falling, and laser printers are riding the trough of the price wave. Our test features the best personal laser printers, and should help you decide on one.Not long ago, laser printers were considered the devices that would one day suck inkjet printers dry. Laser printers had their distinct advantages; speed, the ability to output smudge-free printouts, and durability. However, sky-high pricing meant that only businesses and those with deep pockets could afford them. Over the years, both inkjet and laser technologies have evolved, and it’s increasingly hard to differentiate those once-distinct advantages that lasers exhibited. Subtle differences still provide the necessary demarcation, but these are based on application areas and not on technical grounds—such as photo printers, mobile printers, etc. Colour printing, which was once only inkjet domain, is now a much-battled segment, thanks mainly to the lower  ini initial tial inve invest stme ment nt for a col colour our laser aser,, and and also also the lower ower runni unning ng cos costs. ts. Regardless of whether you buy a laser or an inkjet, what you’re looking for is speed, quality, and economy. However, there’s a lot more to printing than these three basic requirements: the cost of the consumables is the first addition to this list. Another oftforgotten factor is the manufacturer’s service and support offerings, which are important  because printers are prone to failure as a result of neglect, overuse, and ageing. This test will aim to take a more holistic, and thus more real-world look at the printing solutions on offer. We received printers from all the top retailing brands—alphabetically: Brother, Canon, Epson, HP, Lexmark, Samsung, and Xerox. Due to some unfortunate technical  problems with Epson’s printer, we were unable to test it. This test covers primarily entrylevel laser printers, and we’ll take a look at the mid-range offerings in next month’s test. However, apart from the entry-level mono lasers tested here, we also have four colour  lasers tested individually . Understanding the Market If you are a regular Digit reader, you’re used to us reviewing products based on features,  performance, and price. However, for this test, we will deviate from our regular  methodo methodolog logy, y, becaus becausee printe printers rs cannot cannot be compar compared ed to, say, say, graphi graphics cs cards. cards. Before Before  buying, it’s important to survey the market and get your facts right: performance, though important, is just one piece of the puzzle. The other pieces are made up of the cost of the cartridges, service issues, and downtimes. Here’s a quick look at the printing market realit realities ies for India. India. HP, Canon, Canon, Xerox, Xerox, Samsun Samsung, g, Eps Epson, on, Lexmar Lexmark, k, Brothe Brother, r, KonicaKonicaMinolta, and Wipro are the major vendors in the laser printer business. HP was one of the first companies to bring printing products to India, and continues to dominate the market. Samsung, Xerox, and Canon come next in line in terms of market share, followed by the minnow minnows—K s—Koni onicaca-Min Minolt olta, a, Wipro, Wipro, Eps Epson, on, Brothe Brother, r, and Lexmar Lexmark. k. Now you might might wonder why we’re talking business, which should only matter if you’re buying shares,  but it does matter! Remember that the leading products generally offer more in terms of  serv servic icee cent center erss as well well as easi easier er avail availabi abili lity ty of cons consum umabl ables es and and spar sparee part parts. s. 23 Service Support Infrastructure As in the graph, HP has the highest number of service centers across the country, which means better penetration across the country and hence a higher probability that a HP service centre will be located near your office or home. Epson and Canon come in at second and third place respectively, while Lexmark has the lowest number of claimed service centers. Outlets for Consumables With printers, you constantly need to buy consumables, and the ease at which they’re available ensures minimum downtimes for your printing solution. For this reason, it’s important important that the manufacturer manufacturer have many authorized authorized retail retail outlets. outlets. With around 1,500 authorized consumable outlets, HP has a definite advantage anywhere in India. We’re discounting the unofficial channels for all companies, which is rather impossible to authenticate. Xerox, with 300 outlets, also has a good presence. All the other vendors hover around the 150 mark, which means they will have limited reach, and though you will never have any problems finding their consumables consumables in major cities cities and the metros, metros, you might face problems in smaller cities if they do not have any resellers there. That said, almost all the vendors have a toll-free number you can call and have consumables delivered to your doorstep. This is a great value-added service, and you should check for  such options from all vendors for your city. The Warranty For the Indian consumer, the warranty plays an important role in the buying decision. With With printe printers, rs, the import importanc ancee is an order order of magnit magnitude ude higher higher,, becaus becausee these these are generally the most abused peripherals at home or at work, and are the most prone to failures. There are two facets to every warranty: the term of assurance and the type of  warranty offered. Now most competing brands make sure the term of warranty is the same, so, for example, you will find that many manufacturers offer a “lifetime” warranty (which translates to five years for IT hardware). However, when all companies offer the same warranty, you need to look beyond the terms of assurance and look at the type of  warranty. For printers (and most IT products), this is generally a unit-replacement, onsite, or carry-in warranty. Unit-replacement is obviously the best option, and the rarest,  because if anything goes wrong, the manufacturer gives you a replacement instead of  repairing the unit you have. This saves on the downtime that you will face if your printer  is being repaired. On-site On-site is the next best thing, especially especially for printers. printers. Since most laser printers printers are quite  bulky and heavy, you do not want to have to lug it to a service center (as is the case with a carry-in warranty). With an on-site warranty, a technician comes to your residence or  office and fixes the device, or takes the trouble of taking it to a service center and then returning it. Of the manufacturers featured in this test, Xerox, Samsung, Brother, and Lexmark offer a one-year warranty cover each, while Canon offers two years. All these companies have on-site warranties. HP is the only company that provides a lifetime, unit-replacement warranty. 24 As PC sales crossed 9.21 lakh units in Q3 2004, the associated market for peripherals grew robustly. The apex hardware body, Manufacturers’ Association of  Information Technology (MAIT) estimates that the PC industry will comfortably touch the four million mark for  fiscal year 2004-05. According to IDC, the overall IT market is expected to grow by over 35 percent in 2005. Peripheral market vendors expect similar growth for their  segment. Be it monitors, MFDs (Multi Function Devices), keyboards or mice, most vendors are very upbeat at the  progress of the peripherals market as a whole. 2005 is expected to be the year for flat-panel monitors as customers become more stylish and technology-savvy. The SMB market is also expected to be a big contributor to the growth of the IT industry as more small and medium companies adopt information technology. Printers According to MAIT in OND 2004, on a quarter-on-quarter basis, laser printers witnessed a growth of 90 percent followed by Dot Matrix printers at 80 percent and Inkjet printers at 30 percent. The dot matrix printer market in fact has seen a huge revival with increased  buying in traditional markets such as government, BFSI segment and new markets such as retail and education. Special billing applications for VAT implementation are expected to drive IT growth among SMBs. According to N Sambamoorthy, General Manager, Business Products, Epson, niche applications such as policy statement printing will fuel growth for DMP printers.The  potential of the printer market is evident from the spending pattern of Indian SMB customers. A report by Ami-Partners’ shows that Indian Small Businesses spent $285 million on printers in 2004. This is expected to increase at a CAGR of roughly 24 percent over the next five years. The Indian SMB market is currently dominated by inkjet and dot matrix printers. The same report says that among enterprises in the medium business space, dot matrix printers are the most highly penetrated (71 percent), followed by inkjets (70 percent) and laser printers. Low-cost lasers Another big trend is the emergence of inexpensive laser printers. The low-cost laser  market is growing at 25 per cent. Natesh Mani, Executive Director, New Office Group, Xerox India, reveals, “We grew (in 2004) by more than 30 per cent in the sub-10k laser   printer market and hope that we will grow even more this fiscal year. We have outlined a new channel strategy towards this goal.” Vendors believe that the SMB segment will fuel the growth for low-cost laser printers. 25 Says Aseem Kumar, Senior Manager, Value Product Head, Samsung India, “Our  customers are primarily corporates and small and medium businesses”, and adds that the company is looking at a growth rate of 100 percent in the coming year. Sameer Shah, Country Category Manager, Shared Printing and Connectivity, Imaging and Printing Group, HP India, asserts, “We are the market leader in the sub-10k laser business. We have been growing faster than the market and believe that with more products with valueadded features, we can increase our market share.” All-in-Ones Colour is the catchword in the all-in-one segment or multi-functional device segment (MFD). Most vendors expect that colour MFDs are going to be the order of the day as  prices have started to fall steeply, and believe that the MFD segment will grow at more than 100 percent growth rates. Market leader HP for one is seeing good growth in its colour MFD business. Shah of HP India explains, “We are growing at 200 per cent in the MFD segment and our channel base has helped us achieve this.” Colour has also become affordable and the ratio is 1:4 if we compare the same to black and white MFDs. Earlier  colour printing cost 20 times more but in the last two years, prices have dipped  phenomenally. HP is working closely with its specialised channel partners to promote its  products and today has more than 140 colour certified resellers across the country. Vibhor Bansal, Country Category Manager, Color in Office, HP India, hopes: “By the end of next fiscal the number of our colour certified resellers is going to increase by another 50 to 60.” Another player, Samsung, has seen its MFD business grow exponentially, by over 250 percent as compared to the previous year, according to Princy Bhatnagar, Head, Value Business, IT division of Samsung India. While increasing volumes pushed prices down last year, this year vendors believe that more functionality would be added for the same price. Colour is a segment which Samsung expects will grow phenomenally in the coming fiscal. Samsung operates with dedicated regional distributors in MFDs unlike their other businesses where they have national distributors. “Our regional partners put in a lot of effort to develop the market. While last year we tapped only nine markets effectively, we have expanded to cover 23 cities this year. This has helped ramp up Samsung’s volumes,” says Bhatnagar. Similarly, Canon has seen good growth rates in the MFD space. Alok Bharadwaj, Vice President, Volume Group, Canon India, says that Canon has been growing phenomenally in the MFD segment. “We have introduced a couple of new models in the MFD segment last year and have seen a great response. We expect to grow by more than 30 percent in MFDs in 2005 over 2004.” Natesh Mani, Executive Director, New Office Group, Xerox India says that Xerox is the market leader in the A3 size MFDs with 20 per cent market share. “We have also recently introduced our A4 segment MFDs, to compete with HP and Samsung.” Xerox does not have any A4 products in the US market but specifically launched the A4 MFDs in India as the market potential is huge. The company has enhanced its channel base and structured its distribution model to address this segment. 26 Another emerging trend is the use of high-end MFDs that start upwards of Rs 1.5 lakh. Typically, a high-end MFD is defined by the production rate of 20 pages per minute (or  higher) and features such as e-mail alerts for low ink, distant document sending and  password protection. Players such as Canon, Xerox, HP, Toshiba and Lexmark are trying to develop this market through a focus on value-added features. For example, you can send a handwritten note from your chairman to 500 locations across the world at the same time using a MFD. A common communication platform for the dispatch of a file over  multiple media such as e-mail, fax, Intranet or the Internet is a plus for organizations looking to buy high-end MFDs. This provision also lets virtual teams collaborate by giving them a common virtual dock to post project status updates and views over the Internet or Intranet. Smart MFDs Company Features Canon Mailbox feature that provides the privacy of a personal  printer on a network printer. A workplace collaboration feature that assists virtual teams (both on-site and off-site) with a common virtual docking area to post project status, updates and views with access over the Internet or intranet. Xerox Internet Fax, e-mail Office finisher saddle stitches booklets and takes care of  tri folding Lexmark A page manager software that enables quick scanning of documents and books, 30 sheet automatic document feeder and electronic collation. HP Digital sending to multiple destinations, 3,000-sheet stapler-stacker Peripheral trends • A report by AMI Partners’ shows that Indian Small Businesses spent $285 million on printers in 2004. This is expected to increase at a CAGR of roughly 24 percent over the next five years. The Indian SMB market is currently dominated by inkjet and dot matrix printers. The same report says that among enterprises in the medium business space, dot matrix printers are the most highly penetrated (71 percent), followed by inkjets (70 percent) and laser printers. Vendors believe that the SMB segment will fuel the growth for low-cost laser printers. • Colour MFDs and high end MFDs are being increasingly adopted by e nterprises in India. • 27 Other Major Player in Printer Industry The Hewlett-Packard Company , commonly known as HP, is one of the world's largest information technology corporations.Introduced both inkjet and laser printers for the desktop in 1984. Along with its scanner product line, these have later been developed into successful multifunction products , the most significant being single-unit printer/scanner/copier/fax machines . Introduced its first touch screen personal computer, The HP-150. HP celebrates its 50th anniversary. Introduced the Color DeskJet 500C in 1990, which creates a revolution in color printing.Introduced three new color inkjet printers and part of the initial rollout, including the HP Deskjet 5550 , which features up to sixink printing and 4,800-optimized dots-per-inch (dpi) technology. Introduced Photo smart printer for digital photography & other new technology printers. HP is one of the world’s largest information technology corporations. They are dealing in computer products over the last 65 years, building thier experience in the IT field. HP's leadership position in computer products is based on an understanding of how all parts work together to create great quality. The other reason for selecting HP is because of its SERVICE. HP offers unrivalled service and support through HP Care Pack Services. These services have been designed to give one peace of mind and help get the most from IT. HP is an industry leader in printing and imaging technology and services. It has consistently offered the best customer support in business, saving time. The company maintained its lead in the overall printer segment and promised its users even better  technology at an affordable price. Market Position: HP led the race with nearly 60 percent market share, followed by Epson, which maintains a market share of 20 percent in inkjet printers. HP is the market leader with an overall share of 75 percent, followed by Samsung with 20 percent. In the color laser segment, Xerox has a minuscule market share of 4 percent while HP enjoys a huge share of over 90 percent. 28 EPSON Epson is a progressive company, trusted throughout the world because of our  commitment to customer satisfaction, environmental conservation, individuality and teamwork. We are confident of our collective skills and meet challenges with innovative and creative solutions. Epson’s first foray into the printing and imaging business was the Olympics of 1964 held in Tokyo. The company was awarded a contract to develop a  precision timer for the Games. The printer they developed for the Olympics - EP101 is also, where Epson derives its name! It was one of the first printers for electronic calculators to hit the commercial market. It was the beginning of Epson’s journey in the  printing and imaging business. The TX-80, Epson’s first dot matrix printer hit the market in 1978, then in 1984 came the SQ 2000 it’s first inkjet printer. The TM 930 Epson’s pc-pos package printer launched in 1990 created a new market in the printing business. Epson gave a number of first printers to the world among which is Epson stylus 800- an inkjet printer equipped with micro  peizo technology launched in March 1993, and then the Epson Stylus Color in May 1994 was the world’s first 720 dpi color inkjet printer. September 1998 saw the launch of TMH5000 its first hybrid printer which featured fast quiet printing and copy functionality. Epson’s Technological Breakthrough The Ultrachrome K3 Ink  The Epson UltraChrome K3 Ink is a high-density resin coated pigment ink. It comes in two types Black & White and Color. It has a wide color gamut for both types. The black   palette consists of three shades of black- Black, light black and light light black. The color palette consists of the standard cyan, light cyan, magenta, light magenta and yellow. Oh and it has two user exchangeable black ink modes- photo and matte!  Now you will wonder what is so special about Ultrachrome K3. A simple comparison  between the traditional toner manufacturing process and the ultrachrome K3 process will answer the question - traditional toners were manufactured by grinding the toner particles mechanically to the smallest possible particle size that can be achieved mechanically; now the major disadvantage here is the energy and hence cost. You would wonder how energy comes into picture. The process being mechanical and done under pressure requires considerable amount of energy and the smaller the particle size the more energy required and energy is expensive! The second disadvantage is that the particle size is not uniform and cannot be controlled, again because the process is mechanical put simply a grinding process! Both of the above disadvantages are overcome in the Ultrachrome K3 manufacturing process. The process is chemical process requiring negligible energy. The resin is placed in a water-based environment where the particles are allowed to grow in a controlled environment. Once 29 the particles have achieved the desired size, they are removed from the environment and  processed to give the Ultrachrome K3 ink! Sounds simple right? However, the process is not as simple as it sounds! The Customer’s Advantages: Energy and cost conservation are the Epson’s advantages; what benefits do the customers get. At the end of the day, the customers have to be very satisfied, if they are going to buy “the system”. 8-Color Ink System * High Density pigments for an extremely wide color gamut *Professional print permanence ratings for truly sellable quality prints *High-gloss Microcrystal Encapsulation Technology for reduced gloss differential *Superior scratch resistance from improved pigment and resin chemistry *Color is stable immediately after printing - no short term color shifting Three-Level Black Ink Technology *Simultaneously uses Black, Light Black, and Light Light Black inks *Significantly improves the printers gray balance *Impressive midtones and highlights for a smoother tonal range Two UserExchangeable Black Ink ModesTwo specific black ink modes - Photo Black or Matte Black Optimizes black ink density for various media types dramatically improving the final print quality 30 Canon More than 60 years of experience and know-how, From cameras to multimedia - Canon. Canon started out as a company with a handful of employees and a burning passion. That company soon became a world-renowned camera maker and is now a global multimedia corporation. However, the origins of our success remain unchanged: the passion of our  early years and technological expertise amassed over more than 60 years. Canon will continue using its technologies to benefit people as it pursues its objective of becoming a company that is loved by people throughout the world. Canon’s roots were laid in 1933 with very few employees as a precision optical instruments lab. The Laboratory was founded in 1933 in a third-floor apartment of the Takekawaya Building in Roppongi, Azabu Ward, Tokyo. Its objective was to produce high-grade cameras. A young man named Goro Yoshida, a passionate camera-lover; and his brother-in-law, Saburo Uchida, set up the Laboratory jointly. Their aim was to make cameras that could compete with the German models that were considered the most advanced of the day. They started by analyzing existing cameras, which were difficult to obtain. Systematically, they studied each camera's internal workings, examined mechanisms, drew up design diagrams and procured parts. Takeshi Mitarai, a close friend of Uchida  provided the funds required for the research. Mitarai later became president of the company and built its foundation. It then went on to become a renowned camera making company. When it grew and decided to diversify its business plans it had to shed its image of a company that manufactured only cameras, therefore the top brass of the company decided to take on the name Canon Inc in 1969. The year1969 was also the year  that canon forayed into business machines and eventually into the printing business. Product Chronology To go through a brief chronology of Canon’s printing and copying history - Canon successfully developed the laser beam printer in 1975. In 1982, the PC-10 and PC-20, the world's first personal copying machines with replaceable cartridges, were introduced. Canon, in collaboration with IBM Japan, Ltd., developed the world’s first notebook PC with an installed printer in 1993. Bubble Jet Discovery One of canon’s most interesting discoveries in the field of printing technology was the  bubble jet printing technology. Researchers while working on the inkjet printing technology hit upon the discovery when a hot solder gun accidentally touched the tip of  an ink-filled needle due to which ink sprayed out! Therefore, the researchers concluded that heat instead of pressure could be used to eject the ink on the media. The development of this technology gave the world it’s first bubblejet printer in 1981. Laser Beam Printing Another important technology in the field of printing by Canon was the development of  laser beam printers (LBP). It started research on laser as a means of writing as early as 1962. However it was unable to develop a practical laser source and hence could not acquire the patents it had applied for due to which the research and development was suspended. In the 1970s when lasers came into practical application fields Canon resumed its research on laser beam printers and developed the LBP’s of today combining their electro  photographic technologies with laser technology. The development of lasers imprinting also gave birth to a number of high-speed copy machines by Canon such as The NP8500, the world's first retention-type copying machine in 1978. The NP-8500 SUPER, an ultrahigh speed-copying machine capable of producing 135 copies per minute 1981; and the PC-10 and PC-20, the world's first personal copying machines with replaceable cartridges were introduced by Canon in 1982. In 1984 Canon gave the world its LBP-8/CX, the smallest and lightest laser beam printer. Today Canon develops technology that couples direct printing options from Cell phones equipped with a digital camera, hence integrating printing technology with photography! One such latest technology is the direct wireless printing from a camera! The printing is achieved using infrared and Bluetooth communication technology embedded in the cell  phones or PCs. Being wireless no cables are required, and the image quality parallels that of printouts from PCs using memory cards. Ricoh Ricoh Co., Ltd. was founded in 1936 by Kiyoshi Ichimura. Ichimura was the son of a  poor farmer. He was born with no privileges or advantages. Quite the contrary, all that he achieved was born of his own intelligence, determination and vision. Ichimura's first major innovation was the RicohFlex III. Introduced in 1950, this was the world's first mass-produced twin-lens reflex camera. This level of technological innovation was very significant and gives us an important insight into Ichimura's vision and ambitions for the future. He followed with many other innovations, like the 1955 introduction of our first desktop copy machine, the Ricopy 101. In 1973 we introduced the world's first fully-digital facsimile machine, the RIFAX 600S Ichimura passed away in 1968, but his focus on innovative answers to the challenges people face at work and in their homes is still a major driving force within the company he created. However, technical innovation was only part of our founder's vision. He also developed a sense of corporate social responsibility that is talked about a great deal today, but was almost unheard of fifty years ago. Essentially, he recognized that his ambitions would touch the lives of thousands and then millions of people in countries and communities around the world. He made an early and genuine commitment to social and environmental sustainability in every aspect of Ricoh's business activities. Today we are a global company, but still hold true to our origins and the visions of our  founder. To understand Ricoh is to recognize the twin visions of Kiyoshi Ichimura: to innovate on behalf of our customers; to pursue sustainable business practices on behalf of  every life we touch. Product Range Black & White Printers Phaser 3117 Personal Laser Printer  Processor 150 MHz Best for frequent, small print jobs Resolution 600 dpi x 600 dpi Workgroup: Small or personal use Memory 8 MB Speed: up to 17 ppm Warranty 1Year Onsite Phaser 3122 Printer Type Laser - Monochrome Print Speed 22 ppm (Letter) / 20  ppm (A4) Processor 150 MHz Memory 8 MB Print language Host Base Resolution 1200 dpi x 600 dpi Fonts Windows Fonts Compatibility Win 98, Me, NT4.0, 2000, XP, 2003, Linux Paper input 150 sheets multi-purpose tray Paper output 50 sheets (face down) Media size A4, A5, A6, Letter, Legal, Folio, Oficio Executive, ISO B5, JIS B5, 3” x 5”, Monarch, No.10, DL, C5, C6 Interface USB 1.1 (Compatible with USB 2.0), Parallel Media type Transparency, Labels, Post Card, Envelope Dimensions (W x D x H) 354 x 297.4 x 210 mm Warranty 1 year Onsite Color Printer Phaser 6110 & 6110N Speed Up to 4 ppm (A4) colour / 16  ppm (A4) black & white Duty Cycle Up 24000 Pages/month Paper Handling Paper Input Tray 1: 150 sheets, Size: Custom sizes from 76 x 127 mm to 216 x 356 mm Paper Output 100 sheets Print First-Page-Out Time As fast as 26 seconds colour / 14 seconds black and white Print Resolution Up to 2400 x 600 Image Quality Processor / PDL 300 MHz / Host Based Connectivity USB 2.0 USB 2.0, Ethernet 10/100 BaseTX Memory 32 MB 64 MB Print Features Xerox Status MonitorWatermarks, Booklet Printing, Poster Printing, N-Up, Custom Page Sizes, Fit to Page, Scaling, Overlays, Built-in Support Links, Black and White only Print Mode Warranty One Year Onsite Phaser 6120 Laser Printer  Best for small, frequent print jobs Workgroup: Up to 5 users Colour: up to 5 ppm Black: up to 20 ppm Phaser 6180 Laser printer  Best for small, frequent print jobs Workgroup: up to 10 users Colour: up to 20 ppm Black: up to 26 ppm Standard paper capacity: 400 Black & White Multifunction Devices (A4 paper size) WorkCenter 3119 Speed 18 PPM A4 First Page Out Time 11Sec Duty Cycle Up to 10000 Pages Per Month Device Memory: 8 MB Print Drivers: Windows 98/2000/Me/XP, Mac, Linux Connectivity: USB 2.0 Language Support: GDI Copy / Print Resolution 600dpi x 600 dpi Scan Resolution Optical Resolution: Up to 600 x 2400 dpi Interpolated Resolution: up to 4800 dpi Pre-scan: 75 dpi WorkCenter PE220 Printer , Copier, Scanner, Fax, Adf  Speed 20 PPM Duty Cycle Up to 5000 Pages/Month Copy First Page Print Out Time 11 sec. Copy/Print Resolution 600dpi x 600dpi Scan Resolution 600 x 600 Upto 4800 x 4800 dpi Fax 3 Sec pages per minute Speed 33.6Kbps WorkCenter PE 120/ PE 120i Copy, Print, Scan, Fax Best for small jobs in a personal use or small workgroup environment 50 Sheet Automatic Document Feeder  Speed: up to 22 ppm Maximum paper capacity: 550 PRODUCT COMPARISION PRICING Price PERFORMANCE Speed A4 ppm FPOT PAPER HANDLING Xerox Samsung Canon Konica Minolta Sharp WorkCentre WC-3119 SCX 4100 LaserBase MF3110 PagePro 1380MF AR 153 EN 19 13 sec 14 13 sec 20 20 sec 20 13 sec 15 9.6 sec Paper input capacity (std./max.) trays Bypass feeder  Copier  Resolution 250 1 250 1 250 1 250 250 50 600x600 dpi 600x600 dpi 600x600 dpi 600x600 dpi 600x600 dpi Input Reduce/ Enlarge Platen cover 50 - 200 % Platen cover 50 – 200 % Platen cover   50 – 2005 Optional ADF 50 sheets 25 - 400% Platen cover   25 - 400% Printer  Resolution Language support 600x600 dpi 600x600 dpi 1200 600x600 dpi 600x600 dpi GDI (SPL) GDI (SPL) Not stated GDI GDI 8 MB 8 MB 64 MB 16 MB 8 MB Yes 4800 dpi Yes 4800 dpi Yes 2400 dpi Yes 1200 dpi Yes 1200 dpi ScanSoft Omni page Samsung SmarThru PageManafer, OmniPage Not stated Sharp Desk IEEE 1284 bidirectional parallel, USB 1.1 NIC Ethernet IEEE 1284 bidirectional parallel, USB 1.1 NIC Ethernet USB 2.0 Ext. Ethernet opt. USB 2.0 Not stated IEEE 1284 (paralelní), USB1.1 No 422 x 400 x 239 mm 10 000 422 x 400 x 239 mm 10 000 449x430x369 mm Not stated 492 x 465 x 369 mm 2000 Not stated Not stated Warranty Depot depot Depot Depot Depot CRU yield 3 000 3 000 2500 Toner 3k/6k, drum 20k Memory (std./max.) Scanner  Color scanning Resolution Software CONNECTIVITY  AND SOFTWARE Ports Network Footprint of base unit (W x D x H) Duty cycle * depends on config *starter toner 1.5k Duty Cycle Auto tray Switching Capable Copier  Max. No. Copies Copy Feature FAX Resolution Memory Speed Dial Max Batary Baar  DATA Comparasion Scan Bit Depth Warranty Work Centre 4118 HP 3055 100 Sheet By-Pass 550 - Tray One Just Single Tray Capacity-260 Page  Applicable N.A 999 99  Auto Fit  Auto Suppress, Book Copy Booklet Mode Clone Collation, Covers Create Booklet Edge Erase Transparency N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A N.A Yes 406*392 DPI 300*300 DPI 200 72 Hours JBIG/MH/MMR/MR 24 Bit External 36 Internal One Year On site Up to 120 N.A N.A 24 Bit Limited Equipment specs Hard Disk Capacity Device memory Image processing Paper Capacity Bypass Tray Paper Capacity Duplex Automatic Document Feeder Capacity Multiple Copies Paper weight Copy resolution Scanning Speed imaging system warm up time Auditron reprint feature smart kits to increase productivity Annotations mixed job originals from dadf  avoid bottle necks during print Xerox WCPro 255 80GB 640 MB std / 1024 MB max 1.4GHz AMD Duron dedicated 4800 sheets 100-sheet Bypass Tray Canon IR 5055 40 GB 1 GB unknown 4150 sheets 50-sheet Bypass Tray 75 sheets with build job function unknown up to 9,999 Two Front Loading Paper  Trays: 16 lb to 53 lb  bond/110 lb index (60 to 200 gsm) Bypass Tray: 16 lb to 57 lb bond/80 lb cover  (60 to 216 gsm) 600 x 600 dpi x 8 bit input / 4800 x 600 dpi interpolated output Up to 55 ipm (images per  minute) laser dry electrostatictransfer system 28 seconds standard accounting available 100 jobs can be saved Available as CRU's up to 9999 64 to 80g/m2 (Trays 1 & 2) 64 to 200g/m2 (Bypass) add date ,comment,page no or batesno to copy o/p Possible not available Possible not available 1200dpi interpolatedx600dpi unknown laser dry electrostatic transfer system 30 seconds or less unknown not available not available unknown Error! 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Rated and Actual Performance Time of Different MFDs Black and White MFDs 120 105 90 100 80 60 PAGES PER40 MINUTE 20 28 20 45 3230 3830 39 55 43 65 53 75 57 105 90 85 55 60 50 33 45 21 22 23    0    2    0    5    n    o    n    a    C    0    2    0    6    n    o    n    a    C    0    0    5    8    n    o    n    a    C 12 85 75 72 65 70 45 17 17 18 19    5    0    1    n    o    n    a    C    5    4    1    7    a    c    i    n    o    K    5    6    1    7    a    c    i    n    o    K    2    7    2    7    a    c    i    n    o    K 55 45 32 13 18 17 17    5    4    0    2    h    o    c    i    R    5    7    0    2    h    o    c    i    R    0    9    0    2    h    o    c    i    R    5    0    1    1    h    o    c    i    R 35 14 13 18    N    0    0    7    M    R    A    p    r    a    h    S    5    3    o    i    d    u    t    S      E    a    b    i    h    s    o    T    0    5    5    o    i    d    u    t    S      E    a    b    i    h    s    o    T 49 55 65 25 21 22 19    P    F    M    0    5    0    9    P    H    P    F    M    5    5    0    9    P    H    P    F    M    5    6    0    9    P    H    P    F    M    5    8    0    9    P    H 0    8    2    1    P    C    W    x    o    r    e    X    2    3    2    P    C    W    x    o    r    e    X    8    3    2    P    C    W    x    o    r    e    X    5    4    2    P    C    W    x    o    r    e    X    5    5    2    P    C    W    x    o    r    e    X    5    6    2    P    C    W    x    o    r    e    X    5    7    2    P    C    W    x    o    r    e    X    0    9    P    C    W    x    o    r    e    X    0    0    3    3    n    o    n    a    C    5    5    4    p    r    a    h    S This figure clearly shows how different multifunction devices are acutely performing with respect to their rated time. Among the all brand of MFDs Xerox performance is much more matching with their rated performance time. This gives a clear understanding about the Xerox commitment about their products. Color MFPs 9 Ricoh 3800C PAGES PER MINUTE 28 11 Canon C3220 32 5 Canon C6800 Series1 16 14 Xerox WCP C2636 0 Series2 10 26 20 30 40 Xerox WCP C2636 Canon C6800 Canon C3220 Ricoh 3800C Series2 14 5 11 9 Series1 26 16 32 28 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Objective • To find out the market share of the Xerox and future requirement of corporate. • To find out the reseller preference to sell a product Sample size Corporate questionnaire 1 sample size 192 Corporate questionnaire 2 sample size 28 Reseller questionnaire 3 sample size 40 Instrument used Different type of questionnaire is used for primary data collection from corporate, and resellers. Data analysis has been done by Excel. Research design: Research design depends on type of research studies that we are going to make. My research study is descriptive type. Research methodology is all of the techniques, methods and procedures adopted in terminology work to carry out terminology research. It is a way to systematically solve the research problem. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH STUDY: In this type of research study the researcher must able to define clearly, what he wants to measure and must find adequate methods measuring it along with the clear cut definition of population he wants to study. Since the aim of study is to obtain complete and accurate information, the procedure must be carefully planned .The design in such studies must be rigid and rigid. For the study I have taken a sample of about 192 customers, etc from each and every market in Noida. In planning and designing a specific research project it is necessary to anticipate all the steps that must be under taken if the project is to be successful in collecting valid & reliable information. If it were  broken down into very small parts or activities, the marketing research process would consist of a great no of steps --- Specifying research objectives.  Preparing a list of the needed information.  Designing the data collection project.  Selecting a sample type.  Determining a sample size.  Organizing and carrying out the fieldwork.  Analyzing the collected data and reporting the findings. DATA SOURCES The second stage is the collection of data is the data sources Primary Data Sources and Secondary Data Sources. Primary Data Sources are collected specifically for the  purpose of research study, which is to be done, and secondary data source are already collected data, with some other objective. Primary Data Source: Questionnaire: A formal list of Questions is formulated and asking the questions from the people who are having the related information. Here the Questionnaire is Structured. Close end Questionnaire with Dichotomous and Multiple Choice Questions. Main aim is to compare the Customer Attitude and Loyalty towards UNIT GAIN product of different companies. Secondary Data Source: Internal sources: From company magazines, broachers. External data : Magazines like Business Standard, and internet. Data Analysis For Corporate 1) Table 1 Users 128 Non User   64 64, 33% Use non user  128, 67% Chart - 1 Among the sample size of 192 there are 128 copier users and rest are not using copier. Among the non user some of might be using MFDs or they full fill their requirement through jobbers. 2) Table 2 Most Selling Brand In Copier  60 50 40 Users 30 57 20 Series1 28 10 0 Series1 14 19 10 Xerox Canon HP Richoh Other   57 28 14 19 10 Brands Chart -2  Now we can say that XEROX is the No. one selling brand in the copier and have 44.53% market share in NOIDA. But those, 64 non user who are not using photocopier copier. They might be using any multifunction devices which have copier also. So let’s check  that who have multifunction devices those who don’t have copier. Company Name Xerox Canon HP Richoh Other Market Share In Noida 44.53% 21.87% 10.93% 14.84% 7.81% 3) Table 3 User of MFDs 42 Non Users 22 Users of MFDs Non Users 34% User of MFDs Non Users User of MFDs 66% Chart -3 There are 33% companies who don’t have copier so we find out those companies who are using multifunction devices and it gives the result that, out of those 67 users 66% users are using multifunction devices and 34% don’t have copier not even multifunction devices. 4) Table 4 Inkjet 32 Laser 97 MFDs 63 In our research I found that maximum number of corporate office use laser printer there are 97 users using laser printer out of 192 user. And 63 are using multifunction devices and rest all using inkjet printers. Product in demand 120 97 100 80      s      r      e        b      m      u        N 63 60 INKJET LASER 40 32 MFDs 20 0 1 Products Chart - 4 5) Table 5 Users of Printers 184 Non Users of Printers 8 NUMBER OF Printer user  non user, 8, 4% user  non user  user, 184, 96% Chart 5 6) Table 6 Company Name HP Canon Xerox Samsung Epson Other Percentage % 78.64 14.06 .52 2.08 3.12 1.56 Most Prefered Brand In Corporats 160 151 140    r    e    s    U    f    o    r    e    b    m   u    N 120 100 80 Series2 60 40 27 20 0 Series2 1 4 6 3 Hp Canon Xerox Samsung Epson Other   151 27 1 4 6 3 Brand Name Chart 6 In Noida HP have covered 78.64% market after that canon is there. But the Xerox  printers are not available into the corporate. 7) Table 7 Company Name HP Canon Samsung Xerox Other Users 51 4 3 3 2 Percentage% 81 6 5 5 3 MOST SELLING BRAN IN MFDs 5% 3% 5% 6% HP CANON SAMSUNG XEROX OTHER 81% Chart 7 Same case with multifunction devices HP have 81% market share in Noida. Where the Xerox’s market share is is only 5%. It is because only HP is dealing in this field from a long time. 8) Table 8  Aware 128 Not Aware 64 Awareness About Xerox Product 64, 33% Use non user  128, 67% After analyzing the data I can conclude that out of 192 samples 67% corporate know about the Xerox product range and 33% corporate don’t know about the Xerox product range. 9) Table 9 Good 4  No Bad Experience 0 25 Experiences With XEROX 30 25 20 15 Series1 10 5 0 good Bad Chart 9 No Experince 10) Table 10 Company Name Xerox Canon HP Toshiba Sharp Users 0 1 3 1 1 User Of A3 MFDs 3.5 3 3 2.5   s   u    f   o 2   r   e    b   m1.5   u    N Series1 1 1 1 Toshiba Sharp 1 0.5 0 0 Xerox Canon HP Brand Name Chart 10 Data Analysis of Reseller PC Brand in Demand 14 12 10 Number of PC 8 14 12 6 4 8 6 Series1 2 0 Series1 HP/Compaq Lennovo Ass embled All of the above 14 6 12 8 Brand Name Chart 1 In computer HP Compaq have 35% market share in Noida, Other wise 30% people buy only assembled brand. Table 2 Products MFDs Printers Fax Scanner Quantity sells 40 40 15 31 Most Selling Product 31, 25% 40, 31% MFDs Printers Fax 15, 12% Scanner  40, 32% Chart 2 This chart shows that demand for the multifunction devices and printers are equal into the market. But out of 40 resellers only 12% sells only fax machine. Most seling Brand 30 25 20 Users 15 10 MFDs Printers 5 Fax 0 Samsun Other  g HP Xerox Canon MFDs 29 0 0 6 5 Printers 28 0 4 5 3 Fax 9 0 1 1 4 Scanner  25 0 2 0 4 Scanner  Brands Chart 3 This chart shows that which company have largest market share in the each category of  the product. Through the chart we can easily interpret that reseller sells most of the  product of HP Company. 72.5% resellers sell only HP MFDs and in printers 70.0% resellers sell only HP printers, where no one sell the Xerox products. Monthly Sales of Products 30 25   r   e    b   m   u    N 24 23 20 18 14 15 10 0 to 10 10 to 20 14 20 to 30  Above 30 8 5 5 6 5 3 3 1 0 0 2 0 0 MFDs Printers Fax Scanner   0 to 10 24 18 14 23 10 to 20 8 14 0 6 20 to 30 5 5 1 2  Above 30 3 3 0 0 Brands Chart 4 This chart shows monthly sales of the resellers and how many multifunction devices,  printers, fax machine, scanners they sold. Out of 40 reseller 24 resellers’ sales 0 to 10 multifunction devices and 8 resellers’ sales 10 to 20 multifunction devices. In case of   printers 18 resellers sales 0 to 10 printers in a month. Monthly sale 0 – 10 10-20 20-30 Above-30 MFDs % 60 20 12.5 7.5 Printers % 45 35 12.5 7.5 Fax % 93.33 0 0 6.33 Scanner % 74 19.35 6.45 0 * In case of fax machine the percentage has been calculated of the basis of those how sell the fax machine and out of 40 resellers’ only 15 resellers’ sales the fax machine. * Same for scanner only 31 resellers’ sale. Most Selling Color Laser Printer  20   r   e    b   m   u    N 16 15 10 5 0 0 0 HP HP 2 1 Xerox 1 Canon 16 Samsung Xerox 0 Canon 0 Samsung 1 Other  Brands Chart 5 In case of color printer HP is the most selling brand. Table 6 Factors MNC Brand Product Services Margin Schemes No of Preferences 0 5 29 6 0 Factor encourage s to sell a brand 35 29 30   p   e 25   e    k   p   o 20    h    S    f 15   o  .   o 10    N 5 Series1 6 5 0 0 0 mnc brand product services Factors Chart -6 margin schemes Most Encouraging Factor % 0, 0% 5, 13% 6, 15% mnc brand product services margin schemes 29, 72% Chart -7 These two char shows that which factor resellers’ considered most and that is the “Services”. 72% resellers said that services encourage them to sell a product. Awareness About Xerox Products in Resellers 13, 33% Yse No 27, 67% Chart - 8 Reseller Intrested To Sale The Xerox Products 19, 48% yes no 21, 52% Chart - 9 After meeting with the resellers we find that 48% resellers were want to associate with Xerox and rest all are not interested. Findings These are some points which I found during the corporate and resellers survey. • In Noida Xerox have 44.5 % market share in copier and in printer it  performance is not up to the mark. • Laser printers are much more preferred by the corporate. • Quality is more important than price of product. • In small organization multifunctional devices are more preferred. • Services are the most encouraging factor for the resellers. • Most of resellers are not aware with the Xerox product range. • According to resellers’ multifunction devices is most selling product. • Availability of consumable products in the market is less. • Demand of Xerox products is very less among the resellers. Conclusion XEROX is the pioneer company in photo copier industry but they are far behind in the  printer industry .After analyzing the data I can say that company performance is not up to the mark. And this company facing though competition with the brand like HP, Canon, etc. Through our entire project we find that the marketing of the products is not seen aggressive. There is a huge gap in the distribution and promotion of the product in Noida. Although the company introduced the Laser technology but they are not able to make its  products favorite in the market. In our marketing research we find that the company has to work hard to capture the market share. The company is progressing year after year and is able to capture 8% market share in India. The company has to pace up its speed to be a market leader. Suggestions • To maintain its market Position Company has to compete with the current market forces. • Xerox has to improve its marketing strategy and work towards customer  satisfaction. • It has to improve its distribution channel and services. • It has to make easy availability of products, consumable items and all parts in market at reasonable cost. • Company need to increase its product range with compare to HP product range. • The company should focus on customer awareness through advertisement and other attractive schemes. • Xerox must have its own demo centers and service center at all prime locations to facilitate the customers. Limitation  No work can get its due recognition or importance until and unless some difficulties are faced in its accomplishment. My project work is also not an exception. • First and foremost problem that I faced was that to understand analyze the working of such big company of the copier & printer industry, two months was not sufficient period. • The project analysis is only applicable only in Noida. So information is not applicable for other regions. So we can’t use this data only for Noida. • Although we have visited more than 500 companies but we get information from only 192 companies the reason behind that we were not able to make entries in the companies and some where we get entries but concern person was busy.